Author photo essay — LJ user
"RUSAL Krasnoyarsk Aluminium Plant" — the second largest aluminum smelter in the world. KrAZ produces 27% of all aluminum produced in Russia and 3% of world production. The production capacity of KrAZ — 1,000,000 tons of aluminum per year.
1. The plant was built in 1964 on the outskirts of Krasnoyarsk. KrAZ runs on the energy of the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station, and consumes about 70% of its electricity produced. Raw materials are supplied from the Achinsk Alumina Refinery.
KrAZ has 25 electrolysis (cell 2233), three casting department and the production of anode paste.
2. One of electrolysis plants. Shop huge, each is up to 120 cells. For the movement of goods, a special transport. And the workers themselves, to move around quite a large factory area, often used by bicycles.
3. Aluminium produced by electrolysis of alumina in molten cryolite. For the production of one ton of raw aluminum requires approximately 1938 kg of alumina, 21.5 kg of fluoride, 550 kg of carbon electrodes (anode paste or baked anode) and up to 16,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity. Most cells in the factory works on technology Soderbergh.
This technology was proposed in 1920 by Norwegian researchers, and was adopted by the Russian metallurgists as a more cost-effective method in comparison with the previously used system of the Hall-Heroult process. Söderberg anodes have reduced the cost of aluminum and virtually eliminate the "human factor" in the process of electrolysis.
The cell in which actually is getting aluminum.
4. But progress does not stand still. Recently, the company RUSAL has made many important achievements in the area of reducing energy costs, environmental problems and improve the performance of plants Soderbergh.
5. In 2009, RUSAL specialists have created a new generation of cells Soderbergh. The new technology is called "Eco Soderbergh." A key advantage is that the weight of the anode instead of the traditional use colloidal anode. It contains a low amount of pitch which is a major source of tarry substances. The improved cell design provides its high integrity, which further reduces the amount of emissions. Now the technology "Eco Soderbergh" has about 200 cells KrAZ.
6. In addition, all electrolyzers equipped with automatic feeding of alumina. Previously, several times a day occurred depressurization of the cell to download fresh alumina. After establishing AAF do not need, and in the cell during the entire production cycle remains sealed.
7. Aluminium electrolysis process is deposited on the bottom of the bath. The process occurs at a temperature of 955 ° C. Molten metal is drawn by a vacuum ladle at a time, which can take up to 5 tons.
8. The case, which produces high-purity aluminum (AVCH).
9. AVCH is produced by processing of primary aluminum, "transforming" it into a net. Such clarity is needed in the use of aluminum in high-tech manufacturing, so AVCH is mainly for export. Clean up of the metal — 99.996%. For cleaning use special electrolyzers.
10. Performance cell AVCH — 600 kilograms per day.
11. Another technology used at KrAZ — is baked anodes. According to this technology has about 280 cells.
12. The technology that is obtained from a unit area is almost 1.5 times more than aluminum. Accordingly, capital costs are significantly reduced. Furthermore, this technology is completely sealed and electrolytic almost no emissions.
13. A feature of this method is the pre-production of special anode — the process is relatively expensive. But already at the production stage can get rid of many harmful contaminants.
14. In order to extract aluminum, great current is supplied to several hundreds of kA.
15. To reduce the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere at the smelter was put into operation a complex gas treatment plants.
16. Thanks to the "dry" method of cleaning gas, the plant has reduced emissions by fluorine, resinous substances, benzapirenu, dust. "Dry" gas cleaning stage provides the most technically attainable level of fluoride recovery — up to 99%.
17. Working to modernize the plant "wet" gas cleaning steps saved and they continue to be used for the "purification" of the gases and the removal of SO2. The upgrade will allow businesses to reduce specific emissions: emissions of hydrogen fluoride were reduced by 1.5 times, tarry substances — by 2.7 times, benzo (a) py
rene — 2.5 times. In 2009, the commissioning of the last twenty-third gas treatment, completed the first phase of ecological modernization KrAZ.
18. Touch panel control gas treatment system.
19. Now there is a second stage of ecological modernization. It includes the complete replacement of cells Soderbergh on the technology of "ecological Soderbergh."
20. The third step should be to start the production of aluminum by a fundamentally new technology "inert anode." With the implementation of this approach will be completely eliminated emissions of greenhouse gases, CFCs, polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Electrolytic cell with an inert anode to produce oxygen. At the moment the final stages of research, laboratory and bench tests. Project documentation for the construction of the Pilot Corps of cells with inert anodes. Construction of the Pilot Corps to be implemented until 2015 at the site of JSC "RUSAL Krasnoyarsk".
21. Go ahead. Foundry plants.
22. Mixer, wherein the aluminum is added various additives — dopants in accordance with the required characteristics of the final product.
23. Finished products of the plant.
24. There are even more impressive specimens. Length ingots 11.5 meters. KrAZ — the only plant in the world that produces ingots of this length.
26. Bars moved by an overhead crane.
28. Smaller transported by forklift trucks.
32. Of aluminum melting furnace is poured into the "pot".
33. Next, aluminum is transported to the mixer and poured.
35. Finished products are for factory KraMZ (Krasnoyarsk Metallurgical Plant) as well as many other manufacturers of aluminum products for both Russian and foreign.
I express my deep gratitude to the press service, "RUSAL Krasnoyarsk" for organizing the survey.
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