Production of solar panels under the auspices of Ochakovo. Not a beer

one …..

This photovoltaic cells — semiconductor devices that convert solar energy into direct current. Simply put, these are the basic elements of the device, which we call the "solar panels".

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

 
With the help of these batteries work in space orbiting satellites. Do these batteries in Krasnodar — at the "Saturn".

The company in Krasnodar part of the Federal Space Agency, but has "Saturn" "Ochakovo", which literally saved this production in 90 years.

Owners of "Ochakovo" bought a controlling stake, which had nearly gone to Americans. "Ochakovo" has invested a lot of money here, bought modern equipment, has managed to retain experts and now the "Saturn" — one of the two leaders in the Russian market and the production of solar batteries for the needs of the space industry — civil and military. All profits earned by the "Saturn" is here in Krasnodar, and goes to the development of the industrial base.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

So, it all starts here — in the area of so-called vapor-phase epitaxy. This room is a gas reactor wherein the germanium on a substrate of for three hours the crystalline layer is grown to serve as a basis for future photocell. The cost of such a facility — about three million euros.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

After that, the substrate is still a long way: on both sides of the solar cell will cause the electrical contacts (and on the working side of the contact will have a "picture-size fits all", the dimensions of which are carefully calculated to ensure maximum passage of sunlight), will appear on the substrate-coated and t . etc. — More than two dozen manufacturing operations at different facilities before the photocell will form the basis of solar batteries.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Here, for example, the installation of photolithography. Here on the solar cells are formed, "drawings" of electrical contacts. The machine performs all operations automatically for a given program. Here and in the light of the relevant that does not harm the photoactive layer solar cell — as before, in the era of analog photography, we used the "red" lights.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

In a vacuum coating installation with an electron beam applied electrical contacts and insulators as well as antireflection coating applied (they increase the current produced by the photodetector 30%).

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Well, the solar cell can be prepared and ready to assemble the solar panel. Soldered to the surface of solar cell bus, then to connect them to each other and to apply them on the protective glass, in which no space in the radiation cell can not withstand the load. Although the thickness of the glass just 0.12 mm, the battery of such solar cells will be a long work in orbit (in high orbit over fifteen years).

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

The electrical connection between the solar cells are made with silver contacts (called busses) with a thickness of 0.02 mm.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

To get the desired voltage is generated by a solar panel, solar cells are connected in series. Here is the section of series-connected solar cells (photovoltaic cells — so right).

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Finally, the collected solar battery. Here, we show only part of the battery — the panel in the format layout. Such panels can be by satellite to eight, depending on what is needed capacity. In today’s communication satellites, it reaches 10 kW. These panels will be mounted on a satellite in space, they unfold like wings and with their help we will watch satellite TV using satellite internet, navigation systems (satellites "Glonass" Krasnodar use solar panels).

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

When the spacecraft is illuminated by the sun, electricity generated by solar panel powers the system unit, and excess energy is stored in the battery.

When the spacecraft is in the shadow of the Earth, the device uses the energy stored in the battery. Nickel-hydrogen battery, having a high energy (60 Wh / kg), and virtually inexhaustible resource, is widely used on spacecra
ft. The production of these batteries — another part of the plant "Saturn."

In this image, the assembly of nickel-hydrogen battery produces cavalier medal of the Order "For Services to the Motherland» II degree Anatoly Panin.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Assembly section of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The filling is prepared to accommodate the battery in the case. Filling — is a positive and negative electrodes separated by the separator paper — and they are energy storage and conversion.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Installation for electron-beam welding in vacuum, by which the battery casing is made of thin metal.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Land shop, where body parts and batteries are tested for effects of high blood pressure.

Due to the fact that the accumulation of energy in the battery is accompanied by the formation of hydrogen and the pressure inside the battery is increased, leakproofness — an integral part of the manufacturing process of the battery.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Housing nickel-hydrogen battery — a very important part of the entire device, working in space. The case is designed to pressure of 60 kg · s/sm2 when tested rupture occurred at a pressure of 148 kg · s/sm2.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Tested for strength and battery electrolyte is charged with hydrogen, then they are ready to go.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Housing nickel-hydrogen battery is manufactured of a special metal alloy and must be mechanically strong, lightweight and have a high thermal conductivity. Batteries are installed in the cell and do not touch each other.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

Accumulators and batteries collected are subjected to electrical testing at its own production facilities. In space, nothing will be impossible to fix and replace, so here thoroughly test each product.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

The whole space technology is being tested on the mechanical effects of using a vibration table, which simulate the load during injection of the spacecraft into orbit.

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)
  • How to make solar cells for space (27 photos)

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