Tale of ten million
Berazhkou Valentin, a former translator of Stalin, resulting in his memoirs the following conversation between Stalin and Churchill.
"- Tell me — asked Churchill — the voltage of the current war is as difficult for you personally, as well as the burden of the policy of collectivization?
— Oh, no, — said the "father of nations" — the policy of collectivization was a terrible struggle …
— I thought so. After all, you do not have to deal with a handful of aristocrats and landowners, and with millions of small farmers …
— Ten million — said Stalin, and raised his hands. — It was scary. And lasted for four years. But it was absolutely necessary for Russia to avoid starvation and to the village of tractors.
Named Stalin figure repressed during the collectivization of the peasants about the same as that which has recently been mentioned in the Soviet press … "
The last phrase immediately makes wary questioning the veracity of the conversation. At a time when memoirs were published in the Soviet press published anything until the candid tales, and any arbitrarily large number of repressed necessarily be matched with anything. But now the true figures were known, and in reality, Stalin called number does not match with any known data. If a chief spoke about the farmers in general — that farms were not 10, but 25 million if a wealthy hosts — there were about a million of those, if a dispossessed — even less. In addition, it is impossible to believe that Stalin believed collectivization more difficult test than the war against Hitler. And where does the production of tractors, and did not understand — it is not dependent on the dispossession way.
Why is a memoir in this episode — clearly. In those days, when the archival sources were not available, it was based on the whole theory of destruction of the peasantry. In keeping with the propertied liberal worldview (that is, the richer the person, the more he is a man, and the poor and not the people as well, dirt) collectivization was declared a triumph bums and drunks and destruction of hard hard-working farmers, salt of the earth Russian. But if the true statistics of dispossession result, the earth turns a very much unsalted. And even the fiercest haters Russia still felt declare 98% of the rural population of the state loafers and drunks — it’s overkill. That’s 60% — already roll.
The fact that the remaining "drunks and bums", giving the best workers of the industry and the social sphere, in record time, deluged the country bread, appears out of the brackets. Well, that preceded the dispossessed, we generally silent death.
At the end of the article "The kulaks as a class" we have asked the question whether a fist put up with the loss of food resources? A rhetorical question, for it is clear that not reconcile. With so humbled not any living creature. And slipping even generations later, fierce hatred "spravno men" to "beggar" (see at least the preceding discussion of materials, there are plenty of examples) is under a do not regret the lost iron-roofed houses, horses and cows. About them too, of course — but hatred born earlier. Then, when the "hicks" began to coalesce into the farm, receive preferential government assistance and no longer need the rustic "benefactor" and, therefore, cut down at the root of the tree, which grew its revenues.
Discussion of the article "The kulaks as a class" showed that the opinion of the Fist as a sturdy "family" host (perhaps with laborers), injected into the Russian mass consciousness in the 90s, it is extremely stable. Although even the dictionary Dahl says something quite different.
Dahl’s hard to fault in sympathy with the communist ideas. Chronicler of Russian village AN Engelhardt also is in no way a communist. Here is what he wrote in his "Letters from the village" of this category of rural residents.
"Of all the" Happy Corner "only in the village of B. is a real fist. This earth, nor the economy, nor labor does not like this only loves money. This is not to say that he was ashamed, when he went to bed, do not feel pain in the hands and feet, that, on the contrary, says: "Working like fools", "fool Works and clever with his hands in his pockets and walked about but turn their brains . " It flaunts his fat belly, brags that he is working a little, "I have all the debtors bevel sozhnut and put in the barn." This land is engaged in a fist so-so, by the way, does not expand the economy, does not increase the number of cattle, horses, no plows the land. It all rests not on the ground, not on the economy, not on labor, and capital, which he sells, which distributes in interest-bearing debt. His idol — money, the multiplication of which he only thinks … He admits this capital increase, and this is called a "roll over brains." It is clear that the development of its activities it is important that the farmers were poor, the needy, should turn to him for loans. He beneficial to peasants occupied the land that he panoval with their money. "
This is what a fist had in mind "all-Russian elder" MI Kalinin, and all the Soviet government when it was on their Destruction — but, mind you, not physically, but "as a class." And before that for a long, long thought a few years thought even debated — is it possible to make a fist to the farm? As long as he did not tell his fist loaded word.
And that is why it is said, too, have said Engelhardt: "For the development of his work, he takes to the peasants were poor." Not for nothing in the so-called "prokulak" — "group influence" fist — there were, as a rule, the poor villagers, middle peasants there turned out to be rare. The middle peasant — ant independent, some bread in the spring will not ask, and the poor — where to go?
And when there were farms that have cooperated in the first place poor, fist began to get nervous. And when it has gone collectivization, he ozlilsya seriously.
From the report informotdela OGPU of collectivization in the Ukraine. October 1929:
"Kulaks Antikolhoznaya activity in recent months has intensified over the place … especially antikolhoznoy kulak agitation for the last period is to increase the spread provocative rumors of imminent war and violence inevitable with all the collective farmers. "Soon there will be war, and if they do not come from the farm, then you settle up at the change of power in the first place" (fists former. Volyn region). "Soviet power will soon end, at the latest two months will be a war, all the collective decay, some will be destroyed by fire" (Proskurovsky District). Bullying kulaks collective and individual farmers who intend to enter into collective farms, emergency war and change of power is particularly strong in the common border and the border areas …
Widely used throughout the kulaks in their fight against the collectivization of shortcomings in the harvesting, crop distribution and wages in the collective farms and the existing gap between conventional or market prices for a / v products. "
But this is all, however, the flowers. Agitation also heightened by the terrorist attacks. In early 1930, the leadership of the OGPU, summarizing and analyzing the data from the field, raised the alarm. In 1926, throughout the Soviet Union were 711 terrorist attacks in 1927 — 901, in 1928 — 1027, and in 1929 — 8278 bombings …
Information from the f
ield is starting to resemble more and more reports of fighting. That’s just the tip of the iceberg — a summary of Ukraine about the most notorious court cases, made on the basis of letters in the "Peasant newspaper" and newspaper articles. As you might guess, publish only the most typical cases.
"Extraordinary Session Priluky okrsuda sentenced to death eight members of the kulak terrorist gang …
Kiev court considered the case of the attack on the commune kulak "Zirka" in s. Roslavitsah, five kulak ringleaders were sentenced to imprisonment for six years …
Dnepropetrovsk district court has considered in a. Buguslave murder case fists Komsomol activist Andrei Boiko. As it turned out on the court, the decision to kill Boyko was taken by local fists in a secret meeting. At the same meeting, they decided to kill the peasant activist and candidate of the party Lukyanov. The second murder, however, failed. Two fists of the murder, sentenced to death, the other two — to 10 years in prison …
In Vinnitsa district in s. New nettle fielding session okrsuda sentenced to death four-fist leader who killed a peasant-nezamozhnitsu, a member of the electoral commission …
Belotserkovskim okrsudom sentenced to death for attempting B. Bereznuk on a rural correspondent. Sokolki …
At the Kiev region, in the village. Shitovetskom heard the case of fists, brutally killed the villager-activist Melnychuk. The court sentenced four immediate murderers to death …
In p. Salt Farms in Volyn rural activist killed, Nezamozhnik Levkura. The murder was committed with his fists. The investigation is ongoing … "
The situation is aggravated by the fact that the Soviet authorities after the war, trying to put an end to the split in society, today announced the broadest amnesty, not only members of the White movement, but the bandits. Those, of course, from the amnesty did not refuse — but not all going to lay down their arms. A lot of stubborn enemies, selling in the villages, were only waiting for hours — and have now decided that the time is approaching. Actually, the past-then nothing — less than ten years.
According to the Troops, for 1929 by the Soviet Union in 1190 there were cases of mass action (1926-1927. — 63, 1928 — 709). In 1929, in the village were arrested 95,208 people, destroyed 255 counterrevolutionary organizations, groups 6769 and 281 gang. Already the beginning of 1930 showed that the process has gone on increasing.
Premonition of Civil War
However, and rural activists were not too dumb and defenseless sheep.
Yuri Mukhin in the article "The most infamous famine" brings memories of one of the paper’s authors "Duel" AZ Lebedintseva of his own peasant childhood in the Kuban. "Their farm in the 20’s was created 60 families moved out of the village on the serviceability of distant lands. In the 29 th year of the farm set up immediately and went into it all. At the same time, were attacked by a gang kulak, and in a combat encounter two fighters of farm self-defense detachment were killed. Campaigning against the collective farms was terrible, and the farm in the village itself, in fact, until 1933, and has not been created. "
That is, on the one hand — the gang, and on the other, except for the police and Chong, and even self-defense groups, armed and very dangerous too. Weapons same, since the war, the village had a huge amount.
Security officers said that in 1929 there were very specific trends. Dramatically intensified a variety of opponents of Soviet power — not only his fists, but the former thugs and gang leaders, the White Guards, SR’s even got out of the slots into which hid after the Civil War. But Revolutionaries — no parliamentary babblers, this is the main terrorist Party of the Russian Empire. In some places, this public for greater efficiency of the coming struggle, beginning in advance to move underground.
By 1930, all of these people were to be consolidated into one anti-government kernel: fists, former officers, nationalists, gangsters. Given the fact that many former front-line officers of the First World War, became the Whites, and then bandits were the sons and brothers of the kulaks, the bow, I think, was easy and relaxed.
Unfolding totally crazy campaign (and skillful propaganda in troubled times, sometimes more dangerous gun), they are all over the place trying to create mass organizations in the villages.
In January 1930, the OGPU reported:
"The activities, forms and methods of operating in the 1929 counter-revolutionary organizations and groups are as follows:
1. The composition advantageously kulak White Guard and the gangster, the presence of a significant number of officers connected with the earth, and non-commissioned officers and the white Petliurist armies.
2. Much better organization, the strictest secrecy, strict personal selection, more deliberate recruitment (recruited "reliable", "offended", infringed the Soviets).
3. The large scale of the organization, while the coverage of several areas of the county; communication with other districts and counties strictly conspire, established through the dedicated, proven people.
4. The widespread desire to arm themselves or by buying weapons, or by capturing it …
5. Great expectations … counterrevolutionary organizations and groups in the Red Army, especially territorial, as "a source of arms" organizations in the uprisings and even how to "help the rebels."
6. The desire to contact with foreign countries. Making walkers to establish connections with foreign centers of the counter-revolution … Creating centers abroad … subversive rebel and bandit organizations in Byelorussia, the Ukraine … "
According to the Troops, anti-government forces openly took the course of an armed uprising.
"Counter-revolutionary groups of the last period as in composition, particularly on the nature of its activities are significantly different … If earlier groups were formed only on the basis of re-election campaign under the slogan" We draw in their advice "(1925, 1926)., If grouping in 1927 and especially in 1928 occurred mainly in the period of economic campaign aims to failure and resistance to these campaigns, the counter-revolutionary group in 1929 … are sufficiently pronounced insurgent cells. "
Given the fact that in the west bordering on the Soviet Union so cute States, such as Poland and Romania, in the north — with no less "friendly" tuned Finland, and in the Far East — with Japan, obstanovochka evolved quite funny.
But the rebels opposed to the future, not only the police and the army. In rural councils, party and Komsomol cells, committees of the poor, self-defense groups, too, had a gun, and their hopes for a bright and well-fed life they were going to defend seriously. What’s Antonov? Antonov actually walked the defenseless province, where the structure of the red just forming. And now they are going to be strong, and do not have to take the position fists.
Next to that was brewing in the country, the civil war was just a walk in the moonlight …
In the spring of 1930 the constitutional head of the USSR MI Kalinin spoke of dispossession: "No matter how brutal it seems … but this measure is necessary because it provides the healthy development of the collective body in the future, it insures us against the many costs and a huge waste of human lives in the future."
Once again, from a huge waste of human lives in the future. Has anyone thought of how many lives could have cost Power preservation of the existing order of things? I was trying to figure: in the best case, the output number that is comparable to the losses in th
e Great Patriotic War. Not to mention the fact that without the collectivization and we would not have won the war — with all the attendant consequences laid down in the terms of "the East."
But … in fact "all-Russian elder" disingenuous, issues need for virtue. The Soviet government while often not guided events, and went after them, especially in the peasant question, which of the Kremlin leaders and understood something truly one Kalinin (the others were citizens). Field workers did not consider it necessary to wait for guidance before acting — and they acted like they prompted revolutionary conscience and community-based orders. And by 1930, when it was made famous resolution of dispossession, on the ground long process already well under way.
Back in early September 1929 Kolhoztsentr reported to the Central Committee that Chapaevsky area skirmishers collectivization, it is expected eviction of the kulaks. As, however, to be expected — the first there, first and here.
Then I started the event. Here is one of them. September 8 at a meeting of the villagers Pokrovki farmers demanded eviction fists. In the evening, the village on fire — in such a way that affected primarily the collective-farm property. Burned 15 houses and a barn with feed 3 million tons of grain. Reminder: it is at least a major, but only one of the 8278 terrorist attacks recorded in 1929.
On the further you can, unfortunately, only guess. If the farm is weak, hence, collective farmers Pogorevshikh family scattered among relatives and neighbors. If the strong — the next day to grow roots at home fists were evicted without any judgments. And if a strong and angry, and it could screw up the perpetrators of trouble fork or hacked to death. Lynching in the Russian village phenomenon was common, and arsonists, according to the laws of the community, waiting for fast and heavy sentence.
Burn fists until it does not burned — but were evicted very active. At the Irkutsk district for 1929 dispossessed around 25% of the kulak farms. Tatar Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) passed a resolution to evict fists on October 1, 1929. And as the worst land assigned them everywhere. How to react fists — described in the previous excerpt: arson, murder, gang raids. In Moscow, the requests from all over flocked to solve somehow "kulak" question, have not yet started a bloody clash. What it’s all over, for some reason no doubt. And in fact, the role of the CPSU (b) in the dispossession is not challenging. On the contrary, the party of his authority introduced the process at least in some limits: not to kill, but to evict not burn down the house with all the inhabitants, and to confiscate the farm. What with the hatred throwing fists of the villages shows that up to indiscriminate killings remained very close.
Beginning in the villages and counties, the process by January reached the level of regional and national authorities, who, one region after another, made the decision about the total dispossession. Mid-Volga Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) issued a decision on January 20, Lower Volga Regional Committee — January 24, the Central Black Earth region — January 27, the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine — January 28, North-Caucasian Regional Committee — January 29 …
By mid-February, for example, in the Middle Volga region was expropriated 25 million households — about half of the kulak farming region. And do not just say that they began after the decision of the Central Committee of the 30th of January. If the initiative really came from the top, by the time the decision would have crawled through the corridors of the party bureaucracy. The corridors, unfortunately, crept very different issue — the directive on the organization of the OGPU preparation of mass evictions. Here they lagged hopelessly.
An environment in which all this is happening, it is easy to guess. That’s only one message OGPU
"Krivoy Rog district. In … with. Clay Dolinskogo area when removing the property from the fist Zilevskogo authorized Tonkoshurova last hit in the head. Authorized revolver shot killed the fist …
Nicholas County. In the area … Bashtansky while returning from a meeting between the villages of the district Konstantinovskaia and Grits were fired from shotguns punched several chairmen of POPs, one of the chairmen of wounded in the head.
Kharkov District. January 21 general meeting of peasants. FEDOROVKA was decided to cannibalize 12 kulak farms. On the second day, a crowd of peasants in 400 people., Mostly the poor and middle peasants, with red flags under the supervision of an authorized Rica, the chairman and members of the village council and Souza went to the planned kulak farms.
Approaching the huts kulaks, peasants broke into his house and took away the property first, driving them into a single room. During the operation, one of the members of the Sousa made dekulakize throw off a good cover, a cap, and immediately put on all by yourself. Fists, it was announced that within three days, they can leave who wants to.
Chairman Rick, who tried to give dispossessed organized, could not do anything because of extreme excitement of the peasants … ".
Sometimes all you want: and the women and children were thrown from their homes in the night to the frost, and looting, and recorded in the lists of those who did not like the boss or fellow villagers … What to do, other people in the Soviet Union was not, which left a legacy for the blessed The Russian Empire, and loiter with … The poor had intended to pay not only with his fists, but with each "spravno master", who looked at it as the dirt under their feet, and each party member with a revolver considered himself a power that has the right to punish and pardon; yes and the ability to get on the cheap good stuff was terrible temptation for those evenings when Luchini put tenth patch on torn boots. Sorry for the kids? And our in the spring, during the famine spared?
The fate of the dispossessed wonder. Let them go on all four sides. They were — women and children by relatives, men — in gangs. Or in the city, which is also the authorities did not like, because accidents in factories and construction sites were already high, and then there is not painful enough — so this is sabotage. And seeing such a thing, and the rest of his fists that smarter, sold off farms, and even destroyed, and submitted to the city. Have they become more loyal? What do you think?
Not the beginning and the end
But back to the dispossessed. In late January, the process finally came to Moscow. January 30, 1933 was made famous resolution. In particular, it said:
"In the areas of complete collectivization carried out immediately, but in other areas as does the mass deployment of collectivization, the following activities:
- Cancel in the areas of complete collectivization on individual farms to the laws of the land lease and use of hired labor in agriculture … The exceptions to this rule with respect to middle peasants district executive committees should be regulated under the guidance and supervision of the District Executive Committee.
- Confiscate the kulaks these areas means of production, livestock, farm and residential buildings, processing plants, feed and seed supplies.
- At the same time in order to decisively break the power of the kulaks on certain sections of the poor and middle peasantry and the absolute suppression of any attempt on the part of the counter-revolutionary opposition fists the Soviet authorities and the collective farms to take measures against the kulaks following measures:
a) The first category — the counterrevolutionary kulak immediately liquidate the asset by entering into a concentration camp, not stopping against the organizers of the terrorist attacks, counter-revolution
ary and guerrilla organizations before applying the highest measure of repression;
b) The second category should make the rest of the kulak elements of an asset, especially from the wealthiest fists and polupomeschikov to be expelled to remote areas of the USSR and within a given region in the remote areas of the province;
c) The third category consists of the area within the left in his fists, which are subject to the new resettlement allocated to them outside of the collective farm plots.
The amount of liquidated by each of the three categories of kulak farms should be strictly differentiated by region, depending on the actual number of kulak farms in the area, so that the total number of liquidated enterprises in all major areas averaged about 5.3%. Real designation (3-5%) is intended to focus on the really kick kulaks and of course to prevent the spread of these activities on any part of the middle peasants …
Shipped … and settle fists with confiscation of property they should be left to only the most essential household items, some of the basic means of production in accordance with the nature of their work in a new place and needed the first time a minimum of food stocks. Cash deported kulaks and confiscate the abandonment, however, in the hands of a fist to a minimal amount (up to 500 rubles. Per family) required for travel and equipment in place. "
Those who are left in place, could save you the cost of production in the minimum amount necessary for farming — that is, from the fists they turned to lower-middle peasants. By the way, thereby obtaining the opportunity to prove in practice that the fist — not an exploiter, and a particularly hard-working farmer.
The confiscated property was transferred to the collective farms as fees and poor laborers, farmers are more haves constantly reproached, but credited to the indivisible fund — that is, they were not allowed to go out with that property from the farm. In turn, the collective farms that have received land and property had to sow it and all the commercial products of the land to hand over to the state.
In general, nothing unique in these measures do not. Normal nationalization, except that no nation-wide and parish scale. And the expulsion of disloyal citizens in remote places practiced since the days of the Pharaohs (in particular, it was very common in the Russian Empire).
"… The Central Committee strongly indicates that these measures should be in organic connection with a truly massive collective-farm movement of the poor and the middle and be inseparable part of the process of collectivization. CC strongly warns against available in some areas of the facts by the substitution of the mass collectivization naked dispossession …
Central Committee emphasizes that all of these activities should be carried out on the basis of maximum deployment initiatives and broader collective activity, primarily of farm laborers, poor peasants, the masses and with their support. Decisions on the confiscation of property and eviction of the kulak fists should be preceded by resolution of the general meeting of the members of the collective farm and the farm laborers and poor peasants meeting … "
That’s why there was so much wrong and dispossessed that the decision was not "Vikings" from the district or province, and local gatherings. That pile up expelled from villages all those who did not like the "society." And that is why on the ground and left as many fists — if not sentenced descent, who will send it?
Despite the … "terrible" stories, the operation was not such a mass, as is commonly thought. By the end of 1930 the Soviet Union was dispossessed by about 400 thousand households — that is, about 40-50% of all available for 1927 fists. Of those expelled, by the way, not so much — only 77,975 families. According to the taxation by the fall of 1930 the country was still about 350 thousand kulak farms. Definitely not counted, but not less than 20% fists fled. Passports did not yet exist, and a certificate from the village council is easy to buy or forge.
Cannibalization continued in 1931, will end only in 1932. How many were evicted? Summary statistics of the OGPU calls the exact number: 381,026 families a total of 1,803,392 people (that is 4.5 persons per household). So, as you can see, the stories of the many exiled to the North "labor" with a dozen families, children are greatly exaggerated. It is also unclear whether included in this number is wrong dispossessed, who were later released and returned to the property (and there, according to an audit in 1930, it was in different areas from 20% to 35%). It is about one and a half percent of farms. The rest of the kulaks had — the worst — to take up the plow handles.
However, many forward-thinking fists in time to reduce its assets were in collective farms. It has become an important factor contributing to the famine of 1932-1933.
writer-historian Elena Prudnikova