News aerospace, missile and air defense


May 16, 2012   Alexander Gorbenko


An early warning of missile attack Russia (EOP) currently runs an accelerated rearmament.

This is due both to the need to create a closed system PRN radar field and ASD (Aerospace Defense) and the emergence of new threats that require new technical solutions to neutralize them. Here’s how the threats described Chief Designer Sergei Systems PRN Fedotovich Fights in a recent interview:

"We can not ignore that part of the military threats to security of our country is being changed significantly. This is primarily due to the fact that there were a potential enemy or are in the final stages of development of strategic high-precision weapons — BR with guided warheads, strategic cruise missiles (TFR), hypersonic aircraft (GZLA), which are predicted by the level of damage and impact on strategic stability are comparable with nuclear missiles. In these circumstances, the information component of SAI is to acquire a new quality — apart from problems of missile warning, it should be able to solve the problem of preventing the country’s leadership on the massive use of Raman and GZLA, including the complexity of the target environment and interference environment in the zones of Information CSC funds. There will be a very useful experience gained on creating the-horizon radar. These stations can be an integral part of the online intelligence system for early warning of cruise missiles, hypersonic aircraft and their carriers. "

Despite the fact that the degree of readiness of some of these threats is far from the final stage (for details of the program were considered likely opponent in the article "Weapons based on new physical principles": myths and reality. Part 3: Russian Hyperspeed "), This does not mean that they will not be implemented ever. And to prepare for these threats to today.

We compute the EOP on two levels — a constellation of satellites and ground-based early warning and super-horizon-horizon radars. The space echelon of the SCN was commissioned recently. The first series of satellites observe the launch site in enemy territory started in 1982 and finally formed the launch of the ninth spacecraft until 1987. The system is called "The Eye." In addition to it, since 1991, implemented the program "Eye-1", which allows you to monitor not only stepping stones in enemy territory, but also for all potentially dangerous areas of the land and the oceans. Technical possibilities satellites second series is substantially higher than the first generation. To update the group from 2001 to 2008, launched four new satellite system EOP. Further development of the first-tier EOP will be based on a fundamentally new space-based platforms.

The system of land-based radar stations EOP has a long history. First-horizon radar of the "Dnestr-M" and "Dnepr" were built in the 60s of the last century. In the 70’s complement of a missile defense radar station in Moscow of the "Danube", integrated into the overall system. In the 80 years to counter the strategic cruise missiles and attack tools, made by technology "Stealth", near the town of Pechora and Gabala station was erected next generation of the "DTV". Also in the general system of the SCN include the stations of space control in the centimeter range of the "Don-2N." The first, located near Moscow and works for missile defense, and the second is built on the territory of Kazakhstan for solving space defense. The capabilities of these stations have been clearly demonstrated in 1994. Then the Americans to identify their capabilities and Russian missile defense system, an experiment was conducted under the name "ODERACS." The main purpose of the experiment was calibrated radar LRIR and orbital detection ODAS. But in parallel, we were invited to take part (of course, to deal with space debris). Then leadership so piously believed in ending the military confrontation that agreed. With the U.S. Space Shuttle launched micro-objects, one of the starts — metal balls of diameter 15, 10 and 5 cm U.S. detection could fix only the first two objects, and the station of "Don-2NP" found and gave all three parameters at a range of over 2,000 km .



Also, after the elimination of the radar "Dnepr" in Latvia, to close the gap in the defense to the west, on the territory of Belarus (Baranovichi) in 2002, was completed earlier canned radar new generation of "Volga". This is a fundamentally new system for solid-state elements with the possibility of frequency tuning over a wide wavelength range and work in two frequency bands simultaneously. It is capable of 120 degrees in the sector. azimuth monitor missile launches at a range of over 5,000 km and to observe space objects a few millimeters to any of the orbits. One of the best in the world of computer systems, allows us to fix the launch instantly calculate the expected trajectory calculations with the update after the correction target in second period.



However, new threats require new solutions. Such solutions in the field of radar found, but the modernization of the existing facilities is complicated by the volume of construction, installation and commissioning work — super-power radars are huge structures, filled with the most complicated technology. For example, the construction of "Don-2NP" required 30,000 tons of steel and 50,000 tons of concrete, to the thousands of premises were built 20,000 kilometers of cables, hundreds of kilometers of water pipes (for cooling devices require different types of water of different quality, composition, temperature).



Therefore, for the early renovation of ground-based EOP, was a technology of high operational readiness (CEV), which provides for the design, fabrication and testing of structurally complete radar components directly to enterprises. New transmission system eliminates the need to use complex water cooling systems. At the location of the assembly is performed only unified and ready to work modules. In this case, at times reduced the construction of the complex. And, moreover, the possibility stations can be changed depending on the purpose and tasks, or modified by replacement of modules. It also makes it easier to upgrade existing stations. A new generation of radar are based on intelligent digital phased array antenna (TSIFAR) — which is the latest scientific and technical achievement and superior capabilities that seriously samples of previous generations. For example, the possibility of the station "Voronezh-M", operating in the VHF range (in Lekhtusi, Len. Area) are sufficient to control the range and on the heights of all missile-north-west direction, including the North Pole, North Africa and the Atlantic until U.S. east coast. In addition to the station in Lekhtusi, to intercede on combat duty in February of this year, there are two station "Voronezh-DM" (UHF) in the Krasnodar Territory (started in 2009) and Kaliningrad (works with last year). Is being built near Irkutsk station "Voronezh-VP" (multi-band, "VP" — stands for "high-grade&q
uot;, the commissioning of this year), the construction of similar plants is conducted in the Republic of Komi, in the Murmansk region, the upgraded modules TSIFAR station in Gabala in Azerbaijan . Perhaps these stations will be built in the area Eniseyska, the Far East, in the Altai. In addition to stationary radar is working on the creation of technology-based TSIFAR mobile stations.

In addition to the radar, the problem EOP and ASD are solved we Optoelectronic (more about them in the paper "Weapons based on new physical principles": myths and reality. Part 1: Russian laser "). You can not ignore the serious work being done now in the Altay Optical Laser Center (AOLTS). This complex began operating in 2004 as part of a network of fiber-laser systems Forces aerospace defense. Now there is building a laser telescope with a diameter of 312 cm and a weight of 85 tons, which will be the largest telescope in the laser Eurasia, yielding (only on the diameter of the mirror, but not on the capability and capacity) only American Optical Station on Mount Haleakala, while keeping in times lower cost. Now is the construction of technical installations, and in Moscow begins installation of the mirror. The installation will be put on combat duty in 2014, after a series of tests. 


In addition to the problems of the SCN and missile defense work carried out within the framework of a large-scale program of "Arctic". As the Arctic area must be considered one of the most dangerous on the various non-nuclear attack, at the Radio Engineering Institute of the AL Mints are working to establish a system for monitoring surface and air conditions in the Arctic, which will include full control of the 200-mile zone of Arctic Russia, which is currently being implemented only partially. Also in 2012, the radio shelf compounds Defense Forces air and space defense will put about 20 new radar systems. Among them updated "Gamma-S1M", "flying up", "Caste-2.2" as well as a number of different plant modifications, "Heaven."

After the decision to purchase in addition to air defense systems S-400 S-300V4 (more details — "Re-equipment of defense: a contingency plan, and not forgotten New") In April at the Kapustin Yar passed it successfully test. This is even more important success that the new set of tools made to customer requirements from scratch in just two months!


Another good news for air defense came from the area of new sea-based air defense system. In an interview with "Vedomosti", CEO of Concern "Almaz-Antey" Vladislav Menshikov said that the bunker complex "polyment-redoubt" passes the test cycle, which should be completed later this year:

"… For the completion of their full we need the support of the complex in the sea. This year, by all accounts, the test must be completed. Rockets are made, they are there, waiting for release into the sea. "

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