The complex was designed to engage aerial targets that fly at altitudes of 50-100 meters to 1-1.5 km at speeds of up to 250 meters per second at a distance of two thousand meters Head developer of the complex in general, and anti-aircraft guided missiles — OKB-16 GKOT (it was later converted to a CB clear engineering (design bureau) of the Ministry of Defense Industry). This organization during the war years and the first post-war years under the head designer of AE Nudelman have gained significant success in the development of anti-aircraft and naval aviation small-caliber gun arms. By the beginning of 1960 g's. EDO has graduated from the development of sophisticated anti-tank missile complex in running a radio-controlled "Phalanx". In the development of air defense missile systems "Strela-1" (9K31), unlike other missiles close action (such as the South American "Red Eye" and "Chaparral"), it was decided not to use a rocket infrared (heat) and head fotokontrastnuyu homing. In those years, due to the low sensitivity of infrared homing not enforced isolation purposes in the frontal hemisphere, and therefore the fire on the enemy aircraft were only "vdogon" priemuschestvenno, once they complete missions. In such tactical criteria was a great opportunity destruction of anti-aircraft missiles before they launch rockets. At the same time, the application fotokontrastnoy homing provides the ability to target destruction on a collision course.
The main development organization optical seeker for anti-aircraft guided missiles was determined GKOT CDB-589, the main designer — Crystal VA Then CDB-589 was converted to CDB "Geophysics" MOS, work seeker for guided missile "Boom" topped Horol DM
Already in 1961, spent the first ballistic missile launch by the middle of next year — telemetry and program launches. These launches confirmed the possibility of the creation of the complex, which is in the main meets the approved requirements of the customer — Head Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defence.
In accordance with the above Decree was being developed and other portable anti-aircraft missile system — "Strela-2". Dimensions and weight of the missile system was less than that of air defense missile systems "Strela-1". Initially, the development of "Arrow-1" as a hedge job of "Strela-2", which were associated with a greater degree of those. risk. After the decision fundamentally issues related to the development of air defense missile systems "Strela-2", the question of the fate of the upcoming set of "Strela-1", which was virtually the same flight characteristics. For practical use of the SAM "Strela-1" in the armed forces, control GKOT applied to the Government and to the customer with a proposal to set this missile system over the high requirements on the greatest reach in height (3.5 sq m) and a hitting range (5 th m), refusing to perform a portable missile system by going to place on the car chassis. With all of this increase in mass of the rocket provided 25 kg (15 kg) diameter — 120 mm (of 100 mm), length — 1.8 m (from 1.25 m).
The customer to determine this time with the concept of combat use anti-aircraft missiles "Strela-1" and "Strela-2". A portable set of "Strela-2" is used in the air defense battalion level, and self-propelled air defense system "Strela-1" — the regimental level air defense, in addition to anti-aircraft samohoke "Shilka", and range of which (2,500 meters) does not ensure the defeat of helicopters and airplanes enemy until the turn of the start of their missiles on targets and tank positions (infantry) Regiment (4000 to 5000). So Makar, AA missile system "Boom 1", which has expanded the affected area, perfectly fit into the system under development of military defense. In connection with this industry offer appropriate support.
Some time later, as the basis for a self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-1" was used armored reconnaissance road car BRDM-2.
It was envisaged that the anti-aircraft missile system, which has enhanced fighting abilities, will present a joint test for the III quarter of 1964. But because of the problems with working homing work was delayed until 1967
State. standard tests most experienced SAM "Strela-1" were carried out in 1968 on the landfill Donguzskaya (control polygon Finogenov MI) under the control of the commission headed by JA Anderson Complex adopted the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 25.04.1968, the
Batch creation of a combat vehicle 9A31 anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-1" established at the Saratov aggregate plant MOS and 9M31 missiles — the Kovrov Mechanical Plant MOS.
AE Nudelman, Shkolikov VI, Terentev GS, Paperny BG and others for the development of air defense missile systems "Strela-1" awarded State Prize of the USSR.
SAM "Strela-1" in a platoon (4 combat vehicles) were part of an anti-aircraft missile and artillery battery ("Shilka" — "Strela-1") Tank (infantry) regiment.
Fighting vehicle 9A31 complex "Strela-1" was equipped with a PU Placing her four anti-aircraft guided missiles that are in transport-launch containers, optical means aiming and detection, missile launch equipment and communications.
The complex could carry fire on helicopters and aircraft flying at altitudes of 50-3000 meters at a speed of up to 220 m / s for the course and will catch up to 310 m / s on a collision course with foreign exchange options to 3 thousand meters, also on drifting balloons and hovering helicopters. Ability fotokontrastnoy seeker allowed to lead a consuming only visually apparent targets which are against the overcast or clear sky at angles between the directions of the sun and the target of more than 20 degrees and an angular excess bandwidth sight target over the visible horizon of more than 2 degrees. Dependence on the background of the situation, weather conditions and illumination purposes limited combat use anti-aircraft complex "Strela-1". But, according to the average estimate in view of the ability of air operations of the enemy, in the main, to the same criteria as in the forthcoming practical implementation of SAM in exercises and in war, showed that the complex "Strela-1" could be used quite often and well ( military-economic indicators).
To reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the combat vehicle guidance PU goal was made by the muscular effort of the operator. With the help of lever-arms operator parallelogram device pin is connected between a frame
with a rocket launcher, hard visor and the lens optical sighting device to the desired elevation angle (from -5 to +80 degrees), and legs with knee stops connected to the seat, Bridging the launcher azimuth (for all that repelled by the cone attached to the floor machine). The front wall of the tower in the sector of 60 degrees in azimuth made of bullet-proof glass. Launchers for transport fell to the roof of the car.
Shooting on the move ensures almost complete sweep of natural poise, thanks also to the reconciliation of the center of mass launcher with missiles from crossing point swing axes battle machine operator with the ability to reflect the low-frequency vibrations housing.
In 9M31 missiles was implemented aerodynamic design "duck." Rocket zooms to the target using homing by the method of proportional navigation. Seeker transformed the radiant energy flux from the contrasting goals against the sky into an electronic signal, which contains data about the angle between the line of sight "rocket-purpose" and the axis of the coordinator of the GOS, as on the angular velocity of the band of sight. Sensitive elements in uncooled seeker served sulfur-lead photoresistivity.
For homing alternately arranged control transmission of aerodynamic control surfaces of triangular, equipment management system, and an optical fuze warhead. Behind them was placed a solid rocket engine, its tail section were fixed trapezoidal wings. The rocket was used dual-mode single-chamber solid rocket engine. Rocket at the launch site was accelerated to a speed of 420 meters per second, which midcourse maintained approximately constant.
Rocket from the slope is not stabilized. The angular velocity of rotation relative to the longitudinal axis of the limited introduction rolleronov — small rudders on the tail (wing), which were installed inside the disks associated with the rudders. Gyroscopic moment of rotating disks at high speed rolleron unrolled so that the rotation of the missile to roll braked emerging wind power. Similar device for the first time was used on the rocket "Sidewinder" air-to-air South American production and to K-13 — Russian copies of her running in batch creation directly with the beginning of the development of SAM "Arrows-1." But these missiles rollerony having circumferentially small blade untwisted for a long time to start under the influence of air flow surrounding the aircraft which the carrier. In time to unwind rollerony anti-aircraft guided missile designers complex "Strela-1" and used the usual luxury device. In rolleron was wound wire secured to the transport container launch a free end. Rollerony untwisted cable lock at the start of the scheme, which was similar to that used to launch the boat motors.
Contact magneto-electric transducer in direct contact or non-contact electro-optical sensor in the case of the lumen nearby purpose the PFP (safety adapter) to undermine the guided missile warhead. When bolshennom miss PIM through 13-16 seconds of combat of conclusions and could undermine the warhead. Anti-aircraft guided missile at falling to the ground is deformed and not exploded without causing significant harm to his troops.
The diameter of the rocket was 120 mm, length — 1.8 m wingspan — 360 mm.
9M31 missile, along with a rocket complex "Strela-2", was one of the first Russian anti-aircraft missiles, which was stored, transported in the transport and launch container and ran out of it exactly. To frame the launcher dust splash TPK 9YA23, protects the rocket from mechanical damage, secured with the support bracket.
Combat operation air defense missile system "Strela-1" was performed followed properly. When the optic self-discovery purposes or receipt targeting arrows operator directs the launcher with zanitnymi guided missiles at the target using an optical viewfinder to increase accuracy. Immediately turns on, the board of the first guided missile (with a 5 — second), and open the lid WPK. Hearing the sound of the seizure of homing purposes and visually estimating the time of entry into the zone run target, the operator by pressing "Start", produces missile launch. At the time of the rocket on the container cut off the power supply cable guided missiles, with all this in PIM was shot first stage of protection. Velasya fire on the principle of "fire and forgotten."
During the test, the probability of defeat led to a guided missile by firing towards goal, moves at a height of 50 m at a speed of 200 m / s. They were as follows: for the bombers — 0.15 .. 0.64, for a fighter — 0.1 .. 0.6. By increasing the height of up to 1 km and speeds of up to 300 m / s for the probability of the bombers was 0.15 .. 0.52, and for the fighter — 0.1 .. 0.42.
The possibility of destroying targets, moving at a speed of 200 m / s with the shooting vdogon ranged from 0.52 to 0.65, and a speed of 300 m / s — from 0.47 to 0.49.
In accordance with the advice of the State Commission for the tests from 1968 to 1970. was upgraded complex. The structure of anti-aircraft missile system introduced passive radio direction finder designed Leningrad Institute "Vector" Minradioprom. This radio direction provided target detection with included onboard radio equipment, its maintenance and commissioning of the field of view optical viewfinder. Also envisaged the possibility of targeting on disk imaging with anti-aircraft missile system in running other complex passive finder "Strela-1" lite configuration (having no direction finder).
Reduced due to improvements in missile range of the engagement SAM, increased homing accuracy and the ability to hit targets hovering at low altitudes.
Also developed a proof-of-a machine that allows you to control the work of combat means anti-aircraft missile system "Strela-1" according to the entered when upgrading configurations.
State. tests of the modernized air defense system "Strela-1M" Donguzskaya were carried out on site in May and July 1969 under the control of the commission, headed by VF Voropayev For service-Defense Forces Army antiaircraft missile complex "Strela-1M" adopted in December 1970.
According to test results could provide SAM defeat helicopters and planes, soaring to heights of 30-3500 m, at a speed of up to 310 m / s, with exchange parameters up to 3.5 km, and maneuvering with congestion to 3 One unit at a range of 0.5. .. 1.6 to 4.2 km.
In the modernized complex, compared with a set of "Strela-1", the proximal border of the zone has been reduced to 400-600 meters, and the lower zone — up to 30 meters. The possibility of defeat nemanevriruyuschey goals in uniform backgrounds and rose to heights of up to 50 meters at the target speed of 200 m / s when shooting towards the bombers was to 0,15-0,68 and fighter
— 0.1-0.6. These characteristics at a speed of 300 m / s at a height of 1 km were, 0,15-0,54 and 0.1-0.7, respectively, and with the shooting vdogon — 0,58-0,66 and 0,52-0, 72.
Combat operation air defense missile system "Strela-1M" had some differences from the SAM battery life "Strela-1". All the complexes platoon on the ground oriented in a single anti-aircraft missile and artillery batteries "Strela-1" — "Shilka" coordinate system. Between the machines maintained radio contact. The commander of anti-aircraft missile system on sound and light indicators of the review produced a radial control of the situation in the area of electronic acts finder. If you experience sound and light signals commander assessed gosprinadlezhnost purpose. After deciding on the accessories found radar signal to enemy aircraft, the commander, using internal communication, reported to the commander of the battery, the operator of his car and the rest of the platoon fighting vehicles the direction of the target. The commander of the battery is between the target distribution machines platoons ZSU and SAM. The operator received target data, the system included a clear direction finding unfolded PU goal. Convinced of the supplies acquired signal to the means of the enemy, using the synchronous signals in the headset indicator light and accompanied her to the goal of getting into the field of the optical viewfinder. After that, we direct the operator to the target with missiles launchers. Then run the equipment translated to "Automatic." An operator at the approach to the area of the objectives launch included the "board" and gave power to board the guided missile. Carried out the rocket launch. Provided for in the SAM modes "Forward" — "Reversing" gave the operator regardless of the position on a set of goals, its speed and the type of produce or vdogon shooting towards. So, for example, when starting vdogon for all types of goals, and the launches towards on a low-speed targets (helicopters) wondered mode "reversing".
Battery operated chief of air defense regiment through the automatic IP — IP-12 (MP-12M) — who were with him and the battery commander. Orders, commands, and data on the targeting systems "Strela-1" on the PU-12 (M), which was the battery commander's Fri, transmitted through communication channels produced by a radio station, the available data on the controls and destruction.
SAM "Boom-1 "and" Strela-1M "from the Soviet Union exported to other countries is quite extensive. SAM delivered to Yugoslavia in the countries of the Warsaw contract in Asia (Vietnam, India, Iraq, North Yemen, Syria), Africa (Angola, Algeria, Benin, Guinea, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Libya, Mali, Mozambique, Mauritania) and Latin America (Nicaragua, Cuba.) Being used by these states, the complexes have repeatedly confirmed ease of use and own quite high efficiency during firing and military conflicts .
For the first time anti-aircraft missile systems "Strela-1" were used in 1982 in fighting in southern Lebanon in the Bekaa valley. In December of next year, these complexes South American planes were shot down by the A-7E and A-6E (may be the A-7E was struck by a complex family of portable "Strela-2"). Several SAM "Strela-1" in 1983, had been captured in the south of Angola by South African invaders.
The main properties of anti-aircraft missile complexes of the type'' Strela-1 ":
Name: "Strela-1" / "Strela-1M";
1. The affected area:
— range — 1 .. 4.2 km / 0.5 .. 4.2 km;
— height — 0.05 .. 3 km / 0.03 .. 3.5 km;
— the parameter — up to 3 km / up to 3.5 km;
2. The possibility of defeat a guided missile destroyer — 0.1 .. 0.6 / 0.1 .. 0.7;
3. The highest rate destroys targets to meet / vdogon — 310/220 m / s;
4. Response time — 8.5 sec;
5. Guided missile flight speed — 420 m / s;
6. Mass rocket — 30 kg / 30,5 kg;
7. Warhead weight — 3 kg;
8. The number of anti-aircraft missiles on combat vehicle — 4;
9. Year of adopting — 1968/1970.