Mari scientists turn garbage into ecological fuel

The problem of waste management is becoming more acute. Unfortunately, in many regions of Russia today, the only form of disposal is burial.

Recycling plants only partially solve the problem — allocating and using recycled materials. The organic constituent of the waste remains unclaimed, becoming a source of increased environmental pressure on the environment. In this regard, the increasing demand of technology for recycling organic waste into fertilizer and non-traditional energy sources. Scientists Mari State Technical University (MarSTU) successfully engaged in the development and improvement of such technologies for 12 years.

Two years ago, the study by the University on the theme "Development of new processes and technical systems for processing organic waste, produce clean energy, fertilizer and land reclamation" was supported by the Federal Target Program "Scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia". The project is implemented under the leadership of Professor Rector MarSTU Yevgeny Romanov. And last year, another research team MarSTU won a grant from the FTP. Scientists involved in the creation of the adsorption gas separation membrane systems that improve the consumer properties of biogas.

Research is being conducted on the basis of the modern high-tech equipment, which is equipped with the current MarSTU shared center "Ecology, biotechnology, and processes for the production of clean energy".

The raw materials are used animal waste and agriculture, forestry and wood processing industries, sewage sludge, the organic component of municipal solid waste. Testing processing technology focuses on three areas: aerobic composting (with access of air), anaerobic (without air) and vermicomposting (using manure worms). Obtained with fertilizer and compost significantly increase the fertility of the soil and the growth rate of agricultural and forest crops leading to the accumulation in the soil and in plants of heavy metals.

A clear result of the project activity is already there: the experimental pine seedlings grown in an environmentally friendly composts that are based on new technologies, six months reach the size of its two-year forest brethren! There is no doubt that the development of mari scientists will find wide application in forestry and agriculture. The results of the work are the basis for the course and diploma projects, theses and graduate students who are actively involved in the project. Young scientists MarSTU currently preparing to defend three theses on the topics of the project related to the processing of waste and environmental management. Working on a doctoral candidate of agricultural sciences, associate professor Dmitri Mukhortov.

Another promising area of research MarSTU — Recycling organic waste biogas, used as environmentally friendly fuel. Against the backdrop of threats to the global energy crisis biogas technologies are in high demand. Particularly widespread biogas production and domestic use in countries with high population density — China and India. In Europe, the leaders in the development of this energy source are France, Germany, Italy. In Russia the share of alternative energy sources is still insignificant — about 1 per cent, the reason — in the high cost of biogas and its quality is poor due to the presence of water vapor, impurities, carbon dioxide and suspended particulate matter.

MarSTU scientists in the laboratories of which the first biogas plant for anaerobic digestion earned seven years ago, it was possible to significantly improve the quality characteristics of the gas. In the course of the project "Development and creation of absorption of gas separation membrane systems to provide improved consumer properties of biogas", implemented today under the Federal Program "Human Resources" under the direction of professor of operation of machines and equipment Yuri Sidyganova, created a new membrane gas separation method based on the use of selective membranes . The resulting biogas is thus suitable for small independent power supply of industrial and agricultural facilities.

Last summer, in a botanical garden MarSTU opened so far only in small Russian-volatile greenhouse complex. Standard on the face of a greenhouse packed with sensitive electronic sensors that control the temperature, humidity and light. The complex is open to alternative forms of energy: wind turbines installed near, solar battery, but the main source of energy is biogas. In a separate building there are two bioreactor runs on the resulting fuel gas fired boiler. In a greenhouse on fertilizers and compost created from organic waste, and increasing experimental pine seedlings, demonstrating the success of innovation Mari scientists.

Tatiana Vozovikova, Yanchilin Firyuza

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