Long Arm of the Almaz-Antey

 Russian air defense system resolutely entered the XXI century

  • SAM "Buk-M2" on a wheeled chassis (http://gunm.ru/news/zrk_buk_m2_na_kolesnom_shassi/2011-08-15-451)
  • SAM "Buk-M2" on a wheeled chassis (http://gunm.ru/news/zrk_buk_m2_na_kolesnom_shassi/2011-08-15-451)

Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" celebrates its 10th anniversary. There is yet another reason to rejoice — production resumed anti-aircraft missile system S-300V. Browser "NVO" Viktor Myasnikov talked about it with the deputy general director of Concern for orders and deliveries Vitaly Knyazev and Head of the Department for Scientific and Technological Development, and Applied Research System Sergei Druzin.

 

— Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" has resumed production of anti-aircraft missile system S-300V. Many readers do not pay attention to the alphabetic index of "B" or "P", and we are talking about different systems?

SD: The letter "B" means "troop." This system is designed to protect troops on the march and battle positions. And moving in combat formations of troops. The second system with the suffix "M" — for the air defense units. It covers from the air and space attack important administrative and industrial centers. By S-300P is similar in construction third system — S-300F, which means "naval". It is located on the large surface ships. The "M" and "F" single rocket. But the C-300B, as they say, went on its way, although the task of designing all had in common.

Naval S-300F Research Institute developed the "Altair" and the line of the S-300P — S-300PM — CDB "Diamond". C-300B was designed by the Research Institute of Electromechanical and it has created a rocket for CB "Innovator". Of the military complex was originally designed to counter ballistic targets. Had to intercept warheads U.S. tactical missiles "Pershing", which are then placed in Europe.

In Soviet times it was like this: end system testing, and documentation on the table for a modification to the next. Then there was this, the designer was sitting idle. Perhaps this is expensive, but we had an absolute progress and rapid growth of the technical characteristics of weapons systems. Under this scheme went on and further development of the S-300V. As with the development of "Buk-M2".

— The fate of "Buk-2M" is similar to the fate of the C-300B?

SD: This is also an army air defense system, but the average range. Around the same time, in 1988-1989, was completed state testing of these systems. But when a phase of mass production, there have been those disasters that have plunged the industry in general collapse. Serial production was unable to start because it requires some investment.

— This means that production has stopped?

SD: Up to 2005-2006, virtually nothing was done. These two lovely new system S-300V and "Buk-M2", you can say, grow old, never having been born. And the component on which they were built during this time of date. But it’s not so bad. Since these electronic components there was no demand, collapsed companies that produce them. When we started production, it became clear that it is not possible to start — not anything else to do. Urgently needed to solve two problems. The first — to prepare the production. The second — is to alter the very system S-300V under that element base, which is today.

— I had to start from the opportunities, not out of a desire?

SD: Not only that. While here, of course, there are also imported element base. Unfortunately, you can not do without it.

— A large percentage of imports?

SD: No, since this hardware relates generally to the field of signal processing. This is the first analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors. At that time, when production was restored, that did not have its components. But today, work on its creation go. Concern had to invest considerable funds, and this we have done consciously.

— Solid funds — is how much? Billion?

VK: Hundreds of millions of rubles invested to carry out, in fact, the ROC on alteration of the air defense systems to new components. The second area of investment — this is development, that is, preparing themselves for mass production manufacturing. And today we are proud to report that both systems — S-300B and "Buk-M2" are included in the state defense order. By the way, "Buk-M2" has participated in the parade. And we both systems offer foreign customers.

If it were not for the concern, enterprises have clearly would not have enough funds. In addition, we had to do a lot of organizing. It was necessary to address a number of issues at the Defense Ministry ordering management. After all, what is usually adopted and included in the state defense order, a very strict zareglamentirovano. This product can not change anything, not a single nut. And we do a lot of changed everything from the components. Any deviations, changes require approval. As they say, to the knees legs rubbed on all the floors until it is all gone and agreed.

Thus, on the one hand, the concern has helped our country get to adopt modern means of defense. On the other hand, we have revived businesses that are involved in this process. For example, it Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant — head on a set of "Buk-M2" and Mari Machine Works in Yoshkar-Ola. In fact, the UMP in Ulyanovsk — one of the main companies that actively influence the social situation in the city. A Mari Machine — just purely local economic mainstay. If they have not earned, it could have a big social impact.

— Does it mean that the company took over the work previously performed by the Ministry?

VK: You mean the former USSR Ministry of Radio, which is subordinate to our company? In fact — yes. But that’s the point of incorporation to by the Ministry, who is in Moscow, transfer control to specialized holdings and concerns. Because the ministry, having authority over the vast number of companies could not reach everyone at the proper level. Or it is necessary to have the administrative staff — beyond the real. And the need to work with technologists, and with management and the funding bodies. Organize it all from a single point is simply impossible. Therefore, there was a problem disaggregated industry, divided into thematic sections. And Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" is a company refers to the radio industry and the aviation industry, and rocketry. Of course, some companies operate in addition to defense and other areas in accordance with the profile.

However, concern has decided to create a number of problems. You can further say: what has changed in terms of market relations. Back in the Soviet era, downloading enterprises planned in Moscow, and the director would try to give up. Piled a lot of work, and the people in the state were not added, and it was, in general, headache — in planning time to do the job. Today the situation has changed to the opposite — all the work of tearing. Although not all companies are able to qualitatively do the same operation. As for mehanobrabotke, and in electronics.

SD: The same — the developers. One, for example, is strong in antennas, and signal processing, there is a strong team, but on a different plant. But if the company receives a contract today, it is none the money will not give up. Worse, but do it yourself, and the director is trying to keep all the m
oney for himself. And the task of the concern, in particular, the management of which I chair, is that any of the design work to attract the strongest teams of developers.

In any contract, there are different activities — antenna systems, radio, receiver, etc. And not everything, as they say, of equal strength are strong in these areas. In addition, when groups of different companies working together, there is a proliferation of technologies and mutual learning. And because the same people are involved in the project, it pushes them to the unification of technical solutions. By the way, the unification — one of the issues to be addressed concern. I am referring to the unification of the inter-project of weapons that we produce. After all, the use of standardized components and assemblies, mass-produced, will significantly lower the price. Large-scale production is in itself suggests that the cost per unit of output will be less.

VK: That’s what still can be attributed to the merits of the concern. Initially, S-300B and "Buk-M2" developed on tracked chassis. Since this technology for the Army, they should not go worse tanks. For any dirt, where there are no roads. There also can be attributed defense system "Thor."

— "Thor" is also on the chassis of the T-72?

SD: No, it is just the chassis of their own, it is unique because unlike the tank has a very soft suspension. It does not jump from a springboard and carry a very delicate instrument. And she was not one ten tons harvested in wardrobes. You represent hundreds of thousands of contacts? At least one broken — the whole system breaks down. Of course, there is a special approach to the execution of the instrument cluster for mobile chassis, nevertheless necessary to ensure the safety of all parties. If a tank two gearboxes, two and seven speed control lever, then the chassis "Torah" — the steering wheel, and it is managed like an airplane. This chassis suspension is so soft that it does not go, and literally floats. Runs into an obstacle, and it is not felt only slight tremor on the case.

— Why is there wheeled version of "Thor"?

SD.: Features of our technology as a means of defense of foreign customers completely satisfied, but they order — first of all, and asphalt tracks, of course, spoil. Therefore, they expressed a desire to "transplant" "Thor" on wheels. And here we are faced with a very serious problem. Tracked vehicles designed in a special way, it uses the so-called corpus chassis. It is hollow inside, and all the equipment, especially launchers sit inside their designs to the bottom of this case. And the bottom is actually a foot off the ground.

 

  • SAM "Tor-M2?  (Http://newsby.org/by/2011/12/16/text22444.htm)
  • SAM "Buk-M2" on a wheeled chassis (http://gunm.ru/news/zrk_buk_m2_na_kolesnom_shassi/2011-08-15-451)

Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" celebrates its 10th anniversary. There is yet another reason to rejoice — production resumed anti-aircraft missile system S-300V. Browser "NVO" Viktor Myasnikov talked about it with the deputy general director of Concern for orders and deliveries Vitaly Knyazev and Head of the Department for Scientific and Technological Development, and Applied Research System Sergei Druzin.

 

— Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" has resumed production of anti-aircraft missile system S-300V. Many readers do not pay attention to the alphabetic index of "B" or "P", and we are talking about different systems?

SD: The letter "B" means "troop." This system is designed to protect troops on the march and battle positions. And moving in combat formations of troops. The second system with the suffix "M" — for the air defense units. It covers from the air and space attack important administrative and industrial centers. By S-300P is similar in construction third system — S-300F, which means "naval". It is located on the large surface ships. The "M" and "F" single rocket. But the C-300B, as they say, went on its way, although the task of designing all had in common.

Naval S-300F Research Institute developed the "Altair" and the line of the S-300P — S-300PM — CDB "Diamond". C-300B was designed by the Research Institute of Electromechanical and it has created a rocket for CB "Innovator". Of the military complex was originally designed to counter ballistic targets. Had to intercept warheads U.S. tactical missiles "Pershing", which are then placed in Europe.

In Soviet times it was like this: end system testing, and documentation on the table for a modification to the next. Then there was this, the designer was sitting idle. Perhaps this is expensive, but we had an absolute progress and rapid growth of the technical characteristics of weapons systems. Under this scheme went on and further development of the S-300V. As with the development of "Buk-M2".

— The fate of "Buk-2M" is similar to the fate of the C-300B?

SD: This is also an army air defense system, but the average range. Around the same time, in 1988-1989, was completed state testing of these systems. But when a phase of mass production, there have been those disasters that have plunged the industry in general collapse. Serial production was unable to start because it requires some investment.

— This means that production has stopped?

SD: Up to 2005-2006, virtually nothing was done. These two lovely new system S-300V and "Buk-M2", you can say, grow old, never having been born. And the component on which they were built during this time of date. But it’s not so bad. Since these electronic components there was no demand, collapsed companies that produce them. When we started production, it became clear that it is not possible to start — not anything else to do. Urgently needed to solve two problems. The first — to prepare the production. The second — is to alter the very system S-300V under that element base, which is today.

— I had to start from the opportunities, not out of a desire?

SD: Not only that. While here, of course, there are also imported element base. Unfortunately, you can not do without it.

— A large percentage of imports?

SD: No, since this hardware relates generally to the field of signal processing. This is the first analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors. At that time, when production was restored, that did not have its components. But today, work on its creation go. Concern had to invest considerable funds, and this we have done consciously.

— Solid funds — is how much? Billion?

VK: Hundreds of millions of rubles invested to carry out, in fact, the ROC on alteration of the air defense systems to new components. The second area of investment — this is development, that is, preparing themselves for mass production manufacturing. And today we are proud to report that both systems — S-300B and "Buk-M2" are included in the state defense order. By the way, "Buk-M2" has participated in the parade. And we both systems offer foreign customers.

If it were not for the concern, enterprises have clearly would not have enough funds. In addition, we had to do a lot of organizing. It was necessary to address a number of issues at the Defense Ministry ordering management. After all, what is usually adopted and included in the state defense order, a very strict zareglamentirovano. This product can not change anything, not a single nut. And we do a lot of changed everything from the components. Any deviations, changes require approval. As they say, to the knees legs rubbed on all the floors until it is all gone and agreed.

Thus, on the one hand, the concern has helped our country get to adopt modern means of defense. On the other hand, we have revived businesses that are involved in this process. For example, it Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant — head on a set of "Buk-M2" and Mari Machine Works in Yoshkar-Ola. In fact, the UMP in Ulyanovsk — one of the main companies that actively influence the social situation in the city. A Mari Machine — just purely local economic mainstay. If they have not earned, it could have a big social impact.

— Does it mean that the company took over the work previously performed by the Ministry?

VK: You mean the former USSR Ministry of Radio, which is subordinate to our company? In fact — yes. But that’s the point of incorporation to by the Ministry, who is in Moscow, transfer control to specialized holdings and concerns. Because the ministry, having authority over the vast number of companies could not reach everyone at the proper level. Or it is necessary to have the administrative staff — beyond the real. And the need to work with technologists, and with management and the funding bodies. Organize it all from a single point is simply impossible. Therefore, there was a problem disaggregated industry, divided into thematic sections. And Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" is a company refers to the radio industry and the aviation industry, and rocketry. Of course, some companies operate in addition to defense and other areas in accordance with the profile.

However, concern has decided to create a number of problems. You can further say: what has changed in terms of market relations. Back in the Soviet era, downloading enterprises planned in Moscow, and the director would try to give up. Piled a lot of work, and the people in the state were not added, and it was, in general, headache — in planning time to do the job. Today the situation has changed to the opposite — all the work of tearing. Although not all companies are able to qualitatively do the same operation. As for mehanobrabotke, and in electronics.

SD: The same — the developers. One, for example, is strong in antennas, and signal processing, there is a strong team, but on a different plant. But if the company receives a contract today, it is none the money will not give up. Worse, but do it yourself, and the director is trying to keep all the m
oney for himself. And the task of the concern, in particular, the management of which I chair, is that any of the design work to attract the strongest teams of developers.

In any contract, there are different activities — antenna systems, radio, receiver, etc. And not everything, as they say, of equal strength are strong in these areas. In addition, when groups of different companies working together, there is a proliferation of technologies and mutual learning. And because the same people are involved in the project, it pushes them to the unification of technical solutions. By the way, the unification — one of the issues to be addressed concern. I am referring to the unification of the inter-project of weapons that we produce. After all, the use of standardized components and assemblies, mass-produced, will significantly lower the price. Large-scale production is in itself suggests that the cost per unit of output will be less.

VK: That’s what still can be attributed to the merits of the concern. Initially, S-300B and "Buk-M2" developed on tracked chassis. Since this technology for the Army, they should not go worse tanks. For any dirt, where there are no roads. There also can be attributed defense system "Thor."

— "Thor" is also on the chassis of the T-72?

SD: No, it is just the chassis of their own, it is unique because unlike the tank has a very soft suspension. It does not jump from a springboard and carry a very delicate instrument. And she was not one ten tons harvested in wardrobes. You represent hundreds of thousands of contacts? At least one broken — the whole system breaks down. Of course, there is a special approach to the execution of the instrument cluster for mobile chassis, nevertheless necessary to ensure the safety of all parties. If a tank two gearboxes, two and seven speed control lever, then the chassis "Torah" — the steering wheel, and it is managed like an airplane. This chassis suspension is so soft that it does not go, and literally floats. Runs into an obstacle, and it is not felt only slight tremor on the case.

— Why is there wheeled version of "Thor"?

SD.: Features of our technology as a means of defense of foreign customers completely satisfied, but they order — first of all, and asphalt tracks, of course, spoil. Therefore, they expressed a desire to "transplant" "Thor" on wheels. And here we are faced with a very serious problem. Tracked vehicles designed in a special way, it uses the so-called corpus chassis. It is hollow inside, and all the equipment, especially launchers sit inside their designs to the bottom of this case. And the bottom is actually a foot off the ground.

 

  • SAM "Tor-M2?  (Http://newsby.org/by/2011/12/16/text22444.htm)
  • SAM "Tor-M2? (Http://newsby.org/by/2011/12/16/text22444.htm)

 

A chassis of the car — it’s loading platform located above the axle beam, and higher suspension assembly, and up springs. It is at an altitude of about 130 centimeters in the average car, and the cars have large carrying capacity and a half meters. If the complex "Thor" just set the vehicle, the road in any dimension will not work. The second problem is that the center of gravity is so high that the machine literally breaks.

In the nomenclature of what is produced by industry, the appropriate gear is not found. But there is a cooperative ties with Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant, which for the systems S-300PMU and C-400 supply chassis, another true type. Minsk residents have developed a new chassis — the corps for the complex "Thor", what has never done before. They began with "Thor," because he is in demand in the market. Just Vitaly was behind the whole affair. I have already connected to the "Bouquet". When we looked at the wheel "Thor" immediately came to mind: a tracked chassis something similar in "Thor" and "Buck." Let’s we’ll put them on the same wheel. By the way, turned out to be somewhat more difficult because the weight of the "Buka" more and it is bigger size. Nevertheless, we have that too failed. While all this is going very easy.

SD: You know, never happens to any new development done at once. But we have passed this way fast enough. The tests were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Defence on a dedicated site in suburban Bronnitsi. And I must say a lot of things out of the car "shaken out". Came to light and was eliminated a lot of flaws, especially at first. Today, we can proudly say that we have two versions of military complexes of "Thor" and "Buk-M2" — track and wheel. The credit Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" in the development of large wheeled versions. Particularly among the developers would like to mention the main designer Eugene A. Pigin.

— Let’s try to compare the "Thor" on the tracks and wheels.

VK: Crawler chassis is unique, because of special hydro-mechanical suspension, each wheel independently suspended. The rotator complex falls into the cabinet, to the very bottom. Now look at the wheel the car. Corpus her a little higher. The total height of the chassis 2 meters 20 centimeters. But it has the ability to squat. That is, the suspension of two positions, special levers allow it to fall. Reduced ground clearance, which degrades throughput, but gained a lot of other benefits. It just needs to travel under bridges, to fit into the dimensions of the road, and especially in the dimensions of the rail. System "Buk-M2" and "Tor-2M" fit into the 3.8 meter railway authorized dimensions. I stop on the platform and crouch a little. That is enough. Do not need to dismantle, remove the crane, send a team after the employees to re-assemble and test complex. Besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the clearance by changing the position of the suspension, the wheel could be lowered a little. Then they automatically re-inflate. It has to do quite often when passing under the railway bridge, raised above the road pipelines and the like.

SD: I must say that the chassis itself is quite modern. It has an on-board information management system that controls the operation of all units. Special computer receives information from sensors. There is a display device estimates the level parameter, which controls them in the event of an alarm takes certain limits to the driver. There are television rearview camera, like a good foreign car. After all, one of the problems — to move in reverse. The car uses a lot of components and assemblies made in Russia, but in general it turns sort of "brotherhood of the iron." Yaroslavl engine, tires, too, Russian, gearbox design Minsk factory, and his own body.

— All anti-aircraft missile systems Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" literally stuffed with electronics. As it is protected from damage in electronic warfare?

SD: Electronic warfare is that special form of interference. Radar signal reflected from the target, the remote for hundreds of kilometers. Can you imagine what is the magnitude of the signal that is reflected from the plane at a distance of 250-300 kilometers? We have to catch him. Of course, the opponents of this signal are tempted to drown out or distort. A galaxy of scientists come up with tricks to prevent the radar. But the construction of a military radar honed it to work in noisy environments — adaptability to different types of external interfering signals, the restructuring of the carrier frequency and all kinds of irregularities. The structure of the signal may, for the basic function of t
he measurement position is not the most optimal. It might be easier to apply a signal, but as the operating signal will provide better noise immunity, we use it. And then we can say that the price locator significantly increased. A large part of the price — embedded intelligence and the instrumental piece that solves the problem of electronic warfare. Therefore, if we talk about the impact on electronic warfare equipment in the technical specifications of our main customer — the Ministry of Defence without fail every time prescribed protection from interference negotiated their characteristics. And we are presenting complex, all the parameters passed state tests, check the work in electronic warfare. So much for the so-called man-made interference. But recently, a new class of weapons, it is called a microwave weapon. This is a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse effects. It is used by a wide band of frequencies. This is essential to cover a wide wavelength range.

— Foreign sources say that the battle of microwave radiation literally burns electronics.

SD: Not as difficult as it is painted. Yes, the power generation of microwave signals is high enough, but it is distributed across the width of the spectrum from long waves to the shortest. And any radio receiver works only in their specific frequency. And so the proportion of energy that is radiated by the adversary, we get in proportion of the width of the spectrum used by us to the width of the signal spectrum of the microwave radiation. Relatively speaking, I need to work only 100 Hz Doppler spectrum of systems, and the bandwidth of the interfering RF signal is enormous. Therefore, the level of harmful signal in the hundreds, thousands, or even millions of times decreases. This — the first place. And secondly, there is the so-called selectivity of the antenna system of the radar. If the radar antenna radiation graphically, it will take the form of a petal. Conditionally imagine that this kind of glasses through which the look out for a goal. If the sun is shining on the side, is that glare — the so-called interference on the side lobes. That is, the effect of a possible, but say that the system will not work, you can not. Of course, if the microwave generator is placed next to the radar, he can somehow prevent it. But who will put it together? On it and the air defense system. If this microwave weapons by air is brought, you’ll carry over. Because the range of air defenses have 400 kilometers or more.

SD: In this very meaning of building a system of air defense. It is layered, provides a means to combat air assets attacking large, medium and short-range. Each component performs its task. Long-range missiles — this is the fight against jammers and supports high-precision weapons. They loitering and first take positions, organizing raid include interference. And then under the cover is air attack. It is often said and what the range of 400 kilometers? Because, due to the curvature of the Earth at an altitude goal 10 kilometers above the earth, it goes beyond the radio horizon at a distance of 400 kilometers. She gets in the shade area, its just not visible. But there are not felt and put it interference. The enemy is afraid of losing an expensive aircraft — jammer, and eventually defeats the purpose of its use. I’m not talking about any kind of aircraft — the command posts, AWACS, scouts, which provide information percussive tools. We drives them away. Or stricken, until they realized what tools we have at the site.

VK: The main protection against electronic warfare — this range air defense system. First, we distills the enemy planes away, do not give conduct reconnaissance and "make noise" interference. Secondly, the design concept provides for the screening equipment and other means of protection. It’s no secret that one of the requirements of the Ministry of Defense — is the protection of equipment from the effects of the electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion. There’s a burst of energy that God forbid it all together to achieve such a microwave. And we have the equipment to test this momentum. Is an institution where we are we carry it to the test. Therefore, the production of the "Almaz-Antey" is structurally incorporated ability to resist electromagnetic interference. At least we do not feel the panic over the appearance of microwave weapons.

— Want to say if the equipment can withstand the electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion, then the wave microwave and other weapons would pay attention?

SD: Move down this way our technology is almost impossible. Of course, a one-time effect, a single failure can happen. But it’s like a computer — lost and rebooted immediately. The main thing is it will not lead to the disruption of the combat mission.

— Non-critical?

SD: non-critical. The influence is certainly possible, but it’s not terrible conventional aircraft systems jamming. With them, perhaps even worse, because they are set to a specific locator. And all the energy of a transmitter interference collect just the wrong frequency on which it operates. Moreover, they have concentrated their energies antenna to a narrow beam impact. That’s where the power levels are very high. In fact, up to 100 megawatts at 1 megahertz. And even more. But they also have ways of struggle. This spatial selection, and rapid restructuring. So we have to get away with this frequency. And when the radar begins to change the frequency, the enemy, because they do not know what the next frequency will be forced to extend the range and level of noise decreases accordingly.

— C-300B produced for export?

VK: In the export of any of the C-300B, we did not deliver. But now we are ready to deliver, but it’s the system "Antey-2500". In fact, we have moved to new components. This is a huge job that required a lot of resources, but it can now produce the system on an existing element base. This is generally in all media arms sore point. We are laying on that base that exists. And we can not count on that being developed, because it is not. And after the state tests to begin mass production, we need to work on the translation to new components. Because it changes in the next 5-7 years completely.

SD: The system S-300V4 is not just replacing one transistor to another — a replacement ideology. We got the so-called digital radars. It is a different generation, the transition to digital signal processing. Analog receivers need to be adjusted, and they have large dimensions. Digital equipment is set up, it puts in the software and it is ready for operation. This led to the design of the internal martial offices has changed dramatically. Earlier in the C-300B was a lot of equipment. Calculation uncomfortable to sit, the noise of fans. Tedious for combat duty. Today, it is radically changed. LCDs do not tire the eyes. And most importantly — has developed a new software. Improved communication interface with a locator, and improve the algorithm works, increased performance. And the receiver has become more sensitive. The same is true about the "Buk-M2" you might say. This result demonstrates that the Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" these 10 years has been actively developed, has achieved great success and looks ahead with confidence.

2012-05-18 / Viktor Myasnikov

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