Railways begin construction of two thousand kilometers of railways with high-speed traffic. Price question — more than $ 75 billion investment over seven years. This will help to launch a new wave of investment in the country, and subsequently changed its general economic landscape
Last week, "Russian Railways" announced plans for two huge buildings. CEO of "Speed Lines" (specially created for this project subsidiary of Russian Railways) Denis Muratov announced the construction of high-speed lines between Moscow and St. Petersburg (HPC-1) and the Moscow-Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Ekaterinburg (BCM-2).
In fact, a similar project in Russia already conceives. Nearly two decades ago, in 1992, for the construction of high-speed railway between St. Petersburg and Moscow was established RAO "High-Speed Line." Investment in that project were estimated at $ 5 billion. Required money RAO HSL then failed to collect, and that has collected, spent inefficiently, leaving only the stories in a large pit in the center of St. Petersburg.
A second attempt to be more successful. After a few years ago on the Russian railways were running "Peregrine Falcon" — high-speed trains providing service speed of 300 km / h (due to the fact that they were placed on conventional rails, their real speed limited to 250 km / h). Apparently, the experience of their operation seemed successful. Now provides for the construction of the railway beds completely different type analogues in Russia yet. On these new routes, trains can reach a maximum speed of 400 km / h. It is assumed that the distance between the two cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg), 658 km will be overcome in just two and a half hours, and from Moscow to Yekaterinburg (1,595 km) can be domchatsya seven hours.
Both sites are planned to be operational by 2018. Total investment in the project is not yet known, but according to our estimates, we can talk about an amount approaching $ 75 billion. The scale of shock, but the returns can be quite surprising: it is believed that the implementation of these projects can dramatically improve the quality of life and economic activity in many capital regions and cities.
Nawal THE WORLD
Generally, in the world there are two types of high-speed railways movement: dedicated high-speed line (HSL) and conventional lines specially upgraded for high-speed trains. BCM designed for speed of 250-400 km / h and the movement of other trains in principle not allowed. On the same lines, the usual high-speed trains can move more often with a maximum speed of 200 km / h, because there drive trucks, conventional long-distance and commuter passenger trains. Railways plans to build a dedicated high-speed rail. And this is very important. The fact is that even a very high-speed "Peregrine Falcon" has contributed to the killing of villages and small towns on the way from Moscow to St. Petersburg. When traveling from Moscow to St. Petersburg "Peregrine Falcon" stops rarely, only in important areas. And, for example, people from the town of Malaya Vishera earlier went to work in St. Petersburg by train. "Peregrine Falcon" also took this road itself.
As stated in the presentation of "Speed Lines" capital costs of HSR-1 amount to a maximum of 696.2 billion rubles (22.8 billion dollars). This amount does not include the purchase of rolling stock, which, according to "experts" who will have to spend at least another $ 2.5 billion (to be run on this route traffic 42 pairs of trains).
According to Denis Muratov, most of the capital investment in the BCM-1 (627.5 billion rubles, or 90% of the budget) will be spent directly on construction. The rest of the funds will go to the site preparation for construction, which includes the cost of land acquisition for railway construction, removal of structures of communication and transport (50.6 billion, 7% of the estimate), design and engineering research (18.1 billion, 3% of budget). Territory in the area of SCM-1 will be purchased or leased. According to Mr. Muratov, more than 50% of the area will be taken from the forest and the rest is bought or leased from private owners. As conceived by the Railways, as a result of the tenders for the construction figure is 696.2 billion rubles may even decrease to 550 billion
In the construction will be applied the latest technology and, as promised in the "highways", much attention will be paid to the environment. At the very least, you can pre appease environmentalists: VSM-1 will not go through the Valdai National Park. (In the scientific department of the Federal State Institution "National Park" Valdai "" "expert" reported that the road will run north of the border.)
As for the draft BCM-2, it is not so well developed, especially not figured out passenger. At a press conference Denis Muratov called a provisional sum of investments — 1.3 trillion rubles, excluding the costs of the purchase of land. But despite the fact that the VSM-2 is almost two and a half times longer than the VSM-1, and its construction is expected to finish in the same time frame. It is claimed that this will be possible because of the land available. In addition, the road to Yekaterinburg will be held at a less complex topography, and on the way VSM-1 is planned to build 256 artificial structures a total length of 72 km. Among the potential of countries — participants of the tender including some who had already proved their competency in the construction of such highways: China, South Korea, Germany, France and Spain. Denis Muratov said that the contracting companies may be more, as this will contribute to accelerate the work on the preparation of the territory.
According to our estimates, the HSR-1 and HSR-2 together can be spent more than $ 75 billion, taking into account capital costs for the road, station facilities and rolling stock.
FOR THE WHOLE COUNTRY
One of the drivers of the transport network just to finish the year 2018 — the World Cup. Apart from the fact that football fans will be able to more comfortable and rapid movement to rise and socio-economic effects — after the end of the championship. As calculated in the "highways" in the aggregate for both projects, it will be 3.8 trillion: 1,600,000,000,000 for HSR-1 and 2.2 trillion for the BCM-2. It will be to the benefit of consumers, reducing transport congestion, improving road safety, reducing negative impacts on the environment, etc.
"Construction of infrastructure passenger transport, as a rule, does not lead to a direct commercial impact and return on investment — the head of research at passenger Institute of Natural Monopolies Evgeny Alekseev. — These projects focus on the indirect effect — increase in business activity, the development of cities and regions, which then turn into income growth and tax revenues. " It is known that the transport mobility of the population — a significant factor in economic growth. "For example, between Kazan and Nizhny Novgorod more than a thousand kilometers — continues Evgeny Alekseev. — The train trip takes too long for the business, and on a plane other than through Moscow, could not reach the bottom, and it’s too long and expensive. In fact, the territory separated from each other. A high-speed train that can deliver people from city to city for three — three and a half hours, making business travel possible. It promotes the development of business in the regions