New Industrialization

While the government throws many hundreds of billions of rubles to loud, but often unpromising projects, business quietly spends a third … the industrialization of the country. In his article "Forward, Russia" President Dm. Medvedev did not mention about the prospects of the industry. Therefore, it will be a big surprise that without the participation of state officials in enterprises is in full swing replacement of machines, technologies and equipment. If you do not change course, by 2020 Russia could become the first largest industrial center in Europe.
Machine 100 billion
Among the many "myths economy" is this one: we’ve taken up stupidly huge oil and gas revenues. Like, on the West and East of us are huge oil and gas trains, even — and have a bit of chemistry. In the opposite direction the compositions, completely stuffed with food, clothing, and household appliances.
In fact, everything is wrong. "Even in tough times for the economy in 2008-2009, Russia imported industrial equipment and machinery to … $ 160 billion. It was not just the first, and the main (52% of the total) article of the Russian import "- explains the director of the Center for Post-Industrial Studies Vyacheslav Inozemtsev.
So spend foreign exchange earnings are not so poorly. For comparison, in the pre-crisis 2007, when the experts were clutching their heads and complained to an increase in imports of foreign goods we bought at $ 200 billion. Of these, food — at $ 27.6 billion, shoes and clothes — by 8.6 billion. Amounts impressive, but incomparably more spent on the purchase of capital goods. In the same year, Russian companies have acquired overseas machinery, equipment and technology for 102 billion dollars. After the crisis, the situation has changed, but not much. In 2009, the share of machinery and industrial machinery had 43.4% of all foreign acquisitions.
The second thing you notice: Russian companies are trying to buy advanced technology. The main supplier — Germany, in general, the countries of the European Union accounts for 62% of machine-tool imports. So the myth that our factories have moved entirely to the "Chinese piece of iron" — is untenable. In fact, Beijing supplies only 17% of machine tools, with half of Chinese imports — products of European companies have opened factories in China.
Another question — how much the import of industrial equipment undermines its domestic production? Here the situation is not clear. On the one hand, without a doubt, the production of the means of production falls themselves. Thus, the production of machine tools for the last 10 years has decreased from 8.9 to 4.8 thousand pieces of woodworking — from 10.2 to 4.1 thousand.
On the other hand, the imported equipment in the Russian Federation released more modern technology. For example, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, the manufacture of steam turbines in 2000 grew by 2.4 times, compressors — 4.6 times, packaging lines — three times, spinning cars — four times, and industrial refrigeration equipment — by 11.5 times. Release of diesel and electric locomotives and does reached Soviet levels.
The third set
So the problem — not in the industry, and its working tools. In principle, the owner of the plant is important, not who did the "screwdriver", and what are the returns from it. And it may be rabid. Here’s a good example: last year, the owners of a large textile factory in the Ivanovo region, conducted an experiment. In one of the shops have replaced hundreds of far older looms produced in Russia for two dozen German machine guns. After that, the labor productivity in the shop jumped by 76 times. Enterprise hosts immediately started looking for a loan for the full conversion of …
Experts agree — at this stage in the procurement of machines abroad there is nothing to be ashamed of. "This is exactly what China. And Russia has twice passed this way. For the first time — at the time of the Industrial Revolution in 1890?’s. The second time — in the period of Stalin’s industrialization 1928-1940 "- says Professor HSE Vladimir Serebryakov.
He believes — the current wave of imports of equipment can be called the third stage of industrialization. It is developed by the same rules, on which were the first two. At first is the purchase of machinery and technology, then — go to his own release. For example, from 1893 to 1899, the volume of industrial production in Russia has doubled in heavy industry — three times. But the rise would have been impossible without massive imports. 60% worked for the economic prosperity of the Russian Empire machines were British-made, 25% — the German.
History repeated itself after a quarter-century. In the first two Five-Year Plan in the Stalinist country was built nine thousand plants. In the 1928-1937 years. Industrial production grew by 10-16% per year, and as a result has increased by 3.5 times. By 1940, the Soviet Union became the world’s third largest producer of industrial production after the U.S. and the UK. But it could not do without massive imports — foreign equipment accounted for 66% filling of socialist enterprises. The Soviet leadership did not see anything wrong in that. In the end, all of the American automotive factories of Detroit and Stalin’s five hundred companies designed the same German — engineer Albert Kahn …
In general, our economy is an interesting process. While the government talks about abstract modernization, entrepreneurs roll up their sleeves preparing the industrial revolution. It’s for the best. "The country needs a new industrialization, and not innovative dreams. Because the economy is not creating demand for new technologies that will reject innovators. A worthy goal for Russia — to become by 2020 a major industrial power in Europe, and not hope that we feed the technology, which so far is not even in the project "- says Vyacheslav Inozemtsev.

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