Notwithstanding the fact that at the same time designed AA gun-missile system "Tunguska", the creation of a more conventional nevsepogodnogo SAM in the order of the forthcoming development of a complex type "Strela-1" was considered appropriate from an economic point of view. With all this taken into account as a tactical mission such as SAM addition to the "Tunguska", capable of providing low-flying destruction at one point in the criteria for the purposes of appearing sophisticated electronic and air conditions.
Together with the anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-10SV" were, but were not completed on shipboard, unified with it, as the complex "Strela-11" on the chassis of the BMD-1 Airborne.
In accordance with the tactical and technical requirements of a complex "Strela-10SV" should have ensured the defeat of the objectives, soaring at a rate of up to 415 meters per second on a collision course (on Dogon rates — up to 310 m / s) at a height of 25 m to 3-3 5 km, at a range of 0.8-1.2 to 5 km with a parameter to 3 km. The possibility of defeat a guided missile single target, maneuvering overloads 3-5 pcs., Was to be at least 0.5-0.6 in the presence of the target designation controls the air defense regiment in the absence of traps and interference.
The objectives were to be destroyed as a stand-alone complex (with a visual target detection), and as part of a centralized management system. In the 2nd version for target designation was like from Fri panel PA-12 (M) on the voice radio.
Ammunition was to include 12 anti-aircraft missiles. The complex 9K35 be transported aircraft (E-6 and AN-12B) also have the opportunity to overcome water obstacles swimming. Mass combat vehicles limited to a value of 12.5 million kg.
As with the development of anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-1" lead developer of the complex as a whole 9K35, 9M37 missiles, hardware launch anti-aircraft guided missiles and control and inspection machine caused KBTM (KB precise engineering) MOS (formerly OKB-16 GKOT, A. Nudelman E. — Chief Designer). The prime contractor for the development of homing and guided missile proximity fuze was defined CDB "Geophysics" MOS (CDB-589 GKOT, Horol DM — chief designer).
In addition, the development of the complex involved NIIEP (Research Institute of electrical devices) MOSFETs, LOMO (Leningrad Optical-Mechanical Association) MOS, HTZ (Kharkiv Tractor Plant) MSKHM, Research Institute "Search" and Saratov MOS MOS Assembly Plant.
By the beginning of 1973 anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-10SV" in the BM (fighting vehicle) 9A35, curb passive finder, 9A34 combat vehicles (which has a passive radio direction finder), anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M37 and control and inspection machine presented for joint trials . SAM "Strela-10SV" tested on Donguzskaya landfill (landfill manager Dmitriev OK) in the period from January 1973 to May 1974.
Developers anti-aircraft missile system, after the trials by representatives of 3 Institute of Defense and the Defense Grau spoke in favor of the adoption of SAM on board. But the chairman of the commission for testing Podkopaev LA, representatives of the Office of the Chief of the Air Defense Army and the landfill were against it, as complex "Strela-10SV" not one hundred percent met the requirements in terms of the probability of target, reliability indicators BM, by the ability of fire afloat. BM assembly was not provided with the convenience of calculation. Commission recommended the adoption of the complex into service after the elimination of identified deficiencies. In this regard, SAM 9K35 have adopted the Decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 16.03.1976 after modification.
Organizational anti-aircraft missile systems 9K35 united platoon "Strela-10SV" rocket-artillery battery (platoon complex "Tunguska" and a platoon "Boom-10SV ") anti-aircraft tank battalion (infantry) regiment. The structure consisted of one platoon of combat vehicle 9A35 and 9A34 three cars. As the battery using the control point CP CP-12 (M), which was coming in should change the battery unified enterprise" Rankings Basic " .
Centralized management of SAM "Strela-10SV" that make up the battery and battalion regiment was to be done in the same way as the air defense system "Tunguska" — due to the transfer target indications and commands from the command Fri air defense regiment and battery commander Fri affordable radiotelephone (up to equipment systems data communication equipment) and radiotelekoda (after equipment).
SAM 9K35, in contrast to the complex "Strela-1M" is not on the wheel BRDM-2, and on the multipurpose crawler tractor MT-LB, capacity is given the opportunity to increment Ammunition to eight anti-aircraft missiles in transport-launch containers (4 — a shunt housing and 4 — to guide the trigger). With all this needed was a long testing of instrumentation, BM, and influenced by the vibration tracked chassis that were not characteristic of wheel machines used previously.
The complex "Strela-10SV" did not use muscle power operator in SAM "Strela-1M", and electric starter.
The structure of SAM missiles 9M37 "Strela-10SV" came two-color seeker. In addition to fotokontrastnomu channel, the application in "Strela-1M", uses an infrared (thermal) channel, which increased the fighting ability of the complex when shooting towards goal and vdogon also severe interference. Fotokanal could be used as an emergency, as opposed to thermal cooling is not needed, which could only be provided by a single pre-launch preparation of guided missiles.
To limit the speed rotating missiles from the slope of a rocket used separately standing rollerony located at the back of the wings.
When you save the wingspan and the diameter of the body of the incoming missile complex "Strela-1" missile 9M37 increment length to 2.19 meters
To increase the effectiveness of military equipment while maintaining the same weight (3 kg) high-explosive fragmentation warhead to warhead guided missile 9M37 used cutting (core) submunitions.
The introduction of the SAM "Strela-10SV" of equipment evaluation zone run (ind 9S86), which automatically generate data for testing the right lead angles, made it possible to produce a missile launch time. Base 9S86 were millimeter coherent pulsed electronic telemeter, which provides a certain distance to the target (in the range of 430-10300 meters, the maximum error — up to 100 meters) and a circular target speed (the maximum error — 30 meters per second), and resolver analog-to- discrete device which determines the boundary of the starting (maximum error of 300 to 600 meters) and the angles of pre-emption at start (
average error of 0.1-0.2 degrees).
In SAM "Strela-10SV" the opportunity to conduct fire on a high-speed targets in comparison with a set of "Strela-1M", of the engagement widened. If the "Strela-1M" from natural and organized by the optical interference was not protected, then complex "Strela-10SV" during the introduction of the thermal channel seeker was absolutely protected from natural interference, to a certain extent — from single optical intentional interference traps. With all of this in the air defense systems "Strela-10SV" were many limitations to the implementation of effective fire and thermal fotokontrastnogo channels homing guided missile.
According to a joint decision, and Defense Ministry of Defense and Grau tactical and technical requirements, as agreed between them, the developers of the complex "Strela-10SV" in 1977 held its modernization through improved homing missiles and rocket launching apparatus BM 9A34 and 9A35. The complex was given the title of "Strela-10M" (ind 9K35M).
Homing missiles 9M37M shared purpose and organized optical interference on the grounds of the trajectory, which reduced the effectiveness of the thermal noise traps.
On the other features remained the same SAM 9K35M "Strela-10SV," not counting certain rate (for 3 seconds) workhouse time with the dictates of the fire in the interference criteria.
Anti-aircraft complex 9K35M tests were carried out in January-May 1978 at Donguzskaya landfill (landfill manager Kuleshov VI) under the control of the commission, headed by N. Yuriev SAM "Strela-10M" accepted into service in 1979
In the years 1979-1980 on behalf of the military-industrial complex from 06/31/1978 spent the subsequent modernization of the complex "Strela-10M."
The modernization process developed and implemented in the BM complex equipment 9V179-1 Auto for target designation from the battery CP CP CP-12M or chief defense regiment PPRU-1 ("The Gadfly-M-SV") and on the radar detection equipment that are equipped with ASPD -We are also working off target designation equipment provides automatic guidance to the target trigger. The set of combat vehicles SAM introduced polyurethane foam floats, leaning back from the sides of cars designed to overcome the swimming aqua-bottlenecking with machinegun and full ammunition missiles, and additional radio R-123M provides a welcome telecode disk imaging.
Proving ground tests are the most experienced benchmark SAM, received the name "Strela-10M2" (ind 9K35M2) were carried out on the landfill Donguzskaya (control polygon Kuleshov VI) in the period from July to October 1980 under the control of the commission headed by Timofeev ES
As a result, the tests found that in the affected area using an automatic reception and testing of target designation (for homing missiles without interference fotokontrastnomu channel) AA missile system ensures the effectiveness of fire fighters on one missile on a collision course, the range of 0.3 to 3.5 m, and 0.6 million in the spectrum from 1.5 sq m to near the border zone. This is higher than the efficiency of fire SAM "Strela-10M" in the same ranges of 0.1-0.2. This was achieved by increasing the detection range of targets to 8.4 km, the reduction of time at the workhouse tselkukazanii to 6.5, increased relative frequency nepropuska goals to 1, reducing the time taken to tselkukazany operator and testing of target acquisition.
SAM "Strela-10M2" accepted into service in 1981.
At the initiative of three research institutes and Grau Defense Ministry, also followed her decision MIC number 111 from 01.04.1983, in the period from 1983 to 1986 under the code "whaling" has upgraded missile system "Strela-10M2." Modernization produced cooperation of companies that have developed complex "Strela-10" and other modifications thereof.
Upgraded SAM in comparison with the complex "Strela-10M2" had to be increased in the affected area, and to own more superior noise immunity and performance criteria organized into saturated optical interference, to ensure fire on all types of low-flying air targets (helicopters, aircraft, remotely piloted vehicles, cruise missiles).
The joint standard tests most experienced anti-aircraft missile system "whaling" was carried out in February-December 1986 priemuschestvenno on Donguzskaya landfill (landfill manager Tkachenko MI). Commission ruled Alexander Melnikov Part of the most experienced firings conducted at Emba range.
Revised 9MZZZ guided-missile missile system in 1989, was adopted by the CA under the name "Strela-10M3" (ind 9K35M3).
BM 9A34M3 9A35M3 and members of the anti-aircraft systems were equipped with a new optical sight with 2 channels with a multiplicity of growth and variable field of view: Widefield channel — with a field of view of 35 degrees and rising x1, 8 and uzkopolny channel — with a field of view of 15 degrees and rising x3, 75 (provided the increase by 20-30% range of detection of small targets), as improved hardware launch guided missiles, which also allows you to capture ta
Bimbo managed rocket 9M333, compared with 9M37M, had a modified container and the engine, as a recent seeker with 3 receivers in different spectral spectra: infrared (thermal) fotokontrastny and interfering with the logical selection of targets against optical interference on the trajectory and the spectral features that significant increment immunity SAM.
New autopilot provides a more stable job seeker and the guided missile control loop as a whole in various modes of missile launch and flight regardless of background (interference) environment.
The new proximity fuse guided missile made on the basis of 4 pulse laser emitters, the optical system, which forms the pattern of the eight pointed, and the receiver signals reflected from the target. Double compared with 9M37 missile to increment the number of rays effectiveness against targets small size.
9M333 missile warhead had increased weight (5 pounds instead of 3 in a rocket 9M37) and equipped with a rod striking elements of greater length and larger cross-section. By improving the bursting charge increased the speed of fragments.
The structure of the contact-safety fuse included detonating device, trigger self-destruct mechanism, a contact sensor target and the transmission charge.
Overall rocket 9M333 was essentially perfect 9M37 missiles, but did not satisfy the requirements for the defeat on intersecting courses for small targets and performance at significant temperatures (50 ° C), which required revision after the end of the joint trial. The length of the rocket increment to 2.23 meters.
9M333 missiles, 9M37M could be used in all versions of SAM "Strela-10".
9K35M3 complex with optical visibility ensured defeat helicopters, tactical aircraft, and remotely piloted vehicles (remotely piloted vehicles) and the CR criteria of natural interference, as planes and helicopters in the criteria for the introduction of organized optical interference.
Systems to provide, not least than 9K35M2 missile system, the possibility and the affected area at altitudes of 25-3500 meters planes, soaring at speeds up to 415 m / s on a collision course (310 m / s — vdogon), as helicopters with speeds up to 100 m / sec. UAV speeds of 20-300 m / s and cruise missiles with speeds up to 250 m / s amazed at altitudes 10-2500 m (fotokontrastnom channel — 25 meters).
Probability and hitting range targets like the F-15, soaring at speeds up to 300 m / s, with the fire towards to translation parameters at altitudes up to 1 km in shooting of optical interference upwards at a speed of 2.5 seconds went down to 65 percent in fotokontrastnom channel and up 30% — 50% in the thermal channel (instead of the permissible reduction of 25% on the technical task). In the rest of the affected area and shooting of noise reduction down probability and hitting range does not exceed 25 percent.
In SAM 9K35MZ was to be the start to ensure a reliable target acquisition 9M333 missile seeker in optical interference.
Operation of the system ensured the introduction of machine maintenance 9V915, control and inspection machine 9V839M and supply of outdoor electronic 9I111.
More distinguished creators SAM "Boom-10SV "(AE Nudelman, Moraine MA, Konyukhova ED, Terentyeva GS, and others) have awarded the USSR State Prize.
Batch creation of BM all modifications SAM "Strela-10SV" organized at the Saratov aggregate plant, and missiles — the Kovrov mechanical plant.
Anti-aircraft missiles "Strela-10SV" were delivered in some countries zabugornye and used in Middle Eastern and African military conflicts. SAM is fully justified his appointment as the exercises and in combat.
The main characteristics of the type of anti-aircraft missile systems "Strela-10":
The name "Strela-10SV" / "Strela-10M" / "Strela-10M2" / "Strela-10M3";
The affected area:
— in range from 0.8 km to 5 km;
— in height from 0,025 km to 3.5 km / 0.025 km to 3.5 km / 0.025 km to 3.5 km / 0.01 km to 3.5 km;
— the parameter to 3 km;
The possibility of defeat fighter with a guided missile .. 0.1 0.5 / 0.1 .. 0.5 / 0.3 .. 0.6 / 0.3 .. 0.6;
The highest rate destroys targets (to meet / vdogon) 415/310 m / s;
The reaction time is 6.5 s / 8,5 s / 6,5 s / 7;
The flight speed of anti-aircraft guided missiles 517 m / s;
Mass of the rocket 40 kg/40 kg/40 kg/42 kg;
Warhead weight 3 kg / kg of 3 / kg 3/5 kg;
The number of guided missiles at military machine 8 pcs.