From the book Rudolph Zultsmana
The methods of modern warfare are limited to a number of international agreements and rules, which are required to adhere to every civilized nation. These rules put limits the use of certain tactics and weapons. But so far, none of the provisions of international law did not apply in time of war propaganda. Does not appear even any conventional restrictions, although the appalling act of propaganda became known during the war of 1914-1918. Thus, the promotion has now become a weapon of war, the use of which is not regulated by international law. Even the most shameless propaganda is not stipulated in any section of the international conventions.
Although … the psychological impact on the enemy is as old way, as are the war, and in the earlier stages of development, it consisted mainly in the fact that a show of force to instill fear of the enemy, and to give himself courage (the most primitive form — war cries of wild ), but the systematic use of propaganda as a weapon of first noted in the World War 1914-1918. Germany was completely stunned by this weapon, because, according to the German outlook, the military conflict could be resolved by military means alone. Member of the British Parliament, Ponsonby, in his book "Lies in the war," says the following: "The use of weapons lies in those countries where there is no compulsory military service, more necessary than where men are encouraged to join the army automatically."
Propaganda against Germany, carried out the enemy, first, in the form of front-line propaganda, that is, in the form of a million leaflets addressed to the German soldiers (through leaflets soldiers penetrated into Germany), and secondly, in the form of a campaign launched in the press, which, thanks to its organization and methods of psychological influence communicate their ideas to the most remote corners of the world. Ideological leader of the propaganda of this kind since February 1918 was the Lord Northcliffe. He united the various existing long self propaganda organs and turned them into one of the most important instruments of war. Lloyd George wrote to him after the truce: "I wish to assure you that I am eternally grateful to you for the great service you during your service rendered to our common cause. I have a lot of direct evidence of the success of your invaluable work, many have contributed to the defeat of the enemy. "
The history of propaganda in the First World War is primarily a history of horror propaganda. Since that time, the propaganda becomes a sort of stigma imposed on the enemy; she won himself a broad range of very bad name, which to some extent explains its successes and setbacks during the Second World War. Two decades have passed since the end of World War II, was not enough to forget about the horrors and promote this release propaganda war against its main evil — lies. Many opponents of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels recognized him certain propagandistic talent, but there is no doubt that at that time existed in the state of affairs, and in the presence of rich experience promoting recovered from World War I to make the German people immune to the propaganda of the enemy could and far less talented people. It was necessary to remind the Germans of the danger of propaganda horror of Lord Northcliffe and his methods. In addition, the memory of many Germans who survived the First World War, all these "horrors" is far from being blotted out. In Germany there was not some courses for propagandists and agitators, which lie exposed the propaganda of the enemy not least on the basis of outdated methods of struggle are horror propaganda. Exposing the enemy propaganda became a subject of political activities in schools, and newspapers and magazines were literally inundated with these materials.
In fact propaganda horror was not already present propaganda. "Facts", which it operated, were the inventions of the evil poshiba. In popular literature, even in the twenties were exposed the most well-known facts of lies and opened their roots. Lies about the severed children's hands in different versions around the whole world press. Even in 1927, this lie could still be found on the pages of textbooks Lorraine, and in 1946, she was cited as an example in Nuremberg defender radio commentator Hans Fritzsche. Thousands of people from all over the world then declared its readiness to adopt mutilated children, and even the pope promised to protest to the German government, when he will be presented conclusive evidence. In his book «Diary of the World War» American colonel Repington subsequently noted that all these cases of "not proven either."
Enormous power of conviction was a legend about the "crucifixion Canadian" and designed for Catholics lie on violence against nuns, and the so-called "witnesses" of the pain of Catholic priests who allegedly hung from the bells. However, none of the allegations made against Germany and the common enemy propaganda around the world, not subsequently been proven.
The most vile and simultaneously the most effective message was a lie that the Germans recycle dead soldiers, their own and others, on tallow and pig food. This post has caused worldwide uproar was the reason for China's entry into the war on the Entente side. April 30, 1917 British Prime Minister in the House of Commons was asked whether he would take steps to ensure that in Egypt, India and all over the East, it became known that the Germans had processed the bodies of their own soldiers and enemy soldiers to feed pigs. Only in 1925, this was a lie. finally exposed in an article that appeared in an American newspaper «Times Dispatch», who wrote about this: "Of all the terrible weapons of modern warfare is hardly the first place is not propaganda, which is an important part of the military machine of any nation. The famous story of the corpses, which during the war brought the hatred of the peoples of Germany to the limit, announced today the British House of Commons lies. A few months ago, the world learned that the lie was fabricated and distributed by one of the clever British intelligence officers.
A few years ago, a description of how the Kaiser produces fat from the corpses of soldiers, fanned the flames of hatred among the American people and the peoples of other civilized countries. Perfectly normal people heard about this, clenched his fists and rushed to the nearest office of recruitment into the army. Now they say that in reality they have been cheated and fooled. In the next war propaganda must be more cunning and sophisticated than the one that created the war. Open recognition of lies made by the Government, in which the people believed could be the fatal ".