Initially, the requirements for IL-114 had a number of features that distinguish them from those that were presented to his foreign counterparts. First of all, the Il-114 is to be operated with a relatively small airfields with either concrete or dirt runway, which greatly expands the geography of its use in different regions of the country.
For operation in the Arctic and Antarctic regions of the IL-114 must ensure that transportation is 1500 kg payload on a practical range of 4800 km. These parameters were allowed to establish on the basis of aircraft modifications such as patrol, reconnaissance ocean fish, ice reconnaissance, as well as the administrative version of the small passenger comfort.
In the first half of 1980 due to the growth of air traffic in local and secondary lines carried on the aircraft with turboprop engines, began research projects more capacious machines, designed for 60-70 passengers. In our country, to the beginning of the 1980 An-24 was widely used on domestic routes (IAL) is out of date, and the fleet was reduced gradually due to the write-off of machinery in connection with development of the assigned resource.
On the basis of the development prospects of passenger aircraft, summarizing more than thirty years of experience operating a variety of options for IL-14, the study of flying service of An-24 and international flights of foreign aircraft, Ilyushin Design Bureau, headed by his disciple, chief designer, twice Hero of Socialist Labor Academician D . V.Novozhilovym in early 1982, took the initiative to create a new passenger aircraft for international flights IL-114.
Even earlier, in the late 1970s, a number of stations in Western Europe, the U.S., Canada and Brazil have begun research projects of new aircraft with turboprop engines for local and short overhead lines. They were designed for 30-35 passengers and for the replacement of aircraft of similar capacity, created in the 1950s and 1960s, when no one has thought about the energy crisis — that was the period of the race for speed. But already in 1970, new requirements for passenger aircraft. They must have a high efficiency, have high cruising speeds and high reliability. According to economists, the global market could be delivered 1500-2000 these machines.
EDB initiative with regard to IL-114 was supported by the Ministry of Civil Aviation, and in spite of the heavy load on the collective efforts on building a passenger IL-96-300, the decision was made before work on the plane, parallel between August 1982 and begin compilation of the creation of IL-114. And by October 1983, the technical proposals have been developed and preliminary design. By July 1987, the full-size model built aircraft, and the Council of Ministers of the start of operation of the new aircraft on international flights airways was determined — II quarter of 1991.
Due to the fact that the only requirement of "Aeroflot" in IL-114 have identified 1,500 cars in the decision indicated that the aircraft will be built on the two aircraft companies. Leading serial plant was Tashkent Aircraft Production Association named after Chkalov (Chkalov), the second — the Moscow Aviation Plant "Banner of Labor" (now — im.P.V.Dementeva MAPE). In accordance with the requirements of the specification MGA IL-114 must carry at least 60 passengers (payload — 5.4 m) on a practical range of 1000 km at a cruising speed of 500 km / h at an altitude of 6000 — 7200 m
What are the design features of the aircraft? IL-114 made on a cantilever low-wing monoplane with feathers and the normal scheme. On the wing has two turboprop engines TV7-117S, developed in Leningrad experimental design bureau "Klimov Plant name" (chief designer A.Sarkisov). Take-off power of each engine is 2500 hp
The engine is low-noise propellers shestilopastny NE-34 development Stoupinsky Design Bureau "Aerosil" (chief designer Yu.Suhorosov). Screw diameter 3.6 m screws provided with automatic feathering of the blades in flight.
In order to create the IL-airframe 114 with good weight impact applied new structural materials, including improved metal alloys and composite materials nonmetals.
When designing the layout of passenger cabins and cargo holds, among others, have solved the main problem — to give passengers a level of comfort that is comparable with main airliners. Therefore for IL-114 was selected fuselage having a circular cross section of diameter 2.86 m, which allows to arrange in a row two double passenger seat with a central aisle 450 mm. The aircraft digital flight control and navigation system (TSPNK-114) Development Research Institute team of aviation equipment (director Alexander Abramov, Chief Designer A.Polsky).
The complex provides automated and manual navigated on the poorly equipped and MVL routes at any time of day and year, as well as landing in adverse weather conditions. TSPNK-114 allows you to fly the aircraft crew of only two people — the aircraft commander and co-pilot.
IL-114 all data display, alarms, controls, on-board systems integrated into a single information management system with access to the data needed for piloting and navigation, as well as data on aircraft systems coming on five colored screen indicators are located on the instrument board pilots. Wing Il-114 was designed based on extensive research and experimental work carried out in conjunction with the bureau TsAGI. It has a high level of aerodynamic and weight of perfection and is equipped with an effective landing mechanization consisting of retractable double-slotted flaps with fixed baffle. Flaps deflected at angles 10,20 and 40 |.
The wing has a significant lengthening of the two panels (wing AN-24, for example, collected from nine panels). Thanks to the use of long panels, increasing the safety of the destruction of the wing by reducing the number of cross-connections. At the same time decreases due to increased weight of the wing and stringers size sheets, the use of sealed caisson wing to create them in the fuel tanks. This in turn makes it possible to give up the soft fuel tanks and containers for them. Besides reducing the number of transverse connectors and improving the quality of the outer surface of the wing.
When you create an IL-114 a lot of attention paid to ensure its safety and reliability in operation. For this purpose airframe designed on the principle of "safe destruction" and ensuring fatigue strength. In addition, all of the functionality of the system and components that affect the safety of flight, have the necessary degree of redundancy. Excludes the impact of failure of one system to the work of others.
Much attention was paid to the problem of reducing the perceived noise levels, both on the ground and in the passenger compartment. Noise reduction is achieved by using turboprop engines equipped with low-noise propellers shirokolopastnymi, synchronization of their rotation (frequency and phase), high (970 mm) clearance between the tips of the rotor blades and fuselage sides, vibrorazvyazkoy interior of the passenger compartment. In addition, noise reduction is achieved by reducing the air speed in distributing highways conditioning systems, as well as installation on the inside of the fuselage soundproofing materials.
In the spring of 1989 and was formed by a team of testers of the first prototype. Lead engineer appointed A.Manohin flight tests, the senior ground aircraft technicians, "the master of the aircraft" — Yu.Grevtsev, a veteran of the company. Lead test pilot approved honored V.Belousova test pilot, co-pilot — A.Minchenka a flight engineer — V. Titov.
By the end of 1989 and the first prototype was built. In March 1990, held at FRI im.M.M.Gromova advisory board MAP readiness plane for the first flight. March 29, 1990 the first Il-114 CCCP-54000 taxied to the runway. At the same time, there was also support plane. And Engines, "one hundred and fourteenth" displayed on takeoff. After a small plane runway for the first time off the ground and lay on a parallel course with the aircraft maintenance. IL-114 made two passes over the runway and landed.
While going flight testing of the first prototype, addressed other issues and problems of the "Program for an IL-114." It is, first of all, the serial production of the new aircraft TAPOiCH. Terms of manufacturing the wings and tail planes for the 0102, 0103 and 0104 for various reasons have become steadily move, tearing the whole period of the Programme. In October 1990, an order was issued Minister AP A.Systsova "On the organization of serial production of IL-114 at the Mapo them. P.V.Dementeva" which was specified period of production of the first aircraft in this venture — IV quarter of 1992. At the same time it was announced that for 1991 for the entire aviation industry will be allocated to three times less money than in 1990. It’s a sad message could not touch the fate of IL-114. Because now the funds allocated to the enterprise were primarily for the program Il-96-300 as the most advanced to the final goal — certification. Works well for IL-114 funded by the residual principle.
Air Transport Department sent a Ilyushin Design Bureau and TAPOiCH list of preliminary entries for the year 1993 from the Russian airlines. IL-114 received applications for 44 aircraft. Then these figures we and TAPOiCH received with great enthusiasm. We thought that the ice was broken. But in reality it was quite different. The second IL-114 was built almost two years after the first, then he still stood on completions for more than five months because of a lack of funds for its construction. In early 1993, several meetings took place in the bureau and LII, which considered the certification of the Il-114. At the meetings, it was noted that the tests come with a lag from the time limits specified in the "Development Program for IL-114." The main reason — underfunding.
As representatives of the customer already made Il-114 | 0106, and was preparing to pass another series aircraft | 0107, to be transmitted to the national airline of Uzbekistan, and certification tests have not been conducted, it was necessary to determine the status of the two planes.
Chairman Aviaregister V.Sushko offered by these two planes to train airline crew, and after the end of the program to implement the "special stage flight tests." It was assumed that the relevant airline pilots with test pilots TAPOiCH and AK Ilyushin will carry freight on these two airplanes and flying them will, in the end, a total duration of certification. Our AC was by then quite large passenger aircraft certification experience. The first in 1980, airworthiness of aircraft (NLGS) was certified widebody passenger IL-86. Since 1988, we conducted the certification Long-haul widebody passenger IL-96-300.
But now the situation was not simple. On three experienced Il-114 to perform about 800 operations on the factory program and State certification tests. A deal with the funding of left much to be desired. After the crash of the second prototype, which occurred July 5, 1993-go, the situation has changed dramatically with the financing of the program. Receipt of funds from the state has decreased even more, more people began replica that not only Russia will have to finance the work, but also of Uzbekistan.
At one of the technical councils, held in July 1995, General Designer G.V.Novozhilov said the position of the company is quite difficult. Themselves need to earn money for their own lives and for programs of certification flight tests of the Il-114, Il-103, as well as a modified Il-76MF.
In January 1996, a meeting of the leaders of the AK Ilyushin Iranian Ambassador to Russia, where they discussed issues of further cooperation. The Iranian side has requested a manual calculations of IL-114 at various air routes, both within Iran and for flights from Tehran to the next frontier foreign airports. Then, a similar meeting was held in February. Iran said the desire to master the production of IL-114 under license. Of course, with the help of our specialists.
Unfortunately, the further promotion of cooperation in joint production of IL-114 did not work, mainly due to the strained relations between Uzbekistan and Iran. And, of course, in this vacant niche entered the AN-140, which at that time had not even completed its first flight. According to news reports, the acquisition of the An-140 entered into contracts with the company, "Antonov" about 30 Iranian airlines.
The end of 1996 and beginning of 1997 were held in a very hard work to complete the certification flight tests and evidence-based design documentation for the type certificate for the IL-114. And in January 1997, the chief designer G.Novozhilov and chairman of the Aviation Register of the IAC V.Sushko signed the latest schedule of completion of certification work on the aircraft, which was specified deadline certification -1 May. Recent tests conducted by test pilots V.Belousov, I.Zakirov, A.Minchenok, A. Komarov, and other specialists.
We can not say about those people who every day are preparing aircraft for test flights, carry enormous tension, sending cars flying and waiting for their return. I would like to be called Yuri N. Grevtseva, who for many years has invested his heart and soul into training aircraft and aviation specialists leadership teams, preparing for flying machines.
Finally, in April 1997, the IAC Aviation Register wrote a Type Certificate | 130-114 IL-114. Also in April 1997, we got the idea to demonstrate the IL-114 airlines, which had to organize our flights to cities in Russia. The main purpose of the flight — to show potential customers the real possibilities of the Il-114, which is designed to replace the obsolete and outdated An-24, Yak-40, and Tu-134.
Initially, the flight route was as follows: Zhukovsky — St. Petersburg — Arkhangelsk — Nizhny Novgorod, Tyumen — Omsk — Krasnoyarsk — Irkutsk to Khabarovsk — Magadan — Yakutsk — Novosibirsk — Moscow — Samara — Volgograd — Mineral Water — Rostov-on-Don — Zhukovsky. This flight we met in June 1998. Done route 13 and 13 demonstration flights. Aviation Russia recognized the actual status of the development and certification of the Il-114. We, in turn, have learned with sadness the true state of the aviation MVL. Saw a truly sorry state park in almost all domestic airlines. But in the end received letters of intent to acquire some 150 airlines Il-114. But at the same time, it became clear no airline is not able to purchase the aircraft, bringing the t
otal cost at the same time. It is vital that earned aircraft leasing mechanism.
In May 1997, has come to pass an important event for us: Russia on an official visit to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov. He visited our enterprise. One of the outcomes of the visit was the conclusion of two agreements on cooperation in the field of aviation. The first document was signed following the agreement between Russia and Uzbekistan from 1995 second document provided co-financing of design development and certification of different versions of IL-76 and IL-114. However, the main producer of these aircraft TAPOiCH found that up to 90% of the components for these aircraft received from Russia.
August 1998 threw us back to the original position in the implementation of produced aircraft. Those aviazakazy representative who made the airline in the course of our trip in the Russian regions, in the following have not been confirmed. Almost all the airlines of the country impoverished and began to experience extreme shortage of funds, not only for the purchase of new generation aircraft, but also for the overhaul and modernization of operating the park. It was a strong blow to the bureau, and the factory in Tashkent, and throughout the aviation industry as a whole. Meanwhile, in July 1999, the Il-114 | 91001 took off from Tashkent airport runway and headed for the Namangan. It was the first passenger flight on this aircraft type.
Despite all the difficulties, the work on modifications to the Il-114 continues. During the design study modifications of the IL-114 option and viewed with increased passenger capacity. Naturally, the need for such an aircraft engine more power than the TV7-117S. But in Russia such engines, unfortunately, no. It was necessary to consider several types of western engines, including engines and firm "Pratt & Whitney" Series PW-125, take-off power of the order 2500e.l.s. When emergency power take-off power of these engines is about 3100e.l.s.
This study carried out in the Project Office from 1992 in June of 1997 in Paris during the International Air Show an agreement was signed between the firms "Pratt & Whitney Canada", LHamilton Standard |, and Tashkent bureau im.S.Ilyushina APOiCh to start work to create a modified passenger Il-114-100. In December 1998, the first Il-114-100 was transferred from the general assembly shop at the flight test station TAPOiCH. Then the car was taken to Zhukovsky, where test pilots I.Gudkov, N.Kuimov, S.Zavalkin and R.Esayan completed 97 flights. The tests were successful: the chairman of IAC K.Kruglov on IL-114-100 signed the certificate type.
Much work is also carried out by a specialized bureau of Il-114. Until the early 1980s for the protection and management of fish stocks ryborazvedki used IL-14, range is allowed to patrol the 200-mile zone just over two hours. In 1983, for the control of salmon zone, located to the east of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands, began to use the IL-18D, which provide patrols for 7-9 h Based on this experience on the technical task of the Ministry of Civil Aviation and the Ministry of Fisheries OKB. SV Designed and built Ilyushin Il-modified 18DORR — distant ocean reconnaissance fish. Consideration is being given to the establishment of an ocean reconnaissance fish IL-114ORR.
Developed ice reconnaissance IL-114 are designed to obtain information on the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean to provide maritime transport in the Arctic and freezing seas of the temperate latitudes. The aircraft must be replaced completely disappeared from ice reconnaissance operation on the basis of IL-14 and An-26LR "Toros", which for many years participated in the systematic exploration and development of the Arctic regions of our country.
IL-114 for ice reconnaissance is to put instruments for astronomical and satellite navigation, advanced radar equipment and radio equipment is perfect. To give greater survivability when basing off in Antarctica IL-114 must be equipped with on-board power units and emergency rescue equipment, as well as a special chassis that combines wheel and metal retractable in-flight skiing, work surfaces which will have polymer coatings designed for specific Antarctic snow, frozen out.
Each of the modifications should be extremely functional. For example, when the payload 1860 kg range 114ORR with IL-fuel reserve 30 min. the flight is almost 4000 km, which will allow him to stay in the air and perform the planned target for 11h. Fotokartografichesky IL-114FK began to form in accordance with the Council of Ministers in 1988 It was intended to address the problems of remote sensing for typographical operational radar and aerial surveying, providing a compilation of topographic maps and photo plans, create thematic maps for agriculture, forestry, geology and organizations concerned with the protection of the environment. Already developed conceptual design of the aircraft, and the bureau is ready to proceed to the next step — the development of design documentation.
Patrol Il-114P is designed to protect sea borders. Also today, there was the problem of monitoring the state of the environment. Organizations that have received a great autonomy in the pursuit of profit, go to the many violations of pollution and air and water basins, dumping untreated industrial waste into the environment. And the task of government — to expose such abuses.
One of the means of control over the situation in the border areas, seaports along the routes of oil and gas pipelines is the territorial automated system of air-sea surveillance. This system includes a patrol IL-114P. Upgraded patrol IL-114PM is designed based on passenger aircraft of local airlines and IL-114 is designed to meet the challenges of patrolling the 200-mile economic zone and the monitoring of unauthorized entry into the zone of air, surface and subsurface resources. In the patrol version of the Il-114PM at a distance of 300 km from the base can provide control for up to 10 hours with a mass discharged detection and retrieval of underwater targets up to 1,500 kg.
The story in this machine are not traditionally simple. The usual thing for our parts.
But, apparently, the point is not yet set.