Atomization of society. Side effects caused by the principle of Le Chatelier and associated with rapid changes in the conditions of life, manifested in the spiritual realm. At the forefront purely personal interests, individual short-range goals, the pursuit of material wealth and new sensations. Break the connections between people that determine relatively distant future. The essence of the changes clearly seen from the comparison of modern society with traditional.
Prior to the new time of life of the people heading the traditional society. This society has a high degree of stability, it was sealed with multiple relationships between people. In the foreground were the public interest, and private had minor significance. The nature of traditional society in detail in the book by Albedil devoted to ancient India:
"The traditional culture deeply alien to the perception and awareness of himself as the one and only person that is independent of the others and to society protivostavlyayuschih. The ideas of his "I" have not had for him the value of self-sufficient and the exceptional value of a man of modern Western civilization. Socially, he was aware of themselves as part of an organic whole — related, planning, religious soobschnosti in which it has been integrated. The concept of the individual, so close to the Western mind, for an Indian, rather, the identity of its social role.
As a consequence, the traditional Indian culture and social psychological attitudes and behaviors different from our usual. The concept of duty, one of the central problems in the system of social and ethical values of the Hindu, was a symbol and a standard time-honored tradition. Duty to family, community led social behavior of an individual from childhood and sent it to the right, ie, the social needs of the channel. Debt urged to build their social behavior in accordance with accepted standards. It is compliance with the standards enunciated by the company, rather than the more meaningful the European mind the comprehensive development of personality was ideal and role model. Possible deviations from the fixed norms antagonized the whole system of officially sanctioned by Hindu ideology. The most effective means of control was informal — public opinion is sharply condemned unjustly, and actively approve of righteousness, that is, to affirmed adherence to tradition. "
Albedil described the structure of the ancient customs and traditional society. Much of it is very far from the present, but some of the features, including the priority of public interest, and kept at this time. First of all, it refers to people living in rural communities and small towns.
In ancient traditional society has strict limits that restrict the activities of man. They contributed to the weakening of progress, in particular the development of science. In the modern period evolving process of atomization and separation of people. One of the greatest scientists of the twentieth century, Norbert Wiener, a comparative analysis of traditional and modern society:
"In a small rural community that exists long enough to have developed it more or less the same levels of understanding and behavior, there are quite worthy of respect standards of care for the disadvantaged, road management and other public facilities, tolerance to those who are only one or two times broken social laws. Be that as it may, the perpetrators are found here, and the rest of the community must continue to live with them, on the other hand, in such a community person is not suitable to be higher than their neighbors. Always have the means to make him feel the force of public opinion. Over time, he will find that it is so ubiquitous, unquestioned, limiting and oppressive that he would have to leave the community to protect itself.
Only in the larger community, where "gentlemen actual state of things" to protect themselves from hunger their wealth of public opinion — the mystery and anonymity, from private criticism — the laws against libel and what means of communication at their disposal — only in this community shamelessness can reach the highest level. "
As pointed out by Wiener, all of these factors control the means of communication — the most effective and important. In modern society, there comes a change in social psychology. There is a relationship breakup, the atomization of the people are the measure of all values and gain money. The social aspect, the idea of justice recede into the background. Undergoing fundamental change in matters of faith.
In modern society, there was a dramatic change in the spiritual realm. Atomized society, has become the dominant personal side of life. Vividly destruction of traditional society and traditional spiritual values manifested in developed countries and, above all, in the United States. In the second half of the XX century, a religion that is a bearer of tradition, becomes a mere formality. Figuratively speaking, it has remained one of the shell. An increasingly prominent place in the religious life are sects. Both in Europe and in the United States is the actual rejection of God. In this excerpt from a lecture-Eliezer Voronel Datsevicha, a professor at Bar Ilan University in Israel, clearly shows the status of Christianity in Europe.
… "Europe is entering a post-Christian era, and ceases to be a Christian society. In what ways? The fact that interest in traditional forms of religion is constantly falling. It would seem that 'communism's death, people have access to adequate opportunities to practice their faith — and what we see as a result? In West Germany from 1991 to 1998. The number of people who regularly attend church, decreased (but just the same, fell!) by more than 2-fold from 14.7% to 7%. Less serious, but surely this process occurred in Italy (a reduction of nearly one-third), not to mention France, where the church and the priest remembered only for marriage registration and confirmation. Notre Dame has turned into a great museum and restaurant where people come to the crowd, munching burgers and "Stimorol" to take a look at the ancient rituals. I think, for these people to Sunday mass is in line with the tarot cards and demonstrations voodoo sorcerers. This is confirmed by surveys of the authors' experience with the Catholic Church. One parish priest of Notre Dame believes his temple turned into a gas station, where ever trampled people who came "refuel." Swedes go to pick out of inertia — they say that this is the only place where you can relax from everyday life. British Methodists seriously discussing whether you can take to the community of those who in the wealthy do not believe. And come to the conclusion — you can. We all humanists. Main proximity to humans, and there is not some transcendent "work of the Lord." Church in Western Europe are more like post offices: get people to knock on cash on hand, wrote a note to the Creator of the universe — and ran on. Business. Conduct in the church much of his free time? What do you mean? This is not a place where you can achieve something.
Thus, the belief of the current European: 1) personal, and 2) an eclectic 3) it lacks any elements of the old religious faith, except, perhaps, purely ceremonial, and then highly distorted. It is no longer a Gd of Abraham. Isaac, and Jacob. And do not even God of the philosophers and scientists. It is roaring and the evil god of the flesh — not the Gd of the Jews, invisible and inaccessible, and the Aryan god, quite red and sweaty from the strain phallic symbol of prayer. As they would say in Odessa, people potse-fans (laughter). Before us is the era of the triumph of paganism. Yes, this paganism. In fact, as God every European to set up on the altar of your own image, and that not all of himself. He gives his own qualities, strengths and weaknesses, praises him. His God is ambivalent and amorphous. It is not something that will not save — it do not exist. It is a fiction, a phantom, a bluff drunken poker players. "
Thus, along with breaking the traditional ties between people, there is a process of spiritual atomization — the gap spiritual ties. In a certain sense, humanity fits in matters of faith to the watershed. According to the traditional world religions, God — this is a higher power, and a man should not commit sinful acts against other people. According to a number of prominent scientists. God — this is nature, and it is necessary to live in harmony. The meaning of communism can be described the situation: God — this is the whole of humanity as a whole and the need to act in the name of his future. West and, above all, the American public actually came to the position of God — that's me, that was one of the foundations of the crisis of the European race.
As a result, processes atomizatsyi and destruction of faith, the person remains as one would in itself. The weakening of the links between the individual and the social group increases the criminality of society, increases the number of drug addicts and alcoholics, sexual deviants leads to an increase in deviation from the accepted morality.
However, the social nature of man remains, which leads to spontaneous self-organization and emergence of the simplest forms of associations on the lower level. Formed by a group of criminals, drug addicts, gays is coming sects of the blossoming of various kinds, including the monstrous, satanic and frankly fraudulent. At a higher level, there are organized crime, combining nationalist clans. There is a persistent worsening of the national question, for example, in Spain (Basque country). Northern Ireland. Turkey (Kurdistan).
Belgium (Flemish and the Walloons). Tribalism pervades the power structure in many countries, particularly in the U.S..
Increasing the atomization process … is one of the manifestations of the general social crisis. Atomized society can exist only in a high quality of life and relative prosperity. With his loss of an instability. Self-organization of an atomized society inevitably leads to an increase in internal conflict, the opposition of the people and their associations with each other, the internecine struggle and social upheaval.
Mass society. Along with the changes in the material conditions of society is changing the structure of the social environment. In the XX century. a process of intense urbanization. In 1900, the share of the urban population in the world was 14%, in 1980 — 46% and in 1999 — more than 50%. During this time, the number of cities with one million population has increased 10 times, and with a population of five million — 20 times. The population of the 25 largest cities in the world has increased over a century in 10 | times. Sometimes this phenomenon is called "urbanization explosion." Currently the face of the planet begin to determine the largest cities in which the concentration of enormous masses of people, loosely coupled with each other, have lost their old traditions. This creates the potential for standardization, there are standards of dress, diet, lifestyle, in imitation of the common fashion, idols, follow each other, there are the prerequisites for the unification of people with behavioral education.
Gradually, in the developed countries of the West formed the so-called "mass society", brings together large numbers of people, especially in large cities. In mass society, every person is exposed to a focused effect of intense flow of information. Organized by the flow-line production of mass culture, based on the indulgence of undeveloped tastes, there is a process of alienation, loss of social ties, the growth of marginality; incompetence increases the bulk of the urban population increasingly sophisticated problems of modern social life: politicians do not appreciate the long-term consequences of decisions: high suggestibility city wt.
Against this background, there is a spiritual crisis, covering the ever-increasing mass of people. Is the destruction of the existing system of determination of motives and behavior. Earlier, people wanted to make more and more things and services at the cost of ever decreasing cost and effort, and the set of items and services was a matter of course. The technological revolution has opened the possibility to create and meet new needs, choice. In addition, earlier in their motives, norms, views, people relied on a relatively stable group to which he belonged. Now the group connections lose their stability. A convergence, averaging internationalization types of material and cultural consumption of social media. Simultaneously in a unified society are secondary processes of isolation and contrasting different groups of people, the growth of national and other differences.
In mass society, a person is often in a state of spiritual loneliness loss of orientation, motivation and spiritual values. Exploration of this society, mechanisms and consequences of exclusion and stereotyping of people in a large number of works. It may be noted names such as Adorno. Riesman, Fromm, Reich, Horney, Horkhammer. In his book, Marcuse introduced the concept of a one-dimensional person, which is characteristic for the modern social system, which is characterized by: an uncritical attitude to the existing reality, to advocacy and behavioral stereotypes, lack of individuality, manipulability, conformism. Customer orientation, the race for material wealth deprive a person of critical social perception. He is inherent in the distorted vision of the world. Meet the interests of the ruling circles of the principles and norms seem to him an expression of freedom and social justice. Such a person is deprived of the ability to actually radical opposition and is fully integrated into the system.
The analysis is complemented by the work of Marcuse significantly Riesman, who introduced the concept of outside-oriented person. These individuals are the basis of modern social environment. Their behavior is not determined by the traditions and principles, and the various influences, fashion, communication systems. They are impersonal, standardized, are the objects of manipulation, feel disoriented, exhausted, often apathetic or cynical. However, as noted by Riesman, they want to find human warmth, love and be loved. For society as a whole is characterized by conformity, uncritical adherence to the prevailing opinions and standards, stereotypes of mass consciousness, prejudice, authority, propaganda cliches.
Mass culture and standards of living. In modern society, similar to the thread-safe pipeline industry there is mass production of cultural values, calculated for mass consumption, adapted to the level of the "average" person. For mass culture is characterized by standardization, primitive relations in the image of people sentiment, entertainment value, and the success of the cult of consumption, violence and sex. Plays an important role sensationalism feed. Mass culture forms an uncritical acceptance of reality, following the prevailing opinions and standards, propaganda, stereotypes of mass consciousness. Any phenomenon is genuine, high culture mass culture can be reduced to the average, emasculated indulging undeveloped tastes. Its evolution is in the direction of highlighting the instincts, emotions, behavior primitivism. All the more popular forms of art that put a man to a state of excitement and even trance. Here there and specificity of our time, requiring reinforcement means effects on the body to keep it in the required pace of life. But the man in many ways works to the bottom. Constant voltage with this method of hanging a person suppresses and destroys the nervous system. In the opinion of many scholars of mass culture can be seen as an expression of concentration of political and socio-economic power in the hands of the ruling elites, as an expression of spiritual bondage, standardization and unification of the individual, as an indication of the collapse of social values.
Mass society characterized by certain standards of living. First of all, it is the pursuit of material wealth. The highest goal — consumption. Its source — the profit and money. Cult of money permeated all layers of the mass society. Public, state interests are pushed to the back burner. There is money to live anywhere in the world. We can say that revived the old slogan: "Bread and Circuses". Much attention is attracted massive audiences of millions of sports shows: football, boxing, auto racing. Significant place in society occupy idols and stars, the production of which is at the stream. Mass society particularly attracted to the juicy details of the sex lives of movie stars. The level of research developments in this area shows a small article in "Komsomolskaya Pravda":
"The habit of digging into someone else's underwear English borrowed from the Americans. Lesson is they liked, and recently in England published a book about the sexual adventures of Hollywood celebrities. The authors of the "strawberries" were able to remove from them the last: they even found out when and where the movie stars lost their virginity. It turns out that real pioneer in this regard was James Bond — Sean Connery. "Little Giant great sex" made love for the first time when he was eight short years. Madonna compared to him — the very virtue: she was able to doterpet right up to 15 years. But the best lovers of Hollywood is not recognized by those "early birds" and Mel Gibson, Jack Nicholson, Leo DiCaprio and the "Italian Stallion" — Stallone. Richard Gere and Cindy Crawford allegedly on their wedding night is not indulged in worldly pleasures and innocent dreams. As, however, and in all subsequent ones, so that their relationship remained purely platonic. The book provides a complete list of the members and the club's "Lovers of sex in airplanes." He was hit by John Travolta, Julia Roberts, Pamela Anderson, and of course … President Clinton. "
A huge role in the organization of entertainment events and their coverage plays presentation of the material and, above all, sensationalism.
Standardized outlook of people, even though it is an eclectic, mosaic system. In the minds of fixed-standard characters: human rights, a free society, the world, etc. Thus, in addition to the atomization of the rapidly developing harmonization of society, which is expressed in the Americanization of life in most countries. Past diversity of cultures is contracted to the standard set. By analogy with biological diversity can talk about the emerging potential instability centuries of human culture associated with the loss of essential diversity.
Irrationalism. Another factor in the instability of mass society is irrational or, in other words, a distorted reflection of reality. In this sense, the irrationality of the spiritual life of society has much in common with the psychopathology of individuals. This applies to both the motivational bias (of pathological motives), and the process of formation of the pathology when creating special conditions for the functioning of psychological mechanisms. Experimentally that for a large class of patients before everything is broken that was acquired later. Thus, reflexes easier to destroy than unconditional. With the weakening of the role of the higher parts of the psyche are released instincts (aggressive tendencies), "lower" biological needs, that is, it is as if a layered decomposition of the psyche.
As well as in abnormal psychology, irrationalism in the problem can be divided into two sides. A — is the study of the pathological process, its treatment, the other — the driving method of the process and use situations. In understanding the nature and mechanisms of irrationality as objectively acting factor in society played a major role of such distinguished scholars as G. Lebon, F. Nietzsche, Spengler, 3. Freud. Their common feature was the recognition of the leading role of instinct, faith, follow.
The famous French philosopher and sociologist G. Lebon believed that a crucial role in social processes do not play mind and emotions. Life is increasingly determined by the behavior of crowds that are blind force. In the crowd of individuals lose their sense of responsibility and are at the mercy of intolerance. There is some psychic community, forcing people to behave differently than if they acted in isolation, and often primitiviziruyuschaya their behavior. An important role in the behavior of crowds play ideas imposed on the masses by the few leaders of the same allegations, constant repetition. These ideas were developed in the concept of the instincts of social behavior. Their inner expression — unconscious emotions that affect the mind. There is a set of objectively existing instincts, such as the herd instinct, the instincts of struggle, escape, play kind of purchase. The herd instinct is realized not only in the crowd, but also in many forms of everyday life (and I do all the same). It is assumed that the instincts that are realized as unconscious desire, are the driving forces of society.
In the works of Friedrich Nietzsche put forward priority actions and the will of all human qualities. He viewed life as the will to power, and because all the bad that stems from weakness. Cognition is really only as an instrument of power, a man interprets the world under the influence of instincts and needs. Rational arguments are significant only to the extent that mean the prospect of a will. Thus, it is not about finding the truth, and the subordination of the will of others their own. Nietzsche's ideas were further developed in the so-called "philosophy of life." According to this philosophy, the process of life nepodvlasten deadening, demoralizing analytical activity of reason, and the most adequate means of comprehension and expression of life are art, poetry, music, ie, all the user-unconscious.
In the works of Freud's society considered under the scheme, "the leader — the elite — the masses." The masses are always looking for a leader or worship leader, crave rejection of independence and responsibility. Among the mechanisms of social power Freud identifies the use of various forms of repression and sublimation of the primary instincts, especially paying attention to the struggle of the conscious and the unconscious. Deepening Freud. F. Reich and Herbert Marcuse argued that social revolution is impossible without sex, which should free up the primary instincts.
To bring the masses in an irrational state requires the prior destruction of the existing norms, stereotypes, relationships, the transition of society, of social consciousness in a state far from equilibrium. For such a condition subsequent control action may be relatively small, but adequate impact on the weight of her feelings, emotions, instincts, it could be crucial.
In the transition to the irrational state of society often have a direct interest policy, the leaders, the leaders to achieve their personal and group goals. Symptoms of this condition remarkably similar to the symptoms of psychopathological states and individuals. especially inadequate response to external stimuli, even when a small remark can cause reactions of indignation and anger (or fear the emergence of delusions of persecution). Now in our vulnerable world saturated with weapons of mass destruction, has a complex life support system and communication, interdependence, the ability of the irrational behavior of large numbers of people poses a global threat comparable to the environmental threat. The first warning — "perestroika" in the Soviet Union, when the country was immersed in the world of illusory motivations, as if writhing in an epileptic fit.
Thus, the process of unification brings with it a threat to humanity. On the one hand, as in ecology, loss of necessary diversity leads to loss of stability of society, on the other — resulting side processes lead to instability of the social consciousness, rise of irrationality.
Vladimir Lisichkin, Leonid Shelepin