On different sides of the ideological fence

The life of the royal officers and generals, descended from one cultural environment, brought up in the same patriotic references, after 1917 often changed so abruptly that one can only wonder vicissitudes of their lives. Together with those curious to associate these lives with the lives of their loved ones, who, after the Revolution of 1917 stood on the other side of the fence from them, and were obliged immediately to fight against their own relatives same. Unfortunately, the Russian history of putting people close to the civilian choice — whether to remain committed to the standards of the Russian Federation and the royal leave to emigrate or become a follower of the latest Bolshevik power — on the long years split the family, making personal disaster as a sign of the overall big disaster all over the country …

Brothers Alex and Paul Ignatiev belonged to an ancient noble count's family. Their uncle, General Nikolai Ignatiev, was a renowned diplomat, Russian ambassador in Constantinople, a man of San Stefano, signed a contract, ending the Russian-Turkish war in 1877.

Alexey Ignatiev went home on the traditions on the military and diplomatic service. He was a military attaché in the countries of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, since 1912 — on diplomatic service in France.

Despite the fact that virtually all of Russian society was waiting for a very speedy victory of the Russian guns at the outbreak of the First World War — war podzatyanul by going from the active phase to the positional warfare. Prerequisites for this were different, and the most recent was a shortage of combat stocks.

To help the Russian military industry has come a Frenchman Andre Citroen (future big avtopromyshlennik, 10 years of the twentieth century, he was involved in the weapons industry). By 1915, near the waterfront of the river Javel, on a former cabbage field (just a couple of kilometers from the Eiffel Tower) Citroen has built factory for assembly-line production of shrapnel shells (caliber 75-mm). Andre Citroen did not refuse and Alex Ignatiev and his "Russian" military order.

For the purchase of the French royal government implements Ignatieff has been allocated funds denominated in 225 million gold francs, and Ignatieff was the only person who had the right to dispose of the municipal account of in the "Banque de France". After the 1917 revolution Ignatieff takes the money on your own personal account.

Revolutionary action and confusion plainclothes war in Russia at first not affected by Alexey Ignatiev to the same extent as it is indifferent to the Bolsheviks, and to the white movement. But a bit later he had still determine — and not for the benefit of snow-white movement in exile.

White Russians, counting on the fact that the king's general entire vast sum in those days will donate funds to fight with reddish Russia, were outraged by its position, expressed in a statement Ignatieff that he knows one own debt — to Russia, even if it is called a reddish and the funds will transfer only legitimate representative of the Russian government. Indeed, in 1924, Alex Ignatiev came to the reception to the Russian trade representative of the Russian Federation in France, Leonid Krasin and offered to give the money. He asked himself with all this the return of Russian citizenship and the ability to go back to Russia.

This act Alexey Ignatiev received universal condemnation not only from the society of white immigrants: from him disowned by his mother, Sophia S., and the native brother Paul even shot at him — this is what brings people split in the eye and beliefs (in fairness, it must be said that brotherly love could later melt the ice between Alexis and Paul, and Paul even said goodbye to the death of his brother) …

The fate of Paul Ignatieff before the revolution took shape is also fairly well in line with the military (and later intelligence) activities.

Paul Ignatieff brilliantly graduated from the Kiev high school, he studied at the St. Petersburg Institute (getting stuck licentiate of law). He served in the Hussars, and later enrolled in the Academy of the General Staff. During the First World War, Paul Ignatieff heads the command of a squadron of the 2nd Life Guards Hussar Regiment and with this regiment participated in all of the East Prussian campaign.

After a serious injury to his leg Paul Ignatieff had to leave the ranks of the army and voevashey address the issues of intelligence activities. For example, since 1915, he has been in Paris for the benefit of Russian intelligence, later became the head of the Russian mission to the Inter-Allied Bureau of the Ministry of War in France. After 1917, Paul Ignatieff remains in France and maintains White emigre movement (which, despite even a shot at the traitor brother, Paul takes a very cold). Pavel Ignatov died in 1931.

Alexey Ignatiev, the hero-millionaire, who returned to his homeland fortune, was able to return to Russia in 1937. In the USSR, Ignatieff repeatedly awarded the title of Major-General (now the Red Army). Works as a teacher at the Military Academy, engaged in editorial work in the Military, and one of the legends — specifically Alex Ignatiev belongs thought back to the Soviet army shoulder straps …

Unusual fate and 2-other brothers — brothers Svechin, courageous people, even hardened spirit of the royal army, but later dispersed on the beds of alternative-historical Russian roads.

Svechin belonged to ancient noble family. Misha finished 2nd Cadet Corps, Nikolaev Cavalry School, and was released in the rank of cornet in the Life Guards Her Majesty Cuirassier Regiment. Misha Svechin to 1917 successively moved from the rank of lieutenant to lieutenant general. After the revolution, Misha Svechin waging war as chief of the Consolidated Cavalry Division in the South-Western Front, he later became the commander of the 1st Cavalry Corps.

In December 1917, dressed in a soldier's uniform, Misha Svechin comes to the General Alekseev in Novocherkassk. In the spring of 1918 Svechin Obschedonskom involved in the uprising, after occupies the post of Chief of Staff of the Defence and the Chief of Staff of Novocherkassk South Task Force Don Army. Misha Svechin participated in the Paris Peace Conference in the diplomatic delegation from the Don Republic. Quite to leave Russia, he was obliged, in March 1920.

In exile, Misha Svechin lives in Serbia at first, and later in Germany, and quite settles in France, in Nice. While living abroad, Svechin not forgets about who he pochetaet Russian tradition — and participates in the activities of the Board of "Mutual Association former cadets Nicholas Cavalry School." Also Svechin head of the local branch of the Russian subdivision of the Company's Military Union (ROVS), the organization that united a huge amount of military alliances and immigrant communities. Engaged Svechin and writing activities — its military essays were published in the émigré journal "Military true story." Throughout his life and work Svechin outlined in the memoirs of "Memoirs of an old general of the past."

Alexander Svechin, like his brother, also finished 2nd Cadet Corps, then went to the Mikhailovsky Artillery School. In 1903 he finishes the Nicholas Academy of the General Staff of the 1st level and is to serve in the General Staff.

Waged war in the Russian-Japanese war, the 1st World, he joined the regiment commander, later — served in a large staffs, was orderly officer at the headquarters of the Supreme Glavnoklmanduyuschego, was the summary for The rates of the fighting and operations.

Misha took Svechin Bolsheviks once: "Until March 1918 I was a militant tuned to the October Revolution. But the coming of the Germans led me to suspend its own choice o
n the Russian side, "- as he himself wrote in his memoirs.

After joining the Army reddish, Svechin was appointed Chief of Staff of the All-Russian head. Later, Trotsky analyzed the Alexander Svechin as a major military spetsa royal army, his teacher assigns the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army.

Until now, it is difficult to appreciate the theoretical scientific contribution made by Alexander Svechin in military discipline. Moreover, it was he who predicted with remarkable accuracy the whole course of future second World War. Back in the 30s, he wrote that the first victim of Nazi aggression is Poland. Svechin claimed that Hitler was on hit will be driven not by economic motives (ie, do not perform at an economically developed regions of Ukraine), and the political. Because the brunt of the German troops will be in semi-agrarian Belarus — the shortest way to Moscow.

Another striking example of foresight Svechin future military actions was his proposed plan for the defense of Ukraine. The plan was, that actually surrendering without a fight right-bank part of the country (and save the human size of the army), — strengthen in the left bank, turning the Dnieper in real impassable tank "moat" of natural origin.

Yet, these military-strategic "prophecies" were not heeded the military command of the USSR, and is rumored to Svechinskaya criticism deployment of military-industrial industry in the West of the country and quite irritated Stalin. Logically, the first is the 30s over Alexander Svechin begin to thicken the clouds: in 1930, he was arrested in the case of the "National Center", but soon released. In 1931, he was arrested in the case have "Spring" (the common title repressive and punitive proceedings against the Red Army officers who served previously in the Royal Army) and allowed five years in the camps. Luck smiles Svechin and now — through year he was again released, and Alexander A. vorachivaetsya reddish Army.

Since 1936 Svechin serving in the Red Army General Staff, as the head of the department of military history, but soon he was again arrested — for the mention in his biography of sibling Misha. During the investigation, Alexander nothing has confessed, no one has mentioned. This arrest is fatal — soon Alexandra Svechin shot.

As can be seen from the story of these people, call them a happy life can be unlikely. With all the dissimilarity of their fate, the only thing that was common to them all — this is a great exorbitant love of country, service to which they were given (regardless of their own ideological views) itself completely.
Slozhidas hard fate of three brothers terry, immigrants from the Russian military extended family. Peter Basil and Nicholas from the youth beheld himself as a military.

Peter S. Capital Makhrov finished military school and the Nicholas Academy of the General Staff. Still studying at the Academy, Peter voluntarily sent to the front to make war with the Japanese — in the third Manchu army. Prior to the 1st World War, Peter S. as chief of staff of the 34th Division. Command of the 13th Siberian Rifle Regiment, distinguished himself Makhrov in 1917 in the battles on the direction of Riga, in the autumn of the same year (when he was already major general), he takes office as the Quartermaster General of the 12th Army. For heroism in the wars, has received many awards.

Since the beginning of the war plainclothes Peter Makhrov enter into a voluntary army, and intensely fighting against the Bolsheviks in the snow-white Army. The main activity was the management Makhrova military communications in the armies of Denikin, skin, Wrangel Island, in the leadership of which he was at various times during the war, civilian clothes. In 1920, Peter Makhrov emigrated to Poland, where he is engaged in resettlement and protection of Russian fighter, who was detained in Poland after signing a contract with the Russian Riga Russia. Since 1925 Makhrov settles in Paris, where he began the latest himself, full of problems and obstacles mundane life of a typical emigrant.

Surely life is far away from the homeland, he like every Russian officer, who gave her protection and health for many years, has left some mark on Peter Makhrova: his ideological stance of zero tolerance Bolshevik power over time transformed. He began to lean to the idea of mutual cooperation with Russian emigrants Russia supports the movement "volte-face", has traveled to lecture in defense of the Bolshevik government in France, and before the second World War appears even with a proposal for the development of Russian emigre battalions, which would lead War with the German aggressor. Of course, for most people emigre living areas this position Peter Makhrova was unacceptable, many accepted his call for cooperation with the Soviet Union as a personal insult, and until his own death in 1964, Peter Makhrov was, in general, the "black sheep" in the middle of emigrants .
Nicholas as well as brother, graduated from military school and the Nicholas General Staff Academy (the first level). Nicholas also waged war — since 1915 he is a senior adjutant at the headquarters of the 20th Corps. Nicholas Makhrov — one of those lucky ones who came out of the woods surrounding the August 1915 first (in the Mazury fight) led by Colonel V. von Dreyer. During his service in the Royal Army Nikolai Semenovich was promoted from cadet to major general of the Imperial army.

Unlike other 2-own brothers Nicholas Favourable attitude to the events of October 1917, and in 1918 and just went over to the Red Army, and soon received the title of Brigade Commander. Unusual case, but during the war plainclothes division Makhrova Nicholas stood at Tsaritsyn front of military units in which patrolled his brothers.

It is to this period of time is the episode described later in the memoirs of Peter Makhrova. At one point, during a short break in the fighting between the snow-white and reddish armies came to Peter Semenovich military doctor, who was captured by the Whites with news from Nikolai Semenovich. "Nikolai Semenovich asked to convey to you that he is suffering … without having the ability to join the Be ¬ mated … He commanded a brigade of the 28th Infantry Division, which operates in the north ¬ a Tsaritsyn against the army of General Wrangel. In one of the last battles of Nikolai Semenovich I was warned that he decided to go for a hundred ¬ Ron snow-white. Here he gave me the order to convey to you and your brother Vasily own greetings and say that he can not go because Danilovna wife Natalia and daughter Tamara volume ¬ revealed hostages … It is used as a military "experts", and to put it under ¬ Commissioner, who looks after his every move, "- this was the essence of the news brief.

Generally, Nikoday Makhrov grieved coercion separation from his brothers. About this provides at least the fact that even in times of peace, in the 20s and 30s he managed through the International Reddish Cross to send letters to the brethren that at the time the Soviet Union was dangerous enough.

Vasily Makhrov — also a native of the Russian army and the royal monarchy of standards after the revolution has not given up fighting the Bolsheviks in the ranks of the well-known Drozdovskaya Division, which operated in the Kuban. After the defeat of white troops Basil had to emigrate and the rest of his life in Tunisia.

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