PAK FA is in the details


So, we already know that the Soviet Union fifth-generation fighter developed simultaneously with similar developments in the U.S. but prevented the collapse of the country to carry out his plan. 


Lost if this work for nothing? No. Of course, developed in those years planes did not go to series, but because as a result of this work received many advantages.

First, a huge amount of research and development work, accumulated a wealth of experience, which is still here.

Secondly, because this work were employed not only Mikoyan and Sukhoi. Working on new aircraft and research institutions TsAGI Aviation Materials, CIAM, CIATIM and engine builders, developers and radar and a huge number of institutions, CB, company. After all, the aircraft involved in the production of thousands of subcontractors, and each of them has received his assignment.

Third, despite the secrecy, Russian specialists have followed with interest the progress of the development and testing of "Raptor" by the Americans. After all, someone else’s experience, successful or not, is any guide competent professionals, and besides, it is clear what exactly should confront your next plane, to aspire to, that he was superior to the enemy.

So when in 1998 the designers have again obtained the terms of reference for the development of a fifth generation fighter (in their requirements, it is not too different from the former), they were already ready-made options conceptual designs in each size. Without going into details, I will say that in the job were again two aircraft — light and heavy, also considering the option of an "average" fighter and vertikalkoy option. And once again decided that the role of PRL may come MiG-35 variant vertikalkoy postponed for the future, as a result of staying on with the Sukhoi PAK FA (aka T-50, also known as Su-50).

What was he like? Some journalists from the tabloid claims that this stupid copy of the American Raptor. I must say that this is not the case. Aerodynamics specialist, it can be seen immediately, but anyone interested in this is obvious, especially if you compare the two aircraft when viewed from the side: very short, with huge keels Raptor and flat, long PAK FA. Next, consider the differences in detail.

Even if just a little thought: the plane was designed precisely to exceed Raptor, otherwise why do we need it? And it is not only controlled the domestic Department of Defense, but also Indian, as a joint project, and they wasted so much money to spend will not. And because the opportunities Raptor have long been known, and even then did not have to guess. I should add that the Indian representatives put forward a very strict requirements for the aircraft, and very hard to defend them. They agreed to cooperate only when the exhaustively acquainted with the project and convinced of its prospects.

What is it different? A lot of interesting features.

I will say for the moment that in the comments to the previous article, as well as in the census on other sites and Learn, sound insistence compare the features of the PAK FA and the Raptor, and along with their number of pilots flying and other details. As if the United States is already at war with Russia. Guys, I’ll tell you a secret terrible things: first, nor the Raptor will not be able to fly to Russia, nor the PAK FA to the United States. And if it comes to a direct confrontation, we should not compare the fighters, and strategic missiles and missile defense capabilities. Although such a comparison is again not like the supporters of the U.S., as even the ancient "Satan", a resource which recently extended, the U.S. is still no protection. "Star Wars" SDI were fakie, and on the European missile defense is no money and no brains already. Available as strategic weapons in the United States is rapidly falling apart: The catastrophic degradation. Pay attention to the comments, there communicate educated professionals, and they are clearly "in the subject."

However, some American journalists fairly amused, saying that the great and terrible, the F-35 will patrol over Poland and shoot down Russian ballistic missiles launched somewhere in the Urals, but there can only envy zaboristoy the grass, which they smoke. How many kilometers from Poland to the Urals? What a rocket capable of such range? A F-35 it will raise? And how much it will fly to the Urals? Or chase the "Satan" to Washington itself, and with it fall to the goal?

Well, compare the features of planes? Yes, why not! Only prevents this secrecy, and therefore not too cling to these: that Raptor, the PAK FA that they are taken, of course, from public sources.

So the first difference — it’s maneuverability. Saved it, despite the stringent requirements for stealth, which are at variance with the aerodynamics. In this case, applied new solutions that are not found in the Raptor, or in any other aircraft. This, for example, turning part of the influx of the wing, ie, the influx plays a role not only of the vortex generator, but the canards. This solution reduces visibility.

Engines are separated (at Raptor they are close by). This allows a greater flexibility and at the same time frees up more space for internal weapons bays. Ventral tunnel therebetween increases the lifting force, and the maneuverability is maintained even at high altitudes. At the same time, enhance the vitality of diversity engines in the event of battle damage or a fire engine.

Another original solution — engines are not parallel, and at a slight angle to each other (damn, once a long time staring at the pictures until convinced that this is not an optical illusion. As usual direction of the jet vserakursny compensated by turning the nozzle, and case of failure or combat damage to one engine, this arrangement allows for a more confident to keep in the air. This photo clearly shows that this is not an optical illusion, at the same time visible and compartments for weapons and hinged part influx of wings:

The plane — two oblique keel, like the Raptor. But here, too, new items: first, they are much smaller in size, which reduces visibility, and secondly, they are all-moving, separate rudder turn there. This, too, for stealth. Furthermore, they also play the role of air brakes, that is, misaligned may deviate in different directions. No separate brake is needed, which reduces weight.

That I am not caught in praise of our, I would say that with the keels left puncture. Too many new things: the all-moving, and can serve as an air brake, and a small area, which is compensated by the lack of automation, and made of carbon fiber (it is lighter in weight and better for stealth) and their method of installation is pretty crafty … As a result of the strength of the keels was insufficient and then Air Force Commander Mikhailov said that the decision not to enhance them, and to limit the maximum speed of the PAK FA to 2M (about 2125-2400 km / h — not known how high this figure is implied) instead of 2.15 M in terms of reference and more — really. I was still surprised: OK, let’s say that the military against their commander in c
hief does not trample, although it is not a fact, too, like the designers do not really need to hang back, but what about the Indians? It seems that they are still opposed: February 13, 2012 Air Force Commander Colonel General Alexander Zelin said that a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the Russian fifth generation fighter T-50 with the U.S. F-22 and Chinese J-20 shows that the T-50 superior to their foreign counterparts at the maximum flight speed (like afterburner and besforsazhny), maximum range, thrust-weight ratio, the maximum realizable value of overload, less the value of start and run, and looks better than their foreign counterparts on the characteristics of airborne equipment.

I should add that to slip into the U.S. press report, if Raptor reached a speed of 2.6 M is not true. With unregulated in the classical sense reptorovskimi intakes is possible in principle, moreover, at such speeds are significantly begins to act thermal barrier (heating aircraft from air friction at a speed in excess of 300 degrees), and no aluminum or carbon fiber did not survive.

About maintainability, and even more so — about the price of aircraft and not talking.

ENGINES.

From a flat nozzle abandoned in favor of super-maneuverability. In this case, the visibility in the rear hemisphere theory becomes worse, but look at the Raptor shooting in camera: not too much and it saves, to put it mildly.

Air intakes, as in Raptor, curved in two planes, i.e., blades engines locators are not visible. According to others, they are not too curved, and will be located in front of the shoulder blades a special device — radar-blocker. Now PAK FA is flying on one of the versions of the AL-41F engines. They have less traction than those that are currently being tested and will be installed normally, but all of the requirements for the fifth generation are carried out even with them. The new engine will not only have higher thrust, but also better efficiency. Although the Russian economy has surpassed the U.S. engines, beginning with a pair of Su-27 and F-15. The specific characteristics of the fuel consumption is difficult to look for, but that’s circumstantial evidence:
The first value of the PAK FA, the second — the F-22
Normal take-off weight: with 100% of the fuel: 30610 kg kg/30206
Fuel weight: 11,100 kg kg/9367
Operational range: 4,300 km km/2500

Of course, fuel consumption decreases more and better compared to the Raptor aerodynamics, but neither she nor greater margin of 1.7 tons of fuel alone do not provide such an impressive difference in the distance.

By the way, worked out a lot of modifications like this, and a new engine, with enhanced features, reduced weight, etc. All of them are designated differently (AL-41, Type-30, 117-product, product-129-133 product, the project "The Demon", etc.), and to understand this is not too easy. Again, remember the sigh in a U.S. aviation magazine: "The notation Sukhoi horrified bourgeois analysts."

New — plasma ignition system that allows you to get rid of the oxygen feeding the engine is started, even at high altitude.

WEAPON.

By itself, a fighter can be as good, but without weapons, he is worthless. Let’s see what the designers have prepared? Set pretty extensive.

For melee — gun, 30 mm. Internal bays for bombs and missiles — two, their length of over 5 meters each. There you can "hide" from 6 to 12 bombs or missiles. In addition, you can install up to six external hardpoints. Consider what can bring the PAK FA.

But first, a little about the different types of missiles. The first rockets were unguided, aiming for their start-up had to be using the same scope as the cannon / machine guns. They came at us during the Great Patriotic War, bringing terror to the Germans better than the famous "Katyusha", but their descendants Nursi (unguided rocket), or NAR, used up to now, more often by helicopter. Everyone has seen probably starters in the form of cylinders with a few holes for the rocket, it’s just they are.

Then came onboard radars, or, more precisely, radar interception and targeting, and with them — and the radio-controlled missiles. The pilot on the radar screen captures target, moving closer to her before launching range missiles, lights signal "PR" — start-up is enabled, press the trigger, the missile leaves the pylon, but we continue to keep the enemy on the radar screen. In this case, a narrow radar beam is directed at him, and the rocket is on the beam. It was only when she reaches out to such an extent that they no longer promazhesh, signal lights "lapel" — you can pass the buck. Sometimes it’s dangerous, if the goal — the eyeballs laden bomber or tanker. Jerk can so that you would get splinters.

Defend against such missiles trying shooting clutter, simple strips of foil packs. In the hope that the radar beam will lose aircraft and will follow the ribbons. In response locators have become sort of speed target to ignore low-speed, and take other measures to combat interference.

Should develop a homing missile. Their heat seeker (TGSN) feels the heat from the engine of the enemy. Approach each other, the lamp lights "G" — the capture of heads, which means that the missiles saw the goal, start-up — and you can immediately get out. This is called the principle of "fire — forgotten." It is interesting to smoke near a rocket and see how GSN watching your cigarette. At first, something not very nice to see

They are protected, firing flares, everyone has seen the footage on TV, when the plane takes off from such a "fireworks".

And then there were missiles targeting a variety of ways, including multi-channel, which is not so easy to fool. I will not explain in detail: too much space it takes. So:

1. Primary Weapon — HAEDAT, the missile "air-air" long range.


    Air intakes, as in Raptor, curved in two planes, i.e., blades engines locators are not visible. According to others, they are not too curved, and will be located in front of the shoulder blades a special device — radar-blocker. Now PAK FA is flying on one of the versions of the AL-41F engines. They have less traction than those that are currently being tested and will be installed normally, but all of the requirements for the fifth generation are carried out even with them. The new engine will not only have higher thrust, but also better efficiency. Although the Russian economy has surpassed the U.S. engines, beginning with a pair of Su-27 and F-15. The specific characteristics of the fuel consumption is difficult to look for, but that’s circumstantial evidence:
    The first value of the PAK FA, the second — the F-22
    Normal take-off weight: with 100% of the fuel: 30610 kg kg/30206
    Fuel weight: 11,100 kg kg/9367
    Operational range: 4,300 km km/2500

    Of course, fuel consumption decreases more and better compared to the Raptor aerodynamics, but neither she nor greater margin of 1.7 tons of fuel alone do not provide such an impressive difference in the distance.

    By the way, worked out a lot of modifications like this, and a new engine, with enhanced features, reduced weight, etc. All of them are designated differently (AL-41, Type-30, 117-product, product-129-133 product, the project "The Demon", etc.), and to understand this is not too easy. Again, remember the sigh in a U.S. aviation magazine: "The notation Sukhoi horrified bourgeois analysts."

    New — plasma ignition system that allows you to get rid of the oxygen feeding the engine is started, even at high altitude.

    WEAPON.

    By itself, a fighter can be as good, but without weapons, he is worthless. Let’s see what the designers have prepared? Set pretty extensive.

    For melee — gun, 30 mm. Internal bays for bombs and missiles — two, their length of over 5 meters each. There you can "hide" from 6 to 12 bombs or missiles. In addition, you can install up to six external hardpoints. Consider what can bring the PAK FA.

    But first, a little about the different types of missiles. The first rockets were unguided, aiming for their start-up had to be using the same scope as the cannon / machine guns. They came at us during the Great Patriotic War, bringing terror to the Germans better than the famous "Katyusha", but their descendants Nursi (unguided rocket), or NAR, used up to now, more often by helicopter. Everyone has seen probably starters in the form of cylinders with a few holes for the rocket, it’s just they are.

    Then came onboard radars, or, more precisely, radar interception and targeting, and with them — and the radio-controlled missiles. The pilot on the radar screen captures target, moving closer to her before launching range missiles, lights signal "PR" — start-up is enabled, press the trigger, the missile leaves the pylon, but we continue to keep the enemy on the radar screen. In this case, a narrow radar beam is directed at him, and the rocket is on the beam. It was only when she reaches out to such an extent that they no longer promazhesh, signal lights "lapel" — you can pass the buck. Sometimes it’s dangerous, if the goal — the eyeballs laden bomber or tanker. Jerk can so that you would get splinters.

    Defend against such missiles trying shooting clutter, simple strips of foil packs. In the hope that the radar beam will lose aircraft and will follow the ribbons. In response locators have become sort of speed target to ignore low-speed, and take other measures to combat interference.

    Should develop a homing missile. Their heat seeker (TGSN) feels the heat from the engine of the enemy. Approach each other, the lamp lights "G" — the capture of heads, which means that the missiles saw the goal, start-up — and you can immediately get out. This is called the principle of "fire — forgotten." It is interesting to smoke near a rocket and see how GSN watching your cigarette. At first, something not very nice to see

    They are protected, firing flares, everyone has seen the footage on TV, when the plane takes off from such a "fireworks".

    And then there were missiles targeting a variety of ways, including multi-channel, which is not so easy to fool. I will not explain in detail: too much space it takes. So:

    1. Primary Weapon — HAEDAT, the missile "air-air" long range.



    The maximum launch range — 300 km (export version — 200 km), and according to some, high-contrast target and it gets to 400 km. Note: All data are presented below for the export versions of missiles and bombs (often comes across the letter "E" in the designation indicates export), just easier to find. As you can see for yourself is much better. Warhead weight 60 kg high-explosive. The guidance system — inertial, with radio and active radar homing in the terminal phase of flight.

    Let me remind you that the missiles AIM-120C, which is armed with Raptor, launch range of 120 km, in the future, it will modify a missile AIM-120D with a range of up 180 km. However, the missiles the Americans serious problems, their engines suddenly proved to be unreliable, although it worked fine: "Again bad luck! Engine problems missiles AMRAAM ". They refuse at low temperatures, and their acceptance is suspended. Let me remind readers that at the height of 10 km the temperature in both summer and winter is about minus 56.5 degrees. And since the missile — the basic for all aircraft of NATO, consider that there is nothing to beat the enemy … Or rather, there is nothing, but only at low altitude, not in the winter and not in the polar latitudes.

    2. RVV-SD

    Firing range version "E" — up to 110 km. Warhead weight — 22.5 kg, rod, multikumulyativnaya. The guidance system — with radio inertial and active radar terminal homing.

    3. RVV-MD.

    Highly maneuverable missile for close air combat with all-aspect passive infrared guidance (dual-band GCI). Firing range — up to 40 km. Warhead weight 8 lbs.

    Very interesting missile. Engine — with thrust vector control, and if the pilot took aim with a helmet-mounted system somewhere on the side, turning the head, then the missile can turn on the target. Suppression missiles with IR-guided or guided laser blinding head or shoot flares. But the missile still distinguish the trap from the aircraft due to the difference in the ranges, and the laser beam is "off" it just some one "color".

    4. X-38MLE.



    Refers to the modular short-range guided missiles. Through the use of various types of guidance systems and various military equipment provided advanced combat capabilities when operating on a wide range of ground targets and surface targets in the coa
    stal strip.

    X-38MLE — inertial + semi-active laser
    X-38MAE — inertial + active radar
    X-38MTE — inertial + thermal
    X-38MKE — inertial + satellite navigation

    The first three types can equip oneself fighting equipment with high-explosive or penetrating warhead. X-38MKE — cluster warhead
    Firing range of 3 to 40 km

    5. X-58USHKE.

    Anti-radiation missile. What is it? We produce it in any ground-based radar, and it goes to the target along the line of the same locator. And even if the locator switch off, she did not lose.

    Provided the use of a rocket by radar-programmed goals and Target, quickly found a system of targeting PAK FA. The maximum launch range (at altitudes of media from 200 m to 20 km) is 76 — 245 km. The probability of hitting the rocket in a circle of radius 20 m, centered on the radar station — not less than 0.8. Warhead — high explosive, weight 149 kg. Launch mass — 650 kg.

    Against the locators and any other electronics are developing other weapons — the so-called electromagnetic ammunition that may be in the form of missiles, bombs, grenades for grenade launchers, artillery shells, etc. The idea is that the release of such ammunition to the enemy radar, command post and the like, but it does not vzryvaaetsya and briefly emits powerful electromagnetic pulse (which, though weaker than in the time of the explosion of the atomic bomb, but it’s enough) and within a radius of several tens (or even several hundred) meters "dies" any electronics — radars, computers, radios, control systems, not to mention mobile phones, for example.
    Moreover, since modern weapons full of electronics, it is much easier to bring it down, making the weapon useless pile of iron than destroy enemy vehicles brute force of the explosion. So you can neutralize and airplanes and tanks, radars, and communications. Can provoke disruption proximity mines, missiles, bombs … can in time of peace, for example, to drive up to some skyscraper, which focused a lot of financial institutions, as it was in the World Trade Center, on a harmless-looking van, and do not have to stick to it aircraft and sacrifice people — enough to destroy all the computers with databases, and chaos in the world is …
    Although such weapons has long researched and produced in many countries, but to advertise specific production models do not like, preferring to talk about the theory of its application. But that was a digression, would like to PAK FA — I do not know.

    6. KAB-500S-E, guided aerial bomb


    Weight — 560 kg (including 195 kg — weight of explosives). The drop height of 500 m to 5 km. Precision targeting (Ekvo) 7 — 12 m Warhead — high explosive.

    It is probably not a complete list of weapons write about 14 different types of weapons, but has decided to withdraw from this secrecy. However, in some places mentioned and anti-ship missile Kh-35.

    AVIONICS.

    Weapons — this is good, but to get them somewhere, we need diverse and complex sighting device during normal crosshairs are long gone. On the PAK FA is applied the so-called "smart skin", when all the antennas on all sides aircraft are reduced in a single complex. What do they eat?

    The main part, of course, Bow AFAR, which in 1522 transceiver module (V Raptor — 1200). AFAR two side-view. Two AFAR socks wing. Two L-band AESA in Slats. This is the decimeter range (somewhere between 15 and 30 cm), it can be seen in stealth well, although the accuracy and worse than the centimeter. But the main thing — the pilot warned sees the goal, and then — problems missiles RVV-BD, which has enough of their guidance systems, and the approach of it in order to see all of it will be more accurate and more confident. I like Raptor UHF radar is not, in the foreseeable future is not expected. Of course, it is better to get close to 120 km — Raptor-range missile launch, everything will be much more correct: there Raptor will see already the usual radar, and, most of all, even the optical system.

    On the other aerials prefer to remain silent, but for sure the antenna is behind, as she appeared on some versions of the Su-27. It is part of the missile could be suspended "backwards." Surprise for catching your opponent.

    In addition to the radar of the H-036 is a multi-channel optical system Omnidirection OLS-50, able to see both day and night, and even in the ultraviolet range. Its data is also not disclosed.

    Of course, there is also a helmet-mounted target designation system, and many more, but as the privacy of our country has traditionally been higher than in the U.S., which is good, many of the details are still unknown. Other details — the video:



    Well, that’s so fly — can not no Raptor!

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