How to develop "Bulava": Chronicle
Intercontinental sea-based ballistic missile R-30 "Bulava" began to develop in 1998, after the failure of the project R-39UTTH "Bark", which by then was ready by 70 per cent. Unsuccessful test and predict the high cost of the rocket "Bark" cross, and the Ministry of Defense rolled project in favor of the "Bulava".
Flight distance "Bulava" is about eight thousand kilometers (however, in the course of testing this figure was exceeded by more than a thousand kilometers). Starting weight of the rocket — 36.8 tons, and throw — 1.8 tons. Ballistic missile capable of carrying eight to ten nuclear warheads independently targeted capacity of up to 150 kilotons each. "Bulava" and is equipped with a system to overcome missile defense — in particular, the false warheads.
Start of development
Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology began in 1998 for the development of promising solid-sea-based ballistic missile "Bulava". It was assumed that the elements of design "Bulava" will be another commonality with the development of the Institute — ICBM "Topol-M".
The hypothetical projection of the R-30 "Bulava"
History Test "Bulava" began in December 2003, when a nuclear submarine "Dmitry Donskoy" project 941UM "Shark" was launched mass-dimensional model rocket on the surface. A year later — in September 2004 — layout "Bulava" experienced underwater. The purpose of these test "throwing" the test was to check the output mechanism rockets out of the mine; launches were successful.
"Throwing" test "Bulava"
"Mace" is released at the start
The first test firing "Bulava" was held September 27, 2005. The newest ballistic missile launched from submarines, "Dmitry Donskoy" from the White Sea of surface position. "Bulava" 14 minutes flew 5,500 kilometers and hit targets at the Kura test site. The launch was considered a success in spite of the failure of the third stage of the rocket.
Above-water start "Bulava"
First, the "Bulava" did not give misfires — and underwater launch from the "Dmitry Donskoy" at the end of 2005 was a success. Goal, as before, were located on the Kura test site, "Dmitry Donskoy" in the start-up time did not stop moving.
The first failure
Immediately three starts in the autumn and winter of 2006 ended for the "Bulava" failure. September 7 solid-fuel rocket after launch from a submerged position deviated from the course of a minute. A little more than she spent in the air and on October 25. Start on December 24 and was unsuccessful — after three or four minutes the rocket off course and self-destructed because of the refusal third stage.
After a series of failed launches "Bulava" was finally able to successfully complete the flight. August 28, 2007 the missile was launched from a submerged position with the submarine "Dmitry Donskoy", but the goal reached only two of the three warheads, which is why the test admitted conditionally successful. The next launch — November 11, 2007 — once again proved unsuccessful: the missile carried in the air for about 20 seconds. Information about the launch of the media came bit by bit.
One of the triggers "Bulava"
In November 2008, launched from a submerged position, "Bulava" first flew completely normally. Before that starts, and if admitted as a whole successful, were not without overlap. Two months before the successful launch of "Bulava" misfired at the stage of divorce warheads — rumored then used a new type of combat units. Was unsuccessful and starting at the end of 2008, when the missile self-destructed after the failure of the third stage.
Tests of the missile "Bulava" on the bench.
2009 is difficult to call for the "Bulava" successful — the first test in July ended in self destruct due to a failure in the steering system. The December tests were remembered much better, though also not been successful. The first two stages, "Bulava" worked fine, and the third worked nonstandard — and the polar night sky over Norway has created an unusual twist glow.
The failures have left "Bulava" Only five years after the start of the test. In 2010 it was decided to test three missiles produced under strict control in one cycle, the launch date was repeatedly postponed since the summer at a later date, and eventually to the end of the year were launched only two "Bulava" — but both with satisfactory results. In addition, 2010 was the last for the Union "Bulava" and submarine "Dmitry Donskoy".
"Mace" and "Yuri Dolgoruky"
In 2011, the "Bulava" moved on nuclear submarines of Project 955, a full-time media — namely, that do not yet adopted by the armed submarine "Yury Dolgoruky". Tests are still planned to carry out the White Sea at the Kura test site, and the first of them on the new submarine was a success — despite repeated transfer starting.
The second launch in 2011 was not done on the Kamchatka polygon, and the district in the Pacific Ocean, and its purpose was to test the range of the "Bulava". The tests were in the normal mode, and the missile flew 9,300 miles — 1,300 kilometers more than its initial estimated range.
"Mace" in the air
In December, "Bulava" took part in another important st
age of testing — submarine "Yury Dolgoruky" made a salvo launch of two ballistic missiles from the White Sea at the Kura test site. The tests were considered completely successful, and already 27 December 2011, Dmitry Medvedev, who was then president of Russia, announced the completion of the test program, "Bulava" missile, and soon taking on board.
"Bulava" and its support — the submarine project "Borey" — had to adopt in 2012, and the date of the event was repeatedly postponed. The solemn ceremony of taking the Navy "Bulava" submarine and "Alexander Nevsky" was scheduled for July 30 — Day of the Navy, but did not take place during the summer and later in the year, as the military decided to conduct additional testing and submarine systems of interaction with weapons.
Put into service
At the beginning of 2013 — January 10 — "Bulava" finally entered service of the Navy. On the same day the ceremony of taking strategic submarine "Yury Dolgoruky" project "Borey", on which he will be putting the "Bulava". Submarine project "Borey" with missiles R-30 "Bulava", according to the Defense Ministry, will form the basis of the marine component of Russia’s nuclear triad for 30-40 years after adopting a final submarine of this type.
Nuclear submarine "Yury Dolgoruky" during the opening ceremony of raising the flag of St. Andrew