British "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I cut off his head, not only of Mary Stuart, she executed another 89,000 of his subjects. Unlike his contemporary, Ivan the Terrible, who called it "vulgar young lady," Elizabeth (whose mother, Anne Boleyn, by the way, was also beheaded) did not repent of their deeds either publicly or privately, were slain in the "synodic" is not recorded, money for eternal commemoration of the monasteries did not send. European monarchs such habits in general had never had.
Will be in London — buy a ticket on a sightseeing tour of the city center in an open double-decker bus. There is a headset, you can listen to the explanation in several languages, including Russian. At Hyde Park, you’ll hear there, where now "Speakers Corner", was a place of executions. The executions were the main public entertainment Londoners for centuries. Home gallows was an ingenious swivel design: there, on the uneven beams were 23 loops, so that she could have something reminiscent of the British — whether the Christmas tree with ornaments, or something else. She was also a more neutral name — "Derrick’s car", named the most honored of the local butchers, was common even saying "reliable as the car Derrick."
Where now Paddington station, was another notable gallows, organized, unlike the previous one, without any ploys three pillars, three rungs of eight loops on the bar, so you can hang 24 people at once — on a more than "we Derrick." London historian Peter Ackroyd lists a dozen or more well-known places of executions, adding that the gallows were often just the nameless crossroads. And they worked with no downtime, no underload. In the crowd of spectators occasionally happened stampede trampled to death by one day (at the beginning of the XIX century) to twenty-eight.
Cruelty as a natural disaster
Moscow publishing house Ad Marginem released in 1999 translation of Michel Foucault’s "Discipline and Punish" (by the way, on the cover — another excoriation) containing a lot of quotations from the regulations on procedures for public executions and torture in several European countries until the middle of the last century. European entertainers have used a lot of imagination to make the punishment is not only extremely long and painful, but also spectacular — one of the chapters in the book Foucault entitled "Shine penalty." Reading is not for the impressionable.
Savagery begets permanent devastating wars Western powers after the Middle Ages (which were more ruthless.) The Thirty Years War in the XVII century, claimed half the population of Germany and then to 60, then to 80 percent — historians argue — the population of the southern part. The Pope even temporarily allowed polygamy, in order to restore the people’s livestock. The pacification of Ireland by Cromwell cost her five sixths of the population. From this blow Ireland has not recovered ever. As for Russia, it is on its territory for nearly seven centuries between Batu and Lenin, like bloodletting did not know and with such unbridled ferocity of manners was not familiar.
Sorry, but have to say a nasty thing: the history of western civilization does not set up the huge optimism — so bloody and brutal was her practice. And not only in the distant past — in a recent twentieth century too. In scale bloodletting and atrocities of the twentieth century has surpassed any past. By and large, there is no guarantee that this civilization will not return to the usual practice for themselves. It’s much, much more serious matter than zapadolyubivye used to think our fellow countrymen. Knowing what we know about western civilization (which was part of Hitler), it’s hard not to state: its narcissism seems rather strange.
Sounds unexpectedly? Then I will quote one of the most prominent historians of our time, Oxford Professor Norman Davies: "Everyone will agree that the crimes of the West in the twentieth century have undermined the moral basis of his claims, including his claim to the past." According to historians RG Skrynnikova, a connoisseur of the era of Ivan the Terrible, and the king was beheaded and killed innocent of 3 to 4 thousand people. Skrynnikov insists that we are not dealing with anything other than a mass terror, especially in relation to Novgorod, and he’s hard to disagree, although Ivan the Terrible — gentle child next to Louis XI, nicknamed Spider, Richard III (Shakespeare is described as "the most hideous monster of tyranny"), Henry VIII, Philip II, James I Stuart, Duke of Alba, Cesare Borgia, Catherine de Medici, Charles Evil (no number), Charles V (son of Juana the Mad), Charles IX (staged a massacre of St. Bartholomew) Bloody Mary, the Lord Protector Cromwell and a host of other European cute characters …
But to continue examples. The Crusaders during the Albigensian wars cut more than half the population of the South of France. Suppressor of Prussia, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Conrad Wallenrod, furious at the Courland bishop ordered to cut off the right hands of all the peasants of his diocese. And this was done! February 16, 1568 (the time of the high oprichniny Ivan the Terrible) cvyataya Inquisition condemned to the death of all (!) Residents of the Netherlands as heretics, and the Spanish King Philip II ordered to bring this sentence. It does not quite succeed, but the royal army has done what she could. Only in Haarlem killed 20,000 people, and only in the Netherlands — 100 000.
The fact that today’s political correctness sees with horror, just a century ago with a small no one in particular did not turn. Another classic British "stories for readers’ John Richard Green in 1874, the report quoted Cromwell quietly on the work done in Ireland," I ordered his soldiers to kill all of them … In the church were killed about a thousand people. I believe that all monks, but two were broken head … "
In the 13th century, near Paris, was built a giant gallows Montfaucon. Montfaucon was divided into cells of vertical columns and horizontal beams and could serve as a place of execution for 50 people at a time. As conceived by the creator of installations de Marigny, an advisor to King, the view of the set of decomposing bodies at Montfaucon was to warn the rest of the subjects of crime.
1 August 1793. Revolutionary French Convention decreed by prescription "to destroy the Vendee." At the beginning of 1794. Army set to work. "Vendee should be a national cemetery", — declared Tyurro brave general, who led the "infernal columns" punitive. The massacre lasted 18 months. Shootings and guillotines (from Paris brought even children’s guillotine) for execution of the decree was not enough. Exterminations took place, according to the revolutionaries, not fast enough. Resolved: to drown. Nantes, writes Norman Davies, was "the Atlantic port of the slave trade, in connection with what is at hand there was a fleet of huge floating prisons". But even this fleet would be quickly exhausted. Therefore, people have come up with a barge loaded with output on a secure leash rope at the mouth of the Loire, to drown her, then again pull the ropes to the shore and slightly dry before the new use. It turned out, Davis writes, "a great reusable device for execution."
Just kill people revolutionary entertainer was not enough. They took pleasure in the fact that pri
or to loading onto barges to tear off their clothes and bind in pairs. Pregnant women naked tied face to face with the elderly, boys with old women, priests with the girls, this was called "republican weddings."
To hide in the woods did not survive and died of starvation, was cut cattle, burned crops and houses. Jacobin General Westerman wrote enthusiastically in Paris: "The citizens of the Republicans, the Vendée is not active! With our free saber she died along with their women, and their offspring. Using data from my right, I trampled by horses children, cut women. I have not regretted a single prisoner. I deleted all ". Depopulated entire departments, were killed, according to various estimates, from 400,000 to a million people. Sadly, the national conscience of France Vendee, apparently, was not tortured.
In Russia before the Bolshevik nothing like the petit hecatomb happened. And then it happened: the Don, Tambov province, among other places.
Like any empire during its construction, Russia went through the hard fate of a number of small nations — the Siberian and North — there were not up to the human rights and freedoms in their modern sense. One thing is for sure: the genocides in the full sense of the word on the conscience of Russia. Everything is relative. American historian David Stannard in his book "American holocaust: the conquest of the New World" has shown that the development of America was followed by the worst ethnic cleansing in human history: 400 years of the Old World aliens physically destroyed about one hundred million (!) Indigenous people. On the fifth continent British destroyed most of the Australian aborigines and all (!) Tasmanians.
America and Australia were far away, but when the Russian authorities became aware that atrocities are happening near the borders of the empire, they often went to the direct intervention. "Uman massacre" in June 1768, during the so-called "Koliyivshchyna", claimed the lives of 20,000 Jews. Many thousands of Jews were killed, in addition to Uman also Lysyanka, Kanev, Cherkassy, Zhlobin, Korsun, Fastov White Church, and especially in the Baltic states. While all this is going on "sovereign territory of Poland," the news of the scope of the atrocities prompted the Russian government to send against Haidamaks Krechetnikov Corps General who defeated them in a few days and may have saved the Jews the right bank of the Dnieper from complete destruction.
Murder under the law
Back in 1819 in England had 225 crimes and offenses that are punishable by the gallows. When the doctor of the British Embassy in St. Petersburg, wrote in his diary in 1826, as he struck that in the wake of the Decembrist uprising in Russia executed only five criminals, it clearly reflected the notion of his compatriots of proportionality of crime and punishment. We have, he added, in the case of a military mutiny of this magnitude would have been executed, probably three thousand people.
So looking at things all over Europe. In Denmark in 1800, a law was passed providing for the death penalty for anyone who "at least advised" unlimited undo form of government. And eternal servitude to those who dared to condemn the government’s actions.
Now take the "Russian Truth", it does not provide for the death penalty! From the "Tale of Bygone Years", we know that Vladimir Svyatoslavich tried in 996 to impose the death penalty for thieves. He did this on the advice of the Byzantine bishops, but was soon forced to withdraw from non-core Rus cruel punishment.
The concept of the death penalty in Russia appears on the verge of XV century in the Authorized Dvina literacy (for the third theft) and Pskov Judicial Charter (for treason, theft of church arson, horse stealing and theft in three times the tenements).
The Code of 1649 provides for the death penalty in 63 cases already — a lot, but still infinitely less than in Europe. A long trip to Western Europe in 1697-98gg. produced by attentive and inquisitive Peter was impressed. Among other things, he decided that the material progress of the countries he visited had something to do with the cruelty there the laws and customs, and made conclusions. It is not a coincidence that the most brutal and massive action of his reign, the execution of 201 rebel Shooter September 30, 1698 in Moscow, took place immediately after the return of the young king of his 17-month European trip.
However, to deal with a well-established system of values — it is extremely difficult. According to the number of executions even Russia under Peter the Great and not remotely close to the countries that served as his ideal, but after his death, this type of punishment began to decline sharply. The middle of XVIII century was marked by the actual abolition of the death penalty. In 1764, it was found that there is no one to execute the sentence against Basil Mirovich. For twenty years without executions profession executioner simply disappeared. In 1907, in Moscow there was a collective work "Against the Death Penalty." Among the sponsors were Leo Tolstoy, Berdyaev, Rozanov, Nabokov, Sr., Tomas Masaryk, and other famous writers, jurists and historians. Branding the cruelty of royal power, they lead a full, accurate and explicit list of people executed in Russia for 81, between the Decembrist uprising and the 1906 year. During that time, 2,445 people were executed, that is, was performed 30 executions a year.
This figure, however, affected by two Polish uprising of 1830 and 1863gg. and the beginning of the revolution of 1905-1907gg. If we take the peace, get 19 executions a year. On the whole vast Russian! What does this figure given the fact that during this period, the death penalty for murder was applied rigorously? She says that the killing themselves were extremely rare. (By the way, in a very violent nations then the number of Finns, they are most Caucasians brought into play his famous "Fink").
Two more illustrations to the relation to human life. The charter of the Russian army, the authorship of which belongs to Peter I, prescribed care for the wounded during the battle. In the Prussian statute the injured was provided only after the fight. French and English statutes of that time did not provide for the wounded at all.
An earlier example. Mandatory part of the state policy of Russia, Russia was redemption of its prisoners. Here’s what the head says "On the redemption of captives" Hundred Chapters Council in 1551: "In the hordes and Tsaregrada and the Crimea … okupati of all captives of the tsar’s treasury." Ambassadors disposal target money to pay ransom, which they then of offsetting treasury. But that’s not all. Rich Levantine merchants and diplomats occasionally came to Russia with whole suites, which include those prisoners could be Christians. Take them back to Russian authorities have not allowed under any circumstances, "And where Orthodox hrestyan captives of the lead, having paid back the Greeks and turkchane, Armenia or other guests, but when he was at Moscow, his own will with me their story again, they do not figure out foreign, and for stand firmly: let them okupati of the tsar’s treasury same. "
And here is an example of a completely different attitude to their own. This is an example of Poland, but Poland has always passionately wanted to be and pass for Europe, Europe, Europe. In autumn 1653 the Polish King Jan Kazimierz was eager to deal with Bogdan Khmelnitsky, although the latter is temporarily had a strong ally in the Crimean Khan. When the Poles, Cossacks and th
e Crimeans have converged on the bank of the Dniester River in the town Zhvanets, it appeared that the Crimean khan is not an ally of Khmelnitsky: the Poles managed to persuade Khan ahead of time for a separate peace. But on what terms? Khan breaks with Khmelnitsky — and the reward can on the way back to rob whatever he pleases, taking with them as many prisoners. In the lands of the Polish crown! Until the end of the year without hindrance Crimeans robbed gentry house ("for most Lublin") and carried them away many of the gentry of both sexes — that was it much more profitable than robbing the poor of Little Russia "Khlopov."
Many of the German princes sold their subjects, supplying cannon fodder abroad. King of Saxony Frederick Augustus I (1670-1733), better known as Augustus the Strong, very fond of porcelain and was happy to barter for the French king 150 porcelain items (so-called "cabinet") just something for his two regiments of infantry. This example is like to cite as proof of how highly valued in the early XVIII century porcelain, but for some reason never lead to show how low valued in Europe at the time of human life.
According to the Brockhaus and Efron (v. 16, p. 580), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Frederick "fell into debt to cover which sold 17,000 England man of his troops for the war with the American colonies over 21 million thalers." More precisely, it sold just all his army was no longer his to scrape up: landgrafstva population decreased from the sale of 8%. A similar trade were the Duke of Brunswick, the Landgrave of Waldeck, Ghana, Anshpah, other small German monarchs. German soldiers of the princely estates zapadnonemetskih systematically bought also the French government. In a large number of German soldiers bought the English East India Company, using them in the conquest of India.
Almost a century and a half before that, on the contrary, the British offered their cannon fodder. In June 1646, Lord Strafford and MP Fleming said Russian ambassador in London Gerasim Dokhturov: "If the king’s majesty will need service people, then the parliament for the royal majesty as many thousands of soldiers will be ready at once."
Here is the description by the British suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion in India (1857 — 1858)
Recapturing the British Delhi September 19, 1857 was an extremely cruel. City simultaneously attacked four army columns — no wonder that on it, a wave of looting and destruction. The soldiers were given a "good" for a three-day plunder with impunity Delhi. Mughal treasures and all that could be found in the Red fort — transportable historical and cultural treasures, jewelry, weapons and clothing of the royal family, even slabs of marble and mosaics — were stolen. Participated in the looting soldiers and officers. As a Captain Griffith said, "We went into the house, owned by the representatives of the rich class of local residents, and all would find the same picture — destroyed houses, mutilated expensive utensils that have failed to carry out … Many British soldiers took away jewelery and gold ornaments taken from the bodies of dead citizens, I have seen colleagues so they received pearl necklaces and gold mohury (coin worth 15 rupees). " Loot in Delhi and got to England, where he brought "returned from the colonies’ British, many of the items were on display in the British Museum, London.
To get even for the defeat, the British were subjected to "desakralizatsii" set of objects of religious worship. In the mosques arranged bakery, barracks and shops. Beautiful medieval buildings destroyed for "security reasons." Thirty-three villages in the suburbs of Delhi confiscated farmland. Then began the massacre. In all corners of the country, which has swept the rebellion, the victorious Britons accused of betraying all the inhabitants of the rebel areas without exception. Often tortured and killed innocent people. Captain Hudson ordered to strip naked, and then execute the sons of King Bahadur Shah. Executions rebels and their leaders were accompanied by such unimaginable "peripheral" massacre that even some British officers could not restrain disgust. Lt. Col. T. Rice Holmes wrote in his notes on the tribunal, organized by field courts in Delhi that "the natives of haled before the military commissariat or special commissioners, each of which was invested with the exclusive right to pardon and to execute on behalf of the government. The judges of these were quite prone to the manifestation of mercy. Almost all brought before the court were found guilty, and almost all of whom were convicted were sentenced to death. In a prominent location in the town established the gallows area of four square feet, and every day it hung on for five or six defendants. British officers were sitting around and puffing on a cigar, watching the convulsions of the victims. "
One suspected of sympathizing with the rebels was enough to wipe out entire villages. Those who were not hung, tied to the vents guns and torn to pieces by volleys. Streets and houses, covered with blood, so were a shocking sight that a nineteen year old officer could not control her emotions: "It was a real murder — he wrote — the last time I had seen many bloody and gruesome scenes, but I pray to God that no see anything like what I had to witness yesterday. Although women and spared them screaming at the sight of the bloody massacre of their husbands and sons were so full of pain … God knows — I’m not a compassionate, but when you shoot in front of the gray-bearded old man, you must have an incredibly hard heart to look at it with full indifference … "
The revolt was suppressed with extreme cruelty. And no matter how the British tried to characterize it as merely a "Sepoy rebellion, and nothing more", the facts speak otherwise. One of the representatives of the British administration in Delhi, T. Metcalfe, noted with regret that "the British are living on a volcano ready to explode flash ruthless violence. All Udhi in arms rose up against us, not just the regular troops, but 60,000 people from the army of ex-king. Zamindars and their servants, 250 forts, heavily equipped with artillery, act against us. The Management Board of the Company (East India), they opposed the sovereignty of their own kings and were almost unanimous in their support. Even served as mercenaries in the army have become our enemies, and everything to the last man, joined the rebels. "