So in Russia JSC "MCST" and JSC "INEUM them. I.S.Bruka "at the 9th International Exhibition« ChipExpo-2011 ", which takes place in Moscow from 1 to 3 November 2011 at the Central Exhibition Complex" Expocentre ", demonstrate the new processors, personal computers, laptops and other electronics working on microelectronics and processors of its own production.
Computers are designed basically for: civilian industry production, military agencies of Russia, CIS and BRIC, radar systems for civil use (sea, air, and land transport). For civilians and businesses, where computers need to install extra secure and reliable. Computers have a different design concept. A different class of security depending on the need. All computers have the support or the ability to work with GLONASS and GPS, depending on the needs of the buyer.
In this article, I will try to explain the principles of the Russian computers and processors, as well as, the application of new products.
So briefly go over the novelties, then analyze the details and features of Russian processors and how they compare.
Elbrus 2C + — the first hybrid high-performance microprocessor company MCST. It contains two core architecture Elbrus and 4 core digital signal processor (DSP) Elvis firm. The main application processor Elbrus 2C + — system of digital intelligent signal processing, such as radar, image analyzers, etc.
By comparison with the processor Elbrus-S, the processor Elbrus 2C + were introduced as follows:
— Number of cores architecture Elbrus increased to 2.
— Cache Level 2 is reduced to 1 MB per core.
— Added cluster of four cores DSP, operating on the same frequency.
— Supported memory type changed to DDR2-800, the throughput was improved by 60%
— Added another input-output channel. You can connect additional Southbridge KPI or a dedicated device such as a controller DAC / ADC.
— For the hybrid version of the processor implemented in C language compiler that allows you to compile code for the DSP cores and ensure effective communication of the main program executing on the cores CPU, and procedures for the DSP.
The newest 4 core microprocessor "MCST R1000» («MCST-4R» working title)
Chip "MCST-4R» is a quad-core system-on-chip with built-in shared second-level cache, and coherence controller, the controller channel input-output system and switch controllers intersystem exchange. Chip is based on the previously developed in ZAO "MCST" system on a chip «R-500S»
Chip and developed on the basis of its CPUs MVS4 / C, MVS4-PC designed for use in compatible with the EC "Elbrus-90mikro" high-performance computer systems for automatic control systems, as well as to create a high-performance single-board computers and portable embedded applications.
Possible areas of application circuits "MCST-4R» and modules MVS4 / C, MVS4-MS include:
Wearable computers for small household use as:
computer for use in the field, in particular for operational calculations, storing reference data, preparation of documents for various purposes;
terminal electronic and communications systems, mobile and wearable systems equipment
terminal control and calibration of equipment for technical positions, as well as storing and preparing documents related to the operation of complex systems, other applications.
Computer workstations operators for use as a means of mapping, documentation of the work performed, etc.
Embedded control computers for solving problems of information processing and management of special objects in real-time
Class of mobile fault-tolerant servers for the design of automated systems spetsialnogo.naznacheniya, in particular, the AU organs of civil and military administration.
CPU0 … CPU3 — four processing cores;
L2 cache — cache memory of the second level;
CC — coherence controller
MC — memory controller DDR2 SDRAM;
IOCC — channel controller input-output;
ISCC — the exchange of inter-system controllers;
SCom — system switch.
Embedded Systems (modules) and finished products based on microprocessor MCST R500S
Designed for industrial applications module CBM / S. The module is in the format "Euromechanics" height 3U CompactPCI bus and has all the necessary components: processor, memory, graphics card, hard drive, external interfaces.
Processor MCST R500S, 500 MHz
DDR, and 1GB
Self-developed video controller (MGA), 2 independent channels, resolution up to 1600×1200 at 24-bit color. 2×8 MB of video buffer, the outputs DVI-I and VGA
Interfaces (external and exit to the rear system connector) USB2.0 (4 channels), PCI (32bit/33MHz), stereo audio, SATA 1.0 (3 channels), GBit Ethernet (2 channels), RS232, PS / 2 (2 Channel Kb & M)
5 V power supply, no more than 20 W.
MCST has developed a model of a thin client with small size and power consumption
A thin client is a device input and display (terminal / mini computer). Physically, the thin client is a compact and quiet computer without a hard drive (without fans), load the main operating system which takes place on the server. All user applications are running on a terminal server (application server), but for the user it is crystal clear. Since all of workload on a server, thin client has a minimal hardware configuration without sacrificing performance.
Why apply thin clients?
Thin clients are used in organizations where most people use computers for the same kind of tasks: work with databases, information directories (shops, pharmacies, libraries), working as a bank terminals, etc. Skin and left a thin client from the Japanese manufacturer NEC right of the MCST.
Characteristics of the Russian thin client:
2-processor system MCST R500S, 250 MHz
DDR, and 128MB
Video Controller Silicon Motion SM722
Network Ethernet 100Mbit
Other interfaces PS / 2 keyboard, PS / 2 mouse
Power supply 5 V, 7 W
Wearable Terminal (protected laptop)
Developed based on the module MPYA2.
Features of the module:
Low power consumption (27W)
large temperature range
(-20 … +50 ° C)
shock resistance (up to 100g)
The basic module MPYA2, speed 400 MHz
Display 15 "TFT, 1024×768
Video controller MGA
External interfaces 2hUSB2.0, 2hRS-232/422, 2hPS / 2, Ethernet 100Mb, IEEE 1284-compliant.
Integrated Device SSD 8Gb, Wifi 802.11na/b/g, Glonass / GPS receiver
3Ah battery, 16V
Operating system "Elbrus" on Linux or OS "WSWS".
I must say that the case for the present model is temporary, this is a test instance of mass-produced housing Russian computers you cann’t see the photo below. For comparison, left the laptop in the protective performance of ZAO "MCST", and the right of the Panasonic.
Generally the laptop case can be made by anyone, the main thing that it was held by the standards of the request of the consumer. In this case, the need is well protected and shockproof laptop.
Now let’s look at some questions and statements such as: do not ayFfon not something glamorous, where is the place for pens, 400-1000 MHz frequency sucks krevedko saddened migagertsami finally started pechalka, brakes, etc …
Of course this is not iPhone, then I will not argue, do not chip maker in China, and Russia. And I want to see Russian computers and processors does not the first time! And all the time. Many engineers and learned vzroschennye in Russia (USSR) are working abroad and develop as software and computers with processors themselves. If we take the well-known Intel Pentium then and there our, domestic, roots and development. For example a well-known Sun, according to BA Babayan (former director and developer of "Elbrus"), Peter Rozenbladt proposed cooperation with HP. But Babayan chose Sun (the first meeting with the Sun took place back in 1989). And in 1991, with the Sun was awarded the contract. From Sun officials know that Elbrus was involved in the development of microprocessor-UltraSPARC, optimizing compilers, operating systems (including Solaris), tools Java, multimedia libraries. Initially the project was funded by E2k Sun. The project is now fully independent, all intellectual property belongs to it and is protected Elbrus about the 70th U.S. patents. BA Babayan says, "If we continue to work with the Sun in this area, all belonged to Sun. Although 90% of the work was done even before the Sun. A big misconception that the JSC "MCST" only produce processors in Russia, it is not so. Vskidku some manufacturers that produce processors:
SPC "Elvis", the production of chips and processors, microelectronics. Used in the Russian PC Access and other small household tehnike.Rabotayut in conjunction with "ANGSTREM-T" making chips and chips on the 0.13-micron design rules. Preparing the line on 0.09-micron design rules, under the guidance of "Sitronics".
The most well-known processor manufacturer for NVCom-01 ("Navikom") is a programmable trehprotsessornoy a "system on a chip" with built-in 48-channel GLONASS / GPS navigation. Chip is designed for 0.13-micron technology, IP-based nuclear platform "MULTICORE" crystal size 8.8 * 9.5 mm * mm, ~ 60 million transistors. Microprocessor NVCom-01 allows you to replace the high-performance DSP processors are foreign-made, including chip ADSP TS201 (ADI), a number of circuits Series OMAP (TI), navigation chip SiRF Atlas-III (SiRF). Geared for mass production of the promising domestic microelectronics production of "ANGSTREM-T" on the 0.13-micron design normam.Yavlyaetsya programmable trehprotsessornoy a "system on a chip" with built-in 48-channel GLONASS / GPS navigation. Chip is designed for 0.13-micron technology, IP-based nuclear platform "MULTICORE" crystal size 8.8 * 9.5 mm * mm, ~ 60 million transistors. Microprocessor NVCom-01 allows you to replace the high-performance DSP processors are foreign-made, including chip ADSP TS201 (ADI), a number of circuits Series OMAP (TI), navigation chip SiRF Atlas-III (SiRF). Geared for mass production of the promising domestic microelectronics production of "ANGSTREM-T" on the 0.13-micron design rules.
To speak more specifically, processors and modular devices based on these processors are recognized in Russia among the best. In St. Petersburg, a set of "Multibort" received high ratings of international experts from ESA, NASA, University of Dundee, Astrium. It is with the use of chip sets for ISC-2010 was first demonstrated SpaceWire extensive domestic network provided by the network administrator’s development MiT.
Together with experts from the world’s space agencies (ESA, NASA, JAXA) specialists SPC "ELVIS" and SAC are actively involved in the work of the International Working Group (ESA, The Netherlands) for the improvement and further development of the standard SpaceWire, including the development of a gigabit version of the new perspective Standard isolating previously called «SpaceFibre».
CB "Corundum-M", specializing in the assembly of various electronic modules, computers, processors and chips, including military applications and harsh environments, the design and manufacture of complex, high-reliability electronic devices and components of computers. In the photo processor for desktops and laptops, "Baguette-super" and motherboard.
RC "Module" — a company established in 1990 by military enterprises — NGO "Vympel" and SRI radio instrument. Engaged in applied research in the field of pattern recognition and the development of hardware digital signal and image processing, and based on them functionally complete computer systems. Developer of a popular series of microprocessors NeyroMatriks. Embedded Systems Development SEC "module" are used in industrial systems, on-board avionics and space applications. Specially protected PCs distributed to dep
artments. In particular MVS186 installed on the module "Zarya" of the International Space Station, as well as on the service module of the ISS, telecommunication satellite "Yamal".
I note that the RC "Module" provided by the German branch of the company Fujitsu (Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH) license for a processor core NeuroMatrix Core, focused on applications in signal processing and systems for the construction of neural networks. It can be used in various multimedia and communication devices (such as MPEG-4 decoders).
Fujitsu unit received a non-exclusive right to use NeuroMatrix Core in the EU (patent license for 4 years). The sum is not announced, but such agreements typically cost between 250 thousand to $ 1 million plus royalties on sales.
The representative of "Litsenzintorg" noted that the agreement between the RC "Module" and Fujitsu — the first in recent years, an agreement on Russia’s export of high-tech products in the field of microelectronics, although the agreements on the import of such technologies were made very much. Generally I long to tell about Russian producers and processors chips, but the essence of hope realized that we in this direction were, are and will be. Now let’s talk about the appearance. Many blamed the computers chopped square, etc. And what is the size of the motherboard only climbed onto a stretcher and transported computer will be possible only on the tractor. Nonsense. For example, in Russia there is a company ZAO "GRANITE-BT", she makes a variety of computers, basically built. Of course, these computers are needed for the production, but just look at the photos, what SBC they managed to do.
In the photo GRANITE VM503-BT module is designed to work as embedded compact on-board computer and automated control systems of moving objects, industrial control and data acquisition, as well as other systems operating in harsh environments … The processor in your computer from the manufacturer JSC "MCST . " Now back to the glamor. Standard enclosures from manufacturer to consumer and civil needs of JSC "MCST" look like this:
Nearby on the photo that is embedded in an ordinary case. Slots are unified. You can buy any body of your choice, though made of gold and with crystals, if someone has to. The most common variants of Civil PC, type "Elbrus" look alike.
Inside a standard motherboard sizes acquaintances. The only Russian processors do not need the water and the normal cooling fan on the processor you will not see. Inside this:
Standard PCI expansion slots and S-BUS. ATI Rage128 runs on Elbrus-90mikro, our processors are digested with a bang this page. Hard disk drive HDD and CD-Writer run.
Now, about the performance and megahertz. Most people do not quite understand correctly clock frequency of such 150-200-300-400 or 1000 MHz processors, Russian, comparing it with foreign counterparts. Russian CPU clock frequency is low — but it is offset by "explicitly parallel" architecture (EPIC). Some Russian processors at 300 MHz, an average of 1.5 or 2 times faster than a Pentium 4/1, 4 GHz. Let’s start with simple examples and small numbers "my dear millions" (c) …
At one time, the SEC "Module" NM6403 NeuroMatrix processor core frequency 40 MHz arranged sparring (test drei as it is fashionable) with Intel Pentium II processor with a core speed of 300 MHz, and hard nakautiroval latter, created in the "Module" is a hybrid of the microprocessor so called RISC — CPU massively parallel superfast calculator. The resultant of this "crossing" of architecture is ideally suited for applications of digital signal processing and modeling neural networks. In this interaction is the main difference from the Russian design of the world’s microprocessors, the bit at NeuroMatrix — arbitrary from 1 to 64 bits, which allows you to process more words in the processor at the same time — it’s just that the parallelism in computing. As a result, NM6403 can achieve a performance comparable to or even exceeds all known brands of microprocessors.
For example, the performance test "Sobel conversion" which is used in the detection and classification of objects. NM6403 executes it at a speed of 68 frames per second. The processor TMS320C40 U.S. firm Texas Instruments, which has a clock frequency of 50 MHz, performs this conversion at a rate of 6.8 frames per second, Intel Pentium with 200 MHz core clock performs the same operation at a speed of 21 frames per second. And this despite the fact that the operating frequency of the core NeuroMatrix — a total of 40 MHz.
Another test — "Fourier transformation". Russian CPU makes the conversion for 256 points in 102 microseconds, TMS320C40 — four times slower, Intel Pentium II processor with a clock frequency of 300 MHz — twice as slow.
The reason for such a high performance NM6403 is that the developers of the RC "Module" went the way of development of the architecture, not the path of increasing the clock frequency and the amount of cache memory. As a result, the processor at any operation possible using all of its resources, which allows him to "beat" the speed and performance of Intel Pentium, which has eight times higher clock frequency. But it may be objected experts, synthetic — Special laboratory tests of performance. If we talk about the life of the Russian application development and its effectiveness, speed of work, imagine such a situation. Video camera with built-NM6403 installed on the Moscow ring road and follows the road traffic.
However, she is able to instantly recognize the brand, color, size and number plate of each of the cars at high speed flying past her in all eight lanes. And it not only recognizes each separate machine will figure out if the driver passed inspection or whether the motor vehicle as stolen, but give all the information on the nearest traffic police post. By the way, on the international space station "Alpha", the Russian bloc "Dawn" has already been installed on-board computer system based on NM6403 NeuroMatrix, which is fine in conjunction with conventional x for all western-made computer.
Built on the "Module" chip can be put in an ordinary home computer. But in this case, to get a shot out of a cannon o
n sparrows. According to him, it is difficult for households to come up with such tasks which would have substantiated the need to find this chip in the normal processor. NM6403 is designed for research projects, applications solutions, encryption and decryption processing of information from the spacecraft in real time.
In Golitsyn, which is the center of processing of such information, and where its volume is attributable to a single operator, is equal to transfers Central Television for the year of continuous operation, the chip RC "Module" is not worth it. But according to his ability, he is able to "shovel" and all this, and much more information. Of course processors obsolete, but the example I gave for what would have been clear that the frequency of our processor can easily multiply by 2. and then by 3, depending on the performance goals. And then there will be approximately equal to the performance of gigahertz processors. Take a fresh test on the State. testing processor, for example, "Elbrus-3M" / 300MHz average outperforms Pentium II/300 MHz 1.75 times and 17% higher than the Pentium III/450 MHz. On a broader class of performance problems EC "Elbrus-3M" in the performance of codes IA-32 processor performance comparable to Pentium II, Pentium III and Pentium IV, operating in the frequency range of 300-1500 MHz. On one of the computers exhibitions such as "Elbrus" presented to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, in the presence of journalists, programmers, gamers on the computer to run the tests SPEC, he hailed the performance and compact computers. Ordinary users are happy to have tested it the Windows shell and Microsoft Office. Gamers are happy to have tested your favorite games such as Quake, scarf and other … Today on "Elbrus-3M" has about 20 operating systems in the codes of the IA-32, MS-DOS, Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, QNX, OS "Elbrus" OS " WSWS, "Ubuntu OS, etc. Under these operating systems on a platform of "Elbrus-3M" has about thousands of applications, including computer games, applications from the package Microsoft Office, movies, software data compression drivers external devices. All this testifies to the reliability and completeness of the binary translation and its competitiveness. Do not forget that Western counterparts x86 processors have reached their performance limit, and elude the CPU frequency is more for commercial use. The efficiency increases not because they would like to + huge heat, and as a consequence, the need for powerful coolers cooling or water cooling of processors. What looks like energy-consuming, dangerous, uncomfortable. Russian new processors, such as the six core processor "Elbrus 2C + ‘with a clock and chastatoy 500MHz quad-core processor" MCST-4R »clocked at 1000MHz not need the cooling. And if you want to express their opinion about their performance, as I’ve already written above, the CPU frequency to be multiplied by 2-4 times, depending on the task set before him a PC with a processor. And that’s only if you’re about to walk out the figure of our processor frequencies by measuring the frequencies of its foreign counterparts. Moreover, the Russian producers and processors of the same name computers such as "Elbrus" develop not only multi-core CPUs, but also multi-processor. In the photo below you can see the motherboard directly with four domestic processors.
Such computer motherboard delivered us to the south, to the JSC "Taganrog factory" Surf ". They are made with the requirements for harsh environments. Used to create navigation devices for the transport and the military. The processor module MVS / C contains four dual-core microprocessor R-500S, thus presenting a single-board 4-machine system to the total number of processors equal to eight. It is available in version MVS / C-K conduction cooled.
The plant is the fourth organization that uses this type of modules developed in radio systems. Generally these families about computers, I love to confess a long and tedious … The basic idea that processors and computers, we do, do and will do. In the yard, "National Unity Day" comes, I would like to congratulate all the visitors of our portal with the holiday. And those who make and develop the Russian microelectronics with the holiday.