Kurchatov Institute — 70 years since its foundation.
What are the past and present of the legendary nuclear center?
The world-famous Kurchatov Institute was created as a super-secret laboratory. Place for posting a nuclear scientist entrusted personally to choose. He attracted a huge empty field between the villages near Moscow Horoshovo and Shchukin. Now it’s 102 acres of the world’s most advanced technology with two nuclear reactors near the center of Moscow.
The current "factory of science," which is not on the car and drive around for half an hour, started off with a few tents. In one of them lived alone, Igor Kurchatov, in others — designed them scientists, among them — Flerov, Zeldovich, Chariton. The code name for the project — "Laboratory № 2". The first — develop tools location.
By order of the State Committee of Defense, physicists explored uranium. It was clear: it hides the enormous energy that had to learn to manage. Intelligence sources said that Britain and the United States have gone far in this direction.
"Then no one not think about anything — about commercialization, or of social importance. Should have set off a bomb — and all. Imagine in 1943! War. Hunger. None. Field on the outskirts of Moscow, tents. And so it began. Three years later — 26 December 1946 — Kurchatov in-built reactor F-1 implemented the first on the Eurasian continent and the world’s second uranium fission chain reaction "- told the corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, director of the Research Center" Kurchatov Institute "Mikhail Kovalchuk.
Reactor F-1. To create it, have built and launched dozens of businesses across the country. Housing only had 430 tons of pure graphite.
When the Americans dropped their bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, scientists in the lab switched to clock mode. Created specifically for the Kurchatov Technical Board, where he was subject to even ministers. Each step is in charge of Beria and every day reports to Stalin personally.
"Beria, although he led the nuclear project, was only a foreman and not exaggerate its capabilities. He was a realist. And Stalin was not exaggerating. Kurchatov I had unlimited credit. All he offered was done. And once done, despite the the terrible situation in the country ", — said the academician, president of the Research Centre" Kurchatov Institute "Yevgeny Velikhov.
In 1949, the U.S. nuclear monopoly destroyed. And very soon the Soviet Union goes far ahead — is experiencing a thermonuclear bomb. Develops and their means of delivery. It gradually develops the space industry. Kurchatov same again takes the liberty of offering to deploy nuclear physics for a peaceful way.
"When the board was set up, he realized that this is a dead end. Problem has already been solved. And what do you do next? As for the people to bring any benefit? Then he began to think about how to develop nuclear energy, to receive light, heat," — said the director of the museum Kurchatov Raisa Kuznetsova.
The result — the world’s first nuclear power plant in Obninsk, near Moscow. Then — as the world’s first nuclear submarine and icebreaker. For research at the Kurchatov Institute are building a giant synchrotron — a ring accelerator, the particles which are accelerated to the speed of light. He became the real heart of the institute.
As with life Kurchatov, today there is much unique. It is the center of nano-, bio-, info-and kognetivnyh technologies. Director — Academician Kovalchuk — is ready to talk about the experiences of a clock.
"X-rays falling on the atoms, depending on the position, gives the scattered beams that enter the detector. And then you see on the computer of a diffraction image of the crystal, for example, a protein", — says Mikhail Kovalchuk.
Decipher the structure of proteins by "protein factory". As a result of the work — wash out all the powder or biobatareyka for pacemaker. And in one of the centers are studying the brain and consciousness.
"The brain of adult mice, we have made clear to see what is going on in it during irradiation" — explained researcher at the laboratory and the mechanism of memory technology Olga Efimova.
Most of all, here are engaged in drugs. Nuclear medicine may well beat cancer.
"If we deliver targeted alpha emitter to the body that will be hit the organs, tissues, which have a cancer tumor while sparing the surrounding," — said the head of the complex nuclear-physical methods of diagnosis Nicholas MARCHENKOV.
The research results show through a supercomputer capable of 10 to calculate the fifteenth degree of transactions per second. He also looks after and for the reactors, which the institute has two. One — experimental. There get the material for the experiments. Sometimes include the old Kurchatov. It is used as a reference. And for that, and for the other reactors at the Institute of calm.
"If you look at a map of radiation backgrounds in any country of the world, there is a highly purified spots. This spot where the nuclear centers, because here culture and monitoring are delivered at such a high level that the background is always lower than in any other place. We are absolutely sure of protection. This — the key question ", — assured Mikhail Kovalchuk.
The very same Kurchatov Institute, now called the National Research Centre and, 70 years ago, intends to create a fundamentally new — what is now the country needs.