Specialists of the Moscow Research Institute "Giprorechtrans" developed a series of "landslide" computer programs to help with high precision can be carried out calculations of the stability of the soil and to design effective protection of hazardous areas. In the framework of national development formed the study of more than 1,000 dangerous slopes.
The area of application of the new technology is exceptionally broad: the slopes of the very different configuration-specific primers — subsidence, bulk, swelling, permafrost, peaty, earthquake zones, areas of flooding and high water table.
With the help of the developed programs can assess the suitability of soils for construction of buildings, towers, masts, pylons, roads, railways, construction of dams, sluices, water intakes, embankments and strengthen the banks, undersea tunnels for pipelines and communication lines, securing of slopes.
According to the deputy general director of "Giprorechtrans" Leonid Mogilner, as input parameters used to calculate the level of water in the soil and the top of the confining layer, that is, soils with low permeability (such as clay), the load on the surface of buildings and structures, fracture, indicators forces distributed within the soil — piles, foundations, anchors, and others. Total accounted for in the calculation of a few tens of parameters and up to thirty geotechnical elements, that is, the layers of soil and inclusions.
At the output method has a number of engineering parameters, chief among them — the coefficient of soil stability. If it is greater than one, then the soil is considered to be reliable, landslides, he will not get any, and you can easily build objects. If this ratio is less than unity, then the ground is unstable and require additional protection engineering. The maximum calculation error is not more than 2%, which exceeds the known world analogues.
Technology predictions of landslide activity, developed in the "Giprorechtrans", has already been tested in several projects. For example, an examination of landslide slope movements in the Silver Forest in Moscow. It turned out that the cause of the hazard are unacceptable impact on the ground in the vicinity of landslide-prone area in the construction of picturesque bridge. Using a new technique designed and built underwater passage pressure oil pipeline stretching 2.2 kilometers below the Kama river, 40 km from Yelabuga. In this case, the steepness of the slope, where it is located, up to 38o.
Technology "Giprorechtrans" was used in the Far East for the optimization of structures for oil and gas field structures A-D (the "Sakhalin-1"). In permafrost assessed the stability of the slope at a gas pipeline in the Yamal Peninsula, which define the conditions for safe operation.
Landslide activity often provoke illiterate design, construction and operation of facilities. As one of the developers of the programs Vladimir Darevskii in his institute predicted subsidence at an apartment complex on the streets of Minsk in the southwestern part of Moscow. However, the developers did not listen to them, and during the construction of this forecast, unfortunately, been realized. As a result, during the four years the complex was unoccupied — it was necessary to strengthen the support buildings and carry out other emergency engineering activities.
In pictures — the recent landslides in the Krasnodar Territory.
Author: Sergey Smirnov