Author of the report — Anna Kumantsova (LJ kumantsova)
To begin with, we spoke briefly about what we are waiting for that day. Expect a very busy schedule …
A bit of history.
Kursk NPP is in the top three of the country’s nuclear power plants, equal in power, and among all the nuclear power plant Russia is second in the number of generated electricity.
A small tour of the museum gave us an idea of the station and of the extent to which the work carried out on it.
7. On the "hand" are the so-called "uranium tablets," of course it’s layout)))
Kursk nuclear power plant has an installed electric capacity of four million kilowatts. It is provided with four water-graphite nuclear reactors of RBMK-1000.
8. And here is the overall layout of the station. The power unit in the section.
Power unit includes the following equipment:
— uranium-graphite reactor of high power channel-type boiling, with auxiliary systems;
— two turbines;
— the two generators.
9. While the show all the fingers …
The main "ridge" Kursk NPP is a radiation and environmental safety.
NPP safety is achieved through a system of technical and organizational measures to be employed in the project and implemented at all stages of the life cycle of nuclear power plants in accordance with the relevant regulations. At the basis of all plant safety technology is the concept of defense in depth — the presence of physical barriers to the spread of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances into the environment: fuel sensor: fuel cladding, multiple forced circulation circuit; accident localization system, biological protection.
Prevention of violations of the integrity of the barriers to attaining a high quality of design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the presence of security systems designed to prevent violations and limit their consequences; staff training. The content of radionuclides in the environment, the radiation situation in all localities of the observation and the Kurchatov town is in the range of qualitative and quantitative characteristic of the European part of Russia. The radiation background during the operation of the Kursk nuclear power plant has not changed compared to the period before the launch of its units.
In the area of Kursk NPP continuous monitoring of radioactive and chemical substances in air, soil, vegetation, precipitation, water and sediment Kursk NPP cooling pond, food produced locally. The use of nuclear energy protects the Kursk region of significant environmental damage associated with emissions from sources of energy generation from fossil fuels.
11. Small review of the BT at the station and shooting rules.
12. Next, we checked for the presence of light radioactive isotopes. WBC — human radiation counter.
13. We had a little, so we’re pretty quickly passed all the necessary procedures.
14. 2 minutes in that chair, you can determine if you are not talking to the station any radiation from the outside)
All of movement throughout the station, we made the bus for warmth and fast!
15. We can tell, the guide accompanying during the entire trip, well knowing the business people.
16. More cunning than the storage of solid radioactive waste. Such repositories throughout the 4-D. All infected metals are stored in the plant and do not exported.
Safe handling of spent nuclear fuel (spent nuclear fuel) and RW (radioactive wastes), formed during the operation of the NPP, is an integral part of the concept of safe operation of nuclear power plants. Kursk NPP innovation techniques of safe handling.
Ensure up to date translation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in the form of guaranteeing the safety of personnel, the environment, population, significantly reduce the amount of storage; create additional protective barriers; allow export from the plant to final isolation from the environment.
17. A huge space for the temporary storage units containing spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste.
18. Somewhere under a white iron-concrete cap kept what had previously served as a fuel. The wall thickness of about 25 cm
Immediately prior to a visit to the unit, we were shown the diesel room.
23. Teeth Vasily Ivanovich — Senior NSS (Shift Supervisor station) — working at the plant 38 years, although she herself officially 35 …
25. Diesel fuel separators.
26. Originally done: in the form of a steam locomotive =)) on the deployment of diesel engines in the event of an accident takes about 15 seconds from the reserve tank will supply water to cool the tanks.
At the station, all diesel are at different levels. This will keep the flow of electricity to the station at all times. There were questions about the famous Fukushima. So that’s where all the diesel is on the coast at the same level and at the first wave had deteriorated …
The reliability of the nuclear power plant depends on the quality of water in the technical cooling pond. In the boiling water reactor (which flows through the closed circuit) generates steam. He served in the turbine. A waste steam just cooled with water from the reservoir, a total area of 21 square meters.
In order to maintain the required quality of water used by natural, biological methods of treatment
27. More than ten years in the pond "work" biomelioratory — China Plain number of fish: white and black carp, silver carp, which consume aquatic vegetation and shellfish. These fish are specially bred in hydra station. Stocking reduces the amount of unwanted biomass and improves water quality.
Well, enough about fishes!))))
We almost closer to our goal-unit!
The next briefing on safety. He goes into the hall, where in case of an accident will monitor the condition of the station.
28. Security level immediately higher than in other places where we were. You can shoot was almost nothing)
Before visiting the computer room clothed in robes, socks, slippers, and helmets, and get everyone on an individual dosimeter.
32. Very long white corridors. With a no nonsense. And the passport. Total overall we had about 7-8-times to show a passport and about 6 times held radiation monitoring.
The further we drove, the higher the temperature …
Each power block Kursk NPP is equipped with two turbines K-500-65/300 with generating capacity of 500 MW each. single-shaft turbine, dual-flow: one high-pressure cylinder and four low-pressure cylinder. Between them there is a separator and reheater steam.
Generators three-phase, with water and hydrogen-cooled. Block turbine generators connected to an open electrical substation. And energy for internal needs comes from the auxiliary transformer.
34. The total length is about 800 meters and it is common for all four blocks.
37. All certainly know it, but just in case, do not hurt …
38. A few details …
43. All the process, as time we were limited.
44. MCR (main control). In this case, the first power.
45. A huge number of buttons, switches ….
50. Staff are happy to respond to your questions. And in general it was very comfortable, felt the sincerity of the meeting, there was no negativity or understandings.
51. The culmination of a trip, the reactor itself!
Channel-type RBMK boiling graphite-moderated water-cooled and designed to produce saturated steam pressure of 7.0 MPa.
The main structural part of the reactor — the reactor core. It is available on the concrete pit size 21m to 21m, 25m deep.
52. Graphite stack consists of a cylindrical column assembled in blocks with axial cylindrical holes, which are set in the technological and specialty channels, and the location and geometric plane formed by the cylindrical shell, top and bottom plates of metal.
The reactor has a top, bottom, and side-biological protection, which reduces the intensity of radiation at work at all power levels to acceptable values corresponding to the Russian sanitary norms. To prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve heat the reactor space is filled with a mixture of helium and nitrogen.
53. Technology channel — it’s tube design, where fuel assemblies are placed in a flow of fluid, ie water. It is performed on each fuel channel bottom through the water communications, water-steam mixture is withdrawn from the top of the channel, then doing the drum-separator.
54. Unloading-loading machine is designed for handling of nuclear fuel at the reactor running or stopped. Someone said that she weighs about 400 tons.
Spent nuclear fuel is contained in a special pool next to the reactor core.
In contrast to the fresh, it is more radioactive. It is the content of a huge amount of fission products, and self-heating in air. They are stored in the pool for about 5 years, and only then they are sent to storage.
We were even lucky enough to see a beautiful blue glow — Vavilov — Cherenkov radiation. I do not shoot it was not too good at it …
The level of radiation:
1700 mR / hr (16 mSv / h) — the reactor
10600 mR / hr (106 mSv / h) — above the storage of waste (ie, above the natural background on the street in 170 and 1060 times)
55. And here is the dose I got all time)) All OK! I’ll live
A few steps back again, radiation monitoring and verification of documents.
Security at the Kursk nuclear power plant is above all!
(Photo slightly shortened)