RUSNANO all used to curse up hill and down dale, at the same time mentioning that the drain on the budgets and actual results as there was no and no. But there is a Russian science, there are young companies that RUSNANO support, and it all starts to bear fruit. In this article we will discuss some successful investments and interesting Russian projects
Abusive press articles about the current state of the Russian microelectronics industry today almost the norm, the rule of etiquette. And that, in fact really have something. You can blame the nearly 100% import civil and extremely high percentage of imports military component base. Or total disruption and fragmentation of production chains, never recovered from the collapse of the Soviet Union. The most productive and hackneyed theme of this pool — about 20 -, 30 -, 50-year-old (underline to taste) lag behind the world level, or about ruined domestic processor, that’s really where all plowed up and down.
Yes, in general, all indeed the case. Globally, the share of micro-electronic products made in Russia, being a few tenths of a percent. Approximately at the same level is a modern patent database. The talented Russian scientists working on promising new directions, regularly published, receive recognition and even the Nobel Prize, but … mostly abroad. And probably the most annoying is that the head-on comparison with the experience of other countries, even small and not very developed, and often will not be in our favor — and it’s loaded with countless Russian human, natural resources and financial resources.
In short, self-flagellation and the search for extreme mastered the Russian press to perfection and even brought to the level of art — the benefit of a long search for the guilty do not, they are always presented in a wide range.
But today we will discuss the future of the domestic electronics industry with a less appreciative side. Let’s all the same’ll stay optimistic, we will leave a hysterical tone, "All is lost!" And kondovy national question "What?" For other publications. Let’s try to think about "how to do it."
The initial conditions for the revival of the Russian semiconductor and electronics industry does more than modest, but history tells us that many started with less. For example, the Japanese after World War II. Why are there Japanese: Taiwan only a few decades ago, there were only unskilled labor yes silica sand as raw material. Germany, Korea, China, USA, Netherlands, Japan, Taiwan, and dozens of other countries — all of them have found their place in the modern semiconductor industry, globe and each of them had his own way, somewhat similar to the others, but as a rule quite unique to each country. Not all of this road was straight and swift, many had to wander through the maze and at all time to bury a dead end. But today is not about them.
Let’s try to imagine the future of the Russian semiconductor industry based on the fact that Russia is still in search of his path. That way — at least partially dead end — that was in Soviet times, in any case, today it is not appropriate and did not suit. Find his way, conducted by trial and error in a rapidly changing world for the last 20 years of Russian history, we take as a starting point.
And more. Promise yourself to keep from extremes — repeat officious balalaika rapid jack about nanotechnology and innovation, as well as jingoistic chants about "vperd its knees." As essentially the same. When I hear the word "nanotechnology", I reach for … no, I do not have a gun, even virtual, but in recent years from samouspokoitelnyh optimistic talk about "innovation", you know, already nauseated. Let’s not it.
Options for revival of the Russian semiconductor industry in the current situation a bit worthy — and even less. The easiest option — to recognize Russia hopelessly behind, settle down and stay on the third cast. Captain Evidence suggests that in this case, the degradation of the industry will accelerate to almost its complete disappearance. This is the case when standing still is tantamount to death. Total — cross out, dead-end option of no interest to anyone.
My favorite Soviet cry "Let’s catch up and surpass!" Is also out. It is not a jet speed and astronomical sums required for such "dogonyalok." The reality is that a lot of money do not like such a fuss, no one under the semiconductor ho-rah-industrialization does not subscribe — unprofitable. Even a substantial financial leverage, as the giant state defense order, can not suddenly change the current status quo: the world without us develop a strong competition in the consumer electronics market — where, in fact, the development of advanced defense later, albeit in a simplified manner, " gather additionally cash. "
But even if the government would be no place to put the money there, or insane, private investors and the domestic industry would simultaneously stopyatsot trilliardov dollars, rubles, nothing good will come of such a jerk. First of all, you need to take into account the human factor to reach the level that is acceptable to the global competition, need the experience and tradition of training. To be successful today, should start 15-25 years ago. Unfortunately, the government projects such time scales — and to this day on the fingers, and the non-state and even less that we talk about the times ten to twenty years ago.
In addition, it is impossible to develop a large-scale multi-billion dollar project without external realities of the market, zakuklivshis only for domestic consumption. This automatically means strict adherence to all international industry standards, impeccable observance of patent rights, adoption, and compliance with established throughout production and technological processes — at least as long as the leadership and will have a casting vote in the adoption of such standards.
It is one thing — to be armed with caliber cartridge other than the accepted in NATO, to produce a unique military equipment almost single-piece production, in short, to dictate the rules of the game in his field. It is another to reach an entirely new market for high-technology itself — albeit with a lot of money, but without personal experience, personnel, patents and technology, to try for a short time to become a leader on it. Utopia.
There is another similar way to "catch up and overtake." Well, maybe not quite overtake, but certainly right up close. However, not so rapid as described above. This, of course, about the Chinese experience.
I remember back in school we were taught about the excesses of Mao curious. For example, how the whole country rushed to shoot sparrows steal grain in the fields. Or how the Chinese responded to the call of the party to increase the output of pig iron, and then many homemade blast furnaces appeared even in rural barns. Sparrows, remember, still won, low-grade pig iron is also not really helped the industry, but what is the scope?
Then, in exactly the same order of tens of thousands mass, Chinese sheds suddenly began to turn into a workshop, where the knee was performed on all sorts of electronic coins. First, we made fun of the Chinese twang cards, laughed at the clumsily translated into Russian language instruction to Chinese receivers genuinely surprised cheapness of Chinese television. Not amused later when a wave swept the world of electronic artisanal crafts brought sharp-witted Chinese entrepreneurs first dividend. "Shed Uncle Liu" has suddenly turned into a modern factory, and around th
e world began rapidly buying up production lines with the highest quality at the time, approved for export to China.
Microelectronics industry of modern China — a great illustration of how inexpensively you can make a local small-scale production of screwdriver into a full-blown business world level, as a single country — a global manufacturer of any material benefits or almost any level of complexity.
However, it took several decades and a good combination of many other factors — from climate change to the features of mentality. In addition, it does not make China a manufacturer or processor of the latest production lines with the most precise process technologies. But, first, is not over yet (starting in the 1960s with the copy of the Soviet launch vehicles licensed in 2020s China seriously intends to open the first permanent settlement on the moon), and secondly, with multi-billion dollar revenue problem only with ambition, with the rest of the order.
But the main thing is not the point. Just imagine how many jobs are created, these are small, but numerous businesses throughout the country in which it has poured huge investment in the growth of an enterprise. Taking shape kopeck, small-scale steel plant as a result of the fact of what later grew dynamic Chinese economy with double-digit annual growth rates in percentages. Today, according to the Hurun Research Institute, only the official number of dollar millionaires in China reached one million, which is about one per 1,400 residents. Many of them at one time started in those notorious sheds nakolennoy assembly.
Russia — not China
And it is not Taiwan, and America. Over the centuries of Russian history is permeated by multiple "if", which normally end with unexpected "suddenly." The fact that the country has huge, huge potential just unpredictable, I hope nobody doubts. Being 70 years under the yoke not the most humane ideology and not of the good governance, as a multi-ethnic country, but virtually cut off from the world, Russia has stood in a terrible war, sent a man into space and, above all, for quite a long time, dispensed his own work in the field of semiconductor manufacturing.
The fact that the potential of the country more than once been undervalued by, just not scary. Bad if this potential is to be realized one day will be. Now, according to the Kondratieff wave theory, we are at the end of the 5th K-series, which was the hallmark of the rapid development of microelectronics, computing, robotics and telecommunications.
According to this theory, for the next 40 … 60-year-old wave of the global economy, which, in the opinion of some experts, has already begun, and in the opinion of others, will come in the next decade will be characterized by a completely new technological system, based on a joint bio-, nano — and information technology.
The beginning of this era can be seen in many areas of human activity more clearly. At the very least, since scientists learned how to clone living creatures, alternative energy solar and wind ceased to be fun, but people en masse began to abandon the printed newspapers and magazines in favor of online sources of information.
It is in times like these eras of technological breakthrough, at the junction of the classical sciences are new, completely unknown and hitherto unexplored scientific discipline and as a result, new industries. And with them — and the new global leaders in innovation, production and other aspects of global influence. So it was, when the steam has replaced coal, when cars replaced horse-drawn transport, where the organic chemistry of natural organic pressed and so on. For example, in the XIX century in the United States the biggest company, controlled the transport of goods across the country, was a railway Union Pacific. For a hundred years, there road transport, aviation, delivering cargo to any destination. A Union Pacific has remained the rail network.
You can, of course, firmly believe that the current industrial whales like Apple, Microsoft or Exxon will share the top spot in the list of global companies with the largest market capitalization before the end of time. But if one day they will see instead of the Russian firm "Pupkin & Sons" with a cure for HIV or any patent for stereoscopic screens on the basis of flexible transistors of graphite wire, do not be surprised. This has happened not once, not even once again.
Anticipating a barrage of criticism so optimistic statement, of course, it is worth to mention that the top business success in a global table of ranks are unattainable without major structural changes in the country, such as the improvement of the competitive and regulatory environment. We will not argue, this topic is worth a separate article, and yet do not forget that, in both existing and not the most pleasant for the Russian IT-business environment has arisen, for example, is a large international company as "Kaspersky Lab".
Changing technological era does not mean that the old leaders must disappear. Not at all, Mercedes will remain so even with electrical, ionic, or in any motor. And at the same time attack next, completely unpredictable era of unpredictable technology is bound to generate new geniuses and giants still unknown new industries. Lack of brilliant people in Russia has never been observed, except that the problems with the practical implementation of genius there.
The great thing about starting this new era — almost complete unpredictability. Of course, the cream of new technologies will take those seriously the investment genius and provide the best conditions. In addition, the chance is great that in the event of new branches of science and industry — those that occur now at the junction of the non-complementary disciplines and will continue to occur, as demand will be gone by the design and patents. But optionally. Take, for example, the story of the emergence and development of cellular communication — as the semiconductor industry giants simply missed the point. Or a more recent example — the screens of e-books with the technology of "electronic ink": few could have imagined that technology, on which he worked a small group of researchers, after adjusting the idea to a commercial state will disperse millions of copies, almost without encountering serious competition. Unless someone can predict the time and location of the new manifestations of genius scale Sergey Brin?
But here and now it’s not about financial success stories of fantastic singles, today we are trying to consider the future of the Russian semiconductor industry as a whole and assess the chances of Russia to its rightful place in the club of technologically advanced countries in the future. And if you look at the situation carefully, correctly assess inputs and, most importantly, do not give in to the hysterical cries of the missed moment, it turns out that the future of the country — it is not lost, it is still to come.
Moreover, in the future, which is prepared us unpredictable logic of technical evolution, especially in the newly discovered and not yet invented the fields of science and industry, Russian companies have a real chance to break off a big chunk of the global pie.
Try to look at from this point of view on his favorite topic Russian media — to enter the production line at the factory NIIME ("Micron") in compliance with the 90-nanometer manufacturing standards. From the very beginning it was clear that the introduction of the line-up — even ten, twenty of these lines — not able to change the global landscape in the semiconductor industry.
This line is sure to come in handy for the defense industry, for the GLONASS project, to raise the technical specialists of culture and refinement lithography for the following projects. But! It is necessary in this situation to spend time and money chasing a long forward leaders sped away, or all of it makes sense to concentrate efforts where from it will be a real benefit?
In contrast to the geography where almost no blind spots, the economic space of IT-industry is always open for those who want to succeed, and such in Russia every year it becomes more. For example, solutions for video processing Russian company "Elecard" is now used in Israeli drones.
Promising technology 3D-broadcast developed by Triaxes Vision — a subsidiary of "Elecard", now interested in the Russian government, the British broadcaster Sky and the BBC.
Another example — at first glance, because of the climate, much of the territory of Russia is not suitable for industrial production of solar energy farms. But look at the map of Russia insolation, and you will see that we have more sunny days than in Germany, which is leading in Europe by number of installed solar panels.
Domestic production of ready-made solar panels can operate not only on the domestic market, but also provide a good source of revenue from exports. And in this direction have already been taken serious steps — such as the company’s plant "Haveli" joint venture "RUSNANO" and the group of companies "Renova", launched into commercial operation is scheduled for next year.
For the future in this area — no end of research and work. Who knows, maybe this is our country will eventually become a leader in the production of concentrator solar modules with maximum efficiency as high as 40 percent, making the cost-effective production of solar energy even on the Russian space.
Tight competition in the semiconductor industry does not mean that this market is occupied. The examples do not have to go far: about gallium arsenide heterostructures super-bright LEDs manufactured by a group of companies "OptoGaN" heard everything.
Today, domestic production of LED technology virtually on the heels of the global industry leaders such as OSRAM and Cree, and the prospects of LED lighting market forecasts continued growth are described and numbers with many zeros. It is gratifying to see how the technology developed by disciples of the great Russian scientist Zhores Alferov — Odnoblyudovym, Bugrov and Bucket being introduced into production here in Russia, even though the time had almost been lost, and the technology miraculously remained first in Finland, then in Germany.
Replacing copper super high-speed fiber-optic communication interfaces at all levels — from vnutrichipovyh and local connections to the backbone — the nearest future.
Already, there are Russian manufacturers who are willing to take their rightful place in this niche. So, Connector Optics St. Petersburg company today has a production technology to produce high-speed (up to 40 Gbit / c) vertically emitting lasers and photodetectors spectral range of 850 nm.
Such controllers in the very near future, will take place in the interfaces of local area networks (LAN), storage networks (SAN), active optical cables for computer systems, and in the future optics will replace copper in household interfaces USB, HDMI, DisplayPort.
Currently, there are a decent list of unique advanced semiconductor technology, development of which was to commercialization — perhaps the first time in two decades — takes place in Russia. A striking example of this — the company Crocus Nano Electronics, a joint project of RUSNANO and French Crocus Technology for the production of Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM). Chips for MRAM, resistant to radiation and high temperatures — a great future in the space and defense industries, robotics, and in the long term — and in gadgets, cameras, laptops, as a reliable non-volatile memory. In such a specific product — their records of application of technological processes of production, at the time of the first Crocus moved to the 180-nm manufacturing process technology standards, and 130 nm strip was overcome as recently as 2008.
Factory under construction in Russia Crocus Nano Electronics since the launch will start producing MRAM chips of medium and high-density 90-nm process lithography, and the production lines originally designed for production of the next generation of magnetoresistive memory — the so-called TAS-MRAM (MRAM with thermal switch, Thermal Assisted Switching), the 65-nm process technology.
Today, Russia is also actively working on projects for the development and production of non-silicon semiconductors. And it is not necessarily carbon nanotubes and graphene, which, despite the constant noise around them, still can not come out of the laboratories in the production halls. It is about the very real projects for the production of finished products in very specific terms.
For example, a joint project of RUSNANO and Plastic Logic California to establish a production center in Russia plastic electronics worldwide. In the News and Publications 3DNews we often write about the future of flexible displays on plastic semiconductors, which will form the basis of a new class of electronic devices with a completely unexpected features and capabilities, but could we have imagined until recently that these advanced technologies will be developed that is in Russia?
A sample e-book with such a plastic display recently showed the head of RUSNANO Prime Minister Putin.