The development of new spaces — always important task for Russia. The interaction of government and business — always topical issue for Russia. The symbiosis of these phenomena embodied the Russian-American Company, whose experience is interesting at the moment. At the heart of all — an innovative control method called "development group" (a system where units are not human individuals and groups).
Russian-American company — had a cent of American capital. Established in 1799 for the development of Alaska in the interests of entrepreneurs and the royal bureaucracy. Uniqueness — the state has delegated part of their authority.Another feature — the interaction of dealers, fishermen and the state. The three-tiered structure is due to the huge distances between the fishery and marketing, as well as the birth of the share capital.
"Development Group" in the 18th century
The foundation of monopoly organization that determined the fate of tens of years the North Pacific Ocean, laid the Kursk merchant IL Golikov and Rila — GI Shelichov. Confidant, IL Golikov in Siberia served AE Field. Kind of triangle Golikov — Field — Shelichov in the 1790s. was a kind of "necessary and sufficient" alliance — a roll of either party figure fell apart ("development group"). "Trio", despite the controversy ahead of other merchants.
NP Rezanov close to the imperial court, and was the unofficial head of the company’s intercession before the tsarist government. It was at his insistence, the Executive of the RAC was transferred in 1801 from Irkutsk to St. Petersburg, and the company acquired traitsparastatal monopoly, as a member of its shareholders joined the emperor.
A private company has replaced the State in the territory of
In fact, the company has become the Overseas Territories to rule Russia. The Company had the right to unlimited development of land and has been the exclusive dealer in furs, produced their own money that went only in Alaska, fought with the Indians and pirates, and 20 years of the XIX century was almost captured the orphan California.
Change merchants to officials
In less than 70 years of management Russian America by Russian-American Company, part of its ruling elite has undergone very significant changes. If the original manual CANCER in the colonies and the mother country consisted exclusively of merchants, though closely associated with the government (and in Russia differently and can not be), it is 20 years after the founding of the colonies CANCER power passed into the hands of naval officers. Although they were knowledgeable, honest and respectable people, as a rule, they are not well versed in commerce and economic affairs of the company after the change Baranova left much to be desired. And nearly 25 years later merchants finally lose control of the Chief Executive, and a decade later, they disappear from the directors of the RAC.
Since the mid-1840s. top management personnel of the Russian-American Company finally turns into a specific parastatals. It is the military-bureaucratic monopoly best fit the established social order in the empire. This system reached its climax in the middle of the XIX century. and, to a large extent exhausted the internal resources of the development, quickly began to take positions in the post-reform Russia. Neither the RAC as a whole, nor any of its managerial elite did not want and could not take into account the trends of the new capitalist era, did not have time to adapt to the new realities, moving the economy of Russian America to the "capitalist lines", which led to the deterioration of the financial position of the company in 1860 . Thus, the process of nationalization, bureaucratic elites Cancer was one of the indirect causes sale of Alaska to the United States in 1867