Long Range, or Pareto’s law in the aircraft
SSJ 100LR Certification
20% effort for 80% of the results, is the law of Pareto. This rule of thumb often used in economics and management, but its specific application acts in civil aircraft. On ships, capable of 70% to meet the needs of the market on the flying range, only 30% of sales. For the opportunity to reach a further 30% of routes 70% of carriers are willing to pay a premium of a few hundred thousand to a million dollars. Will it work rule in the case of the Sukhoi Superjet 100?
SSJ 100LR serial number 95032 made its first flight 12 February 2013. It is this board was involved in the test program, the aim of which was the confirmation that the Sukhoi Superjet 100 can be flown with a payload over a distance of 4000 km, and certify the version with extended range — Long Range. Production test program took 4 months, then followed by a long stage of documents. Presentation of JSC "Sukhoi Civil Aircraft" document confirming compliance with the certification requirements of the new model, it was planned for the second half of August, and it’s safe to say that at the MAKS-2013 will be showcased certified liner.
SSJ 100LR aircraft outwardly indistinguishable from the sides of the version Basic, which today have been in use in different parts of the world, both Russian and foreign airlines. All the differences — under the skin. A new modification of the aircraft allows airlines to offer increased one and a half times the range, which provides a more flexible approach to the optimization of its network.
Coverage — 70 sales — 30
When designing a new plane two points are based on the index — which range is optimal for the airlines, and which configuration is optimal for an aircraft with a flight range. First analyzed all the routes that are served by boards of a dimension. For example, in the case of the 100-seat airliners least half of the flights are carried out to a distance of 1,200 km. From the point of view of the route lengths, SSJ 100B with his figure of 3,000 km can bind 70% of pairs of cities between which airlines around the world operate stomestnye aircraft. All 100% of the needs of the airlines covered in greater flying range of the order of 4000 km, which provides full version with extended range aircraft SSJ 100. In addition, certification SSJ 100LR will in future offer a business version of the aircraft that has the flight range at the level closest competitors on the market.
In order for the aircraft to be competitive and attractive to the consumer, airframe and engine parameters are optimized to improve the efficiency of the transportation problem on the most important routes for airlines. Given the fact that the 100-seat planes do most of the work at distances up to 1,500 km range, and these determine the target point to optimize efficiency. This was the case in the design and SSJ 100: on the routes range of 1000-1500 kilometers SSJ 100 aircraft have the best indicators of economic performance compared to key competitors.
Versioning aircraft with increased range afoot aircraft manufacturers in order to offer airlines an additional 30% of the features that can not cover the planes of the box. Naturally, the additional transport capacity slightly, but increase the price of a standard aircraft. However, surprisingly willing to pay for this small gain additional operational capabilities are the majority.
According to the Director of Strategic Marketing Department, "United Aircraft Corporation" Tamara Kakushadze, today the 100-seat aircraft for the airline — a tool for cost optimization. Return on it in terms of passenger-not as high as that of 150-seater cars. But if you use the SSJ 100 with loading 80% in what is now flies A319 with 50% load, the savings are obvious. It is important for the airline can replace one another without compromising plane terms range. Minimizing the number of types of aircraft in the airline’s fleet leads to savings for their content, security, personnel. Therefore, airlines often easier to pay more for a plane version of LR, but for more reserves. "Airlines buying one type of aircraft, have a reserve to exploit the entire range of its range narrow-body aircraft. This is the main argument in favor of LR — our plane was able to minimize the cost airline, it does not have to build a fleet of aircraft of various types. LR can fully replace a single-aisle mainline jets due to the seasonal decline in passenger traffic and daily change in the schedule, "- explains T.Kakushadze.
One example is the strategy of competitors: in the case of Embraer main sales in the E-Jets aircraft 190 and 195 with a range of 4,500 km, which is the version of LR and ER. But in fact they are exploited for short-haul routes. As an example, the return Boeing 717 program. This aircraft while on the range covered 60% of the routes, but did not catch on in the market. Most of the airlines are not profitable for short routes have in your fleet one type of aircraft on long — let another type.
According to the plans of the GSS, to a total of 70% of the sales of SSJ 100 to account for the version with extended range, Long Range. On a number of foreign markets, this figure could be higher. Today, however, "long-distance" cars while contracted much less. According to estimates of the GSS, LR sales surge is expected in the next three years. Currently, companies are important positive feedback about the service, including from foreign partners.
"Kontraktuyas in 2015, we have to completely close the slots 2016-2017, 2017-2018 — the peak of production and supply of aircraft to various regions of the world. … We should not even have time to say is" if ": we need to do in the next three year, because then there will be remotorizirovannye Embraer, and we will be forced to compete with them. A work steadily without changing its position, we can only in the case where sell a sufficient number of aircraft and will achieve a good reputation in the market "- says T.Kakushadze .
In the SCA claim: despite the fact that "95032" — the first machine of this type is called an experimental aircraft only. In fact, it is built on standard technologies.
Engineers have audited the airframe and landing gear in order to determine the availability of stock and possibly reduce the weight of the aircraft. As a result, it is expected that the weight airframe serial LR will be the same as that of the serial Basic — strengthening local structures are compensated based interventions to reduce weight. A stock take-off weight will be entirely used for additional fuel. Another idea is to increase the fuel efficiency of LR-version — the extra wing tip. The variants of their installation on the aircraft LR-and business versions. "The first results that we got talking about the advantage not only in cruising flight, but also a significant win for take-off performance," — said the deputy chief designer of the aerodynamics of JSC "Sukhoi Civil Aircraft" Alexander Dolotovsky.
For most of the parameters will be sufficient data from testing the basic version, as the differences between them are negligible. The increase in the take-off weight percentages are very small — 45880 kilograms in the base version and a version of 49450 kg LR. This is less than 8%, and thus the amount of light required certification tests. "Many of the characteristics according to the princip
les of certification, perezachest allowed, in particular, the admission of up to 10% of the take-off weight allows it. Accordingly, we expect that the certification of the aircraft will be completed in time," — says A.Dolotovsky.
Designers themselves do not deny that the creation of LR-version — in fact, the trade was originally laid down in the plane capabilities. Planes and increased range, and in the basic version unified. Except for minor changes in the structure, the main effect is due to adjustments in the software power plant. Sukhoi Superjet 100 engines SaM-146 and 1S17 1S18 is structurally identical. The difference lies in the non-volatile memory unit, which is installed in the FADEC, and contains other laws regulating motor. These laws allow you to be thrust at takeoff by 5% over the base model.
In the SCA noted that LR is valuable not only for the manufacturer itself, but as a possibility of expanding the market niche by producing new versions of the aircraft. For example, resolved the issue with extra fuel tanks on the business version of the SSJ 100 — such aircraft to be. "By equipping the cabin, by the layout — it’s only the desire of the customer. Experts draw a good diagram of a modular form business cabin, which allows a certain amount of blocks, size and functional build of course, but quite a large number of configurations," — said A.Dolotovsky. According to him, already defined shape and volume of the fuel tanks, the principles of their placement and so on: the standard fuel containers, the number of which can be varied, thereby varying the volume of the fuel system.