Certainly, none of my recent articles is not done as much noise as "Tatar root Cossack family." But the point is too early. Steppe Turkic origins of Ukrainian ethnos require digging coming, so to speak. Instead we are being offered fiction stories, adapted to the changing political purposes. But the story — is valuable in itself. This is not the servant of politicians. This is a detective who does not get tired to unravel, trying to get to the truth.
I had only to draw attention to the central position of the species in Mamaia Ukrainian Cossack folk painting of XVIII-XIX centuries, began to emerge as more and more detail, indicating that the Cumans and Tatars are considered the fathers of Ukrainians are not the least, and maybe even Basically, the Slavs. This statement sounds shocking to anyone. But I'm not going to shock anyone. It is better to pay attention to the facts.
After invasion of Batu Kiev is not just fallen into disrepair. He was practically destroyed. Of the 50 thousand inhabitants remained virtually anyone! The travelers drive through at this time on the destroyed capital of Russia, left a full description of decline. "Most of the people Russa Tatars massacred or carried away," — wrote Plano Carpini, heading through Kiev in a bid Tatar khans in Karakorum far. He said there was a Franciscan monk, Tatars "besieged Kiev, which was the capital of Rousseau, and after a long siege, they took him and killed the inhabitants of the town, hence, when we were driving through their land, we have found countless heads and bones of dead men lying on the field; because this city was very big and very crowded, but now he kept almost anything: a little there exists two houses, and those people they hold in the languid slavery. " As argued by Carpini, in the districts of Kiev should not be afraid of Russian, because of their small size after the Mongolian massacre and the "Lithuanians, often in secret, and, as they could, raided the land of Rousseau, and particularly in those places through which we must were driving through. "
Imagine, in which it was in ruins time South Russia, if any of the gang of racketeers from Lithuania seemed to her invincible foes! And the city of Kanev in general was already abroad! "We came to the village by the name of a certain Canova — Carpini wrote — which was under the specific authority of the Tatars. The chief of the village gave us the horses and an escort to the other villages, chief of which was Alan named Micah. "
The interpenetration of different peoples into a sublime Barrens was well under way. On the way to bet Khan rampant gang of people that we can consider the first "protozaporozhtsami." A contemporary of Plano Carpini — also a monk and also salted to Khan (though not from the pope and the French king) Guillaume de Rubruck outlined own nightmare while traveling in these areas in 1253: "Russian, Hungarian and Alans, the slaves of the Tatars, the number of which in their very large, going to 20 or 30 people run out NIGHT MODE with quivers and bows and kill anyone who just caught. Of days they are hiding, and when the horses they get tired, they are matched to the NIGHT MODE herds of horses on pasture, changing horses, and one or 2-gone with him, so that in case of need to eat. Our guide is very afraid of such a meeting. "
Tatar-Slavic surzhik. What is not the first Cossacks? All the more so that the supervisory Western European monk was able to note even the process of mixing of Slavic and Turkic languages, which began at that time in the wilderness: "The language of Russian, Poles, Czechs and Slavs the same with the language of the Vandals, the force of which was coupled with the Huns, and Now for the most part with the Tartars, whom God raised from more distant countries. "
In other words, a traveler from Italy fished the moment you receive the Tatar-Slavic surzhyk, which reincarnated over time in the Ukrainian language. The words "Kosh", "chieftain", "captain", "Sagaidak", "rump", "gopak" under the strum Polovtsian Tatar kobza just entered our consciousness in Blix steppe fires around which rejoiced after the raids of the first Cossack . Those meeting are so afraid of the king of France messenger, carrying a letter Tatar khan.
Specifically, these facts explain why the Ukrainian nationalists as flegmantichny to the legacy of Kievan Rus'. Of all its brilliant culture for their roads only Oseledets color Svyatoslav obviously borrowed from the steppe. The thought of the empire, nor the canonical Orthodoxy, no pre-Mongol Old Russian literature, carefully preserved by scribes in Vladimir, Suzdal, Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow, not to represent them or the smallest value. — Only gopak, Kobza and pants, comfortable public to jump on a horse, scuttling after another raid with a severed head under his arm! This, in their view, is "our everything." And the rest — "moskalska propaganda."
After the invasion of Batu in Kiev there was a change peoples. Authentic Slavic population of Kievan Rus at that time was to go to the north — to the future Muscovy. It is not simply fled, and carries with it the ancient Russian culture. No wonder the epic "Kiev cycle" committed disappeared in Kyiv, but were recorded by researchers in the XIX century in the band from Moscow to Arkhangelsk. That's where our Russia went from the Mongolian Cossacks! For the same reason, "Lay," written in the Chernigov principality, only manuscript preserved in the near Yaroslavl!
As throughout the XIV century, representing the peak of the Mongol power in today's Ukraine, there was not just made up, and NO ONE rewritten history. The oldest of the same list of "The Tale of Bygone Years" has survived in a copy made in Nizhny Novgorod, a contemporary of Dmitry Donskoy monk Lawrence. Metropolitan of All Russia Maxim did not just moved in 1300 from Kiev to Vladimir-on-Kliazma, and took with him the book, learned monks, scribes, experts in the history and ideology. It is better to rea
d classic literature malorossiyskoy Panteleimon Kulish, 4 lines describe this migration process than listening to the heresy of modern Ukrainian history forgers:
Yak nalyaglo to Russia tatarske liholіttє,
Zіstalos in Kiєvі nemovbi Til'ky smіttє.
At first Klyaz'ma on Moscow pozabіgali Luda
I. vizirali hto s Kiyan tudi arrive.
In Kiev were left in ruins. Someone is needed to fill them? In this vacuum rushed from the north Lithuanians, from the west — the Poles, and in the south — the Tatars, whose avant-garde was premature Cossacks.
But nothing is never-ending. Batyev overcome their heirs. In the middle of XIV century the Golden Horde began long-standing feud — "The Great zamyatnya." Horde split into two countries, which was the boundary between the Volga. Left-sparing Volga controlled the direct descendant of Genghis Khan — Khan Tokhtamysh. And from the right bank to the west across the Kuban, Don and all-day Ukraine, was then called feral Paul, until the ownership of the Danube stretch Temnik Mamaia. Mom did not Genghisides was and did not have the right to cap Khan. But behind him were rich Genoese town in the Crimea, and numerous descendants polovtsev who changed his name to "Tatars" after the invasion of Batu. The capital of Mamaia — the so-called "Zaporozhye mound" — was in the lower reaches of the Dnieper. His government took two-thirds of today's Ukraine!
After the defeat in 1380 of Kulikovo Mamaj was killed in the Crimea for its real owners — Italian negociant, trade interests he represented. But his posterity be lost. All of a sudden it has come up on the border of Russia and the Steppe — in Poltava. "In 1430 Poltava with Glinskikh was sent to. Prince. Vytautas Leksade Mongol prince, princes Glinskikh ancestor "- says" full geographical description of our fatherland, edited by VP Semenov "(Vol. VII. Ruthenia. St. Petersburg., 1903, p. 293-294).
Ukrainian grandson Mamaia. Who was this mysterious Tatar Leksada? Some information about this can be found in the book "History of Ukraine in a special way. Litovsko-polska Doba ", published in Kiev in 1997," Sered numerically knyazіvskih homelands, kotrі lived in Teren of Ukraine in serednі vіki, boules th takі scho Mali tyurkske pohodzhennya. Tse, zokrema, stosuєtsya knyazіv Glinskih, yakі vvazhali for themselves naschadkami Khan Mamaia: in childbirth perekazom, pіslya porazki ostannogo in Kulikovskіy bitvі (1380) yogo syn-Mansour Kiyat osіv on Zadnіprov'ї, zasnuvavshi here Glinsk, Poltava th Glinnitsyu. Spadkoєmtsem Tsikh volodіn becoming yogo syn Olexa … Ohrestivshis at Kiєvі that priynyavshi User name Oleksandr, vіn time іz Sin Іvanom Pocha sluzhiti majestic Prince litovskomu Vіtovtu. "
In other words, Poltava Khanate mamaevichey residue was broad holdings of the founder of the dynasty. Some time it led to the independent existence of the border feral Fields and stateliness Duchy of Lithuania — in just those places are: the Ukraine. But prince Vytautas subdued grandson of Mamaia and led him to convert to Christianity. Mentioned in the "Geographical description" Leksada likely is this novookreschenny Alexander.
Back in the 1981 Russian historian A. Shennikov deposited in INION (Institute of Scientific disk imaging Social Sciences) of the USSR his article "Principality Mamaia descendants. " Focus on Mongolian pages in the history of Ukraine, then as now, was not recommended. The Khanate had to call the principality. On the definition of "Poltava" it was impossible to conceive! Semi-official Russian science vykarmlivaya hordes treasury Tolochek like fire, shied away from at least some of "Eurasianism". Because Shennikov only managed to deposit (to make it accessible for reading small professionals), and not to publish an article in the magazine. But it was he who drew attention to the pedigree of princes Glinskikh expressed in the "Velvet book": "King Ordinskiy mother, who broke the Don stately Prince Dmitry Ivanovich, while the son of the King of Mamaia Mansurkiyan Prince, while the offspring of the Prince Mansurkiyana Olexa Prince, and he baptized him Metropolitan of Kiev, and from him — Glinsky. "
"The correct spelling of the offspring of Mamaia — of course, Mansur Kiyat — explained Shennikov. — The name of his eldest son — Alex (Mongolian name), and the remaining options — the results of his slavyanizatsii. The content of this text did not litsezreem indescribable. When, after the Kulikov battle a new army of Mamaia was intercepted and destroyed Tokhtamysh "by Kalki", then Mamaj again fled to the Crimea, and was killed there, with the remains of Mansour Mamaeva army had to find shelter in the area, more remote from Sarai, the Crimea and Moscow and closer to the majestic Duchy of Lithuania, which is maintained until the end of Mamaia. Poltava district just posted these conditions. Besides the majestic Dukes of Lithuania (at that time Jagiello) were interested in a settlement near its borders the suitable population, aggressive with respect to the Golden Horde, and broken Tokhtamysh Mamaia supporters were appropriate for this population. "
According to the views of Shennikov, "Mansour created principality remained formally independent for 12 years, from 1380 to 1392 year, although in practice, it seems, from the beginning in a certain degree dependent on the majestic Duchy of Lithuania." Initially, it was just a Mongolian. But with the passage of time in the Poltava region from the north began to get "SEVRYUKOV" — as many believe, the descendants of the tribe of the chronicle of northerners, survived the invasion of Batu. "For example, the descendants of the Principality of Mamaia in Poltava — summed Shennikov — we litsezreem something new and unexpected for Slavic-medievalists: instead of antagonism — peaceful co-existence and gradual fusion of Turkish and Slavic populations within a fairly typical and political education. Was this episode somehow unique exception to the generally accepted rules? Or maybe this is a signal that the Slavic erroneously represent the generally accepted rule for yourself? "
Turkic hybrid. Of course, this is not a unique episode, and that is the rule, from which was born the modern Ukrainian people. As recognized in the XIX century, one of the founders of the nationalist historiography Vladimir Antonovich in his article "The views Ukrainophiles": "The structure of the type of Little Russian came in very countless hybrid, Turkic (Pechenegs, Cumans, Crimean Tatars, and in particular the dark hoods, once inhabited the almost one-third of the all over the place today Yuzhnorussky edge and melt in Slavic mass of its population). "
No wonder so distinguished anthropologists referred to as "the Central Ukrainian anthropological area", with a population distinguishes "domіshka, pov'yazana s asimіlyatsієyu Stepovaya tyurkskih group s Pevnyi MONGOLOЇDNIM Elements" (Antropologіchny warehouse Ukrayinsky people. — K., 1965, p. 72).
Trying to explain the popularity of the Ukrainians form the Cossack Mamaia Shennikov beheld its origins specifically in the Poltava principality kids and grandkids Ma
maia: "Portrait of a warrior-bandura might seem at first as a collective image of the boundary dweller Duchy of Mansur and his immediate descendants — a portrait of Mamaia, Mamaia but not yet and even more so than "Cossack." A portrait of the composition may be applied to a product of Oriental painting, which had circulated in Mansurovix Tatars, almost still preserved from the time of ancient Buddhist Tatar religious picture, the meaning of which has long been forgotten. This mother — polutatarin, polusevryuk — was still not far away on their own Ukrainian ethnic identity and cultural countenance, but he successfully defended the Slavic population of Ukraine Crimean raids and therefore become very popular. "
Hunt someone or not, but Kievan Rus' and Galicia-Volyn principality — the first "old Ukrainian" of the country, specifically the tiny Mongol Khanate descendants of Mamaia in the districts of Poltava. In another folk paintings would be shown not a Cossack Mamay, and a reddish Vladimir Sunny, surviving only in Russian epics. In the Golden Horde, the roots of modern Ukraine.