From the day of September 11, 2001 The U.S. is trying to speed up their project restructuring the world in the image of their "founding fathers", who dreamed of a democratic and liberal society. However, this route across the United States are non-Western societies, which also demonstrate its will to dominate. In particular, Russia, which is one of the most important geopolitical obstacles to Washington. Russia is gradually expanding its sphere of influence and show the world that, especially in the field of energy policy it has no equal.
One of the classics of geopolitics, the Englishman Halford J. Mackinder (1861-1947), who taught geography at Oxford, claimed that the whole geopolitical dynamics of the world is built around the main body of the Eurasian continent, around the Heartland (Heartland — the core of the earth, the main array). Central fulcrum (Pivot) of Heartland in the heart of Eurasia, which is inaccessible to the maritime powers for world politics is Russia. Russia — Empire, according to Mackinder, "which the world has the same strategic position as Germany in Europe."
Around this epicenter of the global geo-political "earthquake", which is protected by a belt of natural barriers (Siberian expanses, the Himalayas, the Gobi Desert, Tibet), which in turn form around Ground Zero "inner crescent," are "shore" of Eurasia — Western Europe, Asia Minor, Middle East, South and East Asia.
For these "banks" of Eurasia, separated by sea barriers, there are two island systems, complementing the "inner crescent" of Eurasia — Japan and the United Kingdom, representing a bridge to the "outer crescent" around Eurasia, which also includes the United States.
As part of this concept of the world's geopolitical global maritime powers, the so-called "thalassocracy" (Greek "Talas" — the sea, "cracy" — the power), which protects the interests of Mackinder, must constantly strive to prevent the Eurasian continental unity. Thalassocracy should support the conflict along the Eurasian east-west axis between the main continental powers, which otherwise might enter into an alliance (France / Germany, Germany / Russia, Russia / China), as well as thalassocracy in the framework of the theory of Mackinder have to control " banks "of continental Eurasia.
This Anglo-Saxon matrix, which is applicable in the case of the British Empire of the 19th century, and in the case of the United States thalassocracy 20th century, remains to this day an important element for understanding the current geopolitics of the world. Mackinder's theory reminds us of two things that the Anglo-Saxon talossokratii never forget: the project of Europe as a great power can not, in principle, take place without a strong and independent Germany (Germany since 1945, is highly dependent on the United States), the second thing — a global counterweight to world domination United States is not possible without a strong Russia.
U.S. wants to "Global America". The goal of American foreign policy, not including elementary optimizing the economic and strategic interests, is the reconstruction of the world in the image of American society. U.S. take credit for the messianic role, which is an internal engine promotion of American power in the world. When Churchill and Roosevelt signed the Atlantic Charter in 1941, they have thus created their long-desired world government, whose task was to organize and promote the liberal and democratic globalization of the world.
Until 1947 the United States sought a rapprochement with the Soviet Union in order to, in partnership with them to establish a world government, but the essence of the American and Soviet desire to globalize the world were clearly with each other are not compatible. Two years after the collapse of Europe 1945, the Americans have realized that they can not build in the Soviet Union planned their liberal world order and resigned to the fact that they will have a geographically narrow down your project: Atlanticism temporarily replaced by globalization.
When in 1989 the Soviet Union began to sway, the dream came to life again, and globalization has spurred the U.S. to strengthen its presence in the world. On his deathbed, communism, a new global enemy as an excuse to expand U.S. influence in the world: Islamic terrorism.
During the Cold War with the Soviet Union the United States fueled Islamic terrorism so that it prevented the socialist revolutions in countries stretching toward Soviet Russia. Sunni Islamists were allies against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Then were born Sunni Islamic militants, and overall matrix Alkaid and Algerian Islamists.
Then there was the Shiite revolution in Iran in 1979, and the U.S. turned against the Shah of Iran. Calculation of Washington was that the Shiite revolution — in contrast to the Marxist revolution — will not go to a rapprochement with the Soviet Union and at the same time it will become a counterweight to the Sunni fundamentalists in the region.
In the Arab world, it was the "Muslim Brotherhood", from Egypt to Syria, which is sponsored by the United States. Washington provoke Iraq into a war with Iran, and vice versa, on the principle of "let them kill themselves" (let them kill each other), which the Americans have already tested in the case of Russia and Germany. The purpose of the Iraq war and Iran Washington saw the destruction of Arab nationalism, which contradicted Israeli interests in the region. This alliance with U.S. fundamentalist "Muslim Brotherhood" has experienced the collapse of the Soviet Union and has been involved for the destruction of Yugoslavia and the creation of two Muslim states in Europe: Kosovo and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Islamic fundamentalism was always benefit the United States, as in the fight against communism during the Cold War, and in his new role as the official enemy at the end of the bipolar world system. Of course, there are real Islamists in fact, they are not virtual mirage created by the United States. Islamists can really cause trouble and destabilize. But even if the Islamists are killing people, they do not change it in any way and can not change in their favor global balance of power among the world powers.
The war against radical Islamists, but only official cover much more of a real war: the U.S. war against the powers of Eurasia.
After the disappearance of the Soviet Union the Americans, it became clear that one of the powers of continental Eurasia, its combination of demographic and industrial potential of the masses, may hinder the implementation of the project "Global America", and that power — China. The dizzying rise of the financial industry and China against the United States similar to the situation in Germany, which in its development in anticipation of the First World War, the Anglo-Saxon thalassocracy caught up with being on the verge of their beat. And it was the most important cause of the First World War.
The logic of American strategists as follows: if China is using its economic power and geopolitical independence have become important world power, adhering to the same, and yet its Confucian model, which strongly protects China from Western democracy, it will mean the end of the project "Global America . " In this case, the Americans have to give up his famous principle of "fateful predestination» («Manifest Destiny») of America in 1845, and also reject the ideology of American messianism "founding fathers."
Already at the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union Americans reflected on the manner in which it was possible to prevent the rise of China. Probably they will then realize how relevant the logic of the theory of Mackinder. The Anglo-Saxons first done with the Eurasian project in Germany, then away with the same project in Russia, and now they must put an end to Eurasian project in China. Again the sea wanted to rein in the ground.
The war on terrorism and human rights are just an excuse to be shrouded in the real objective of the new Eurasian War: China as a target of this war, and Russia as a condition of winning the war. China is the purpose of this war, because it is the only country in the world that in the next 20 years can take away from the U.S. global supremacy. Russia as a condition of the U.S. victory in the war, because of the strategic deployment of Russia in one way or another depends on what configuration will take the global world of tomorrow: a unipolar or multipolar. As Russia decides, so be it around the world.
Against China, the U.S. has developed a new global strategy, which consists of several items:
— The expansion of the transatlantic block close to the borders of Russia and western China
— Establishing control over China's dependence on energy and resources
— The surroundings and the isolation of China with old and new alliances with traditional U.S., historical enemies of China (India, Vietnam, Japan, Korea, Taiwan)
— Liquidation balance of strategic nuclear weapons between the nuclear powers through the development of a global missile defense system the United States
— Instrumentalization of separatism for political purposes (in Serbia, Russia, and China to the borders of Indonesia), and redrawing of boundaries (in the Arab Middle East)
After 1990, Washington was hoping to win over Russia on its side to form a large transatlantic block from Washington to Moscow, in the middle of which was a European periphery, which since 1945 has been shifted to the Atlantic. This hope is expressed HW Bush in 1989 when he called for the Alliance "from Vancouver to Vladivostok." This alliance would be a union of white men under the command of U.S. hegemony, which is not as paradoxical as it may sound, since 2050 alone will total less than half of its white population.
Expansion of transatlantic block is a part of the first level of the great Eurasian game. The Americans have not only preserved NATO after the disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, but also gave it a military bloc new life: first, NATO has evolved from a military unit, which is based on the classical international law (military function in the event of aggression against a member of NATO) in the block with the right to military intervention. Second, NATO has increased due to the adoption of its countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The Baltic and the Yugoslav space (Kroatsiya, Bosnia, Kosovo) also came under the influence of NATO. To continue the expansion of NATO to the final encirclement of Russia Americans staged a so-called "orange revolution" (Georgia 2003, Ukraine 2004, Kyrgyzstan 2005) — peaceful regime change — that are organized and financed by U.S. foundations and NGOs, and were intended to put in place old new modes — anti-Russian. As soon came to power a pro-Western Ukrainian President Yushchenko, he immediately demanded the withdrawal of the Russian fleet from Crimea, Ukraine at the same time expressing a desire to join NATO. In exactly the same way he entered freshly president of Georgia in 2003, advocating for Georgia's membership in NATO and the withdrawal of Russian troops from the territory of Abkhazia and South Ossetii.
Until the day of September 11, 2001 the United States, with the help of NATO, to increase their influence in Europe. They increased the Albanian and Bosnian Islamism and at the same time deprived of Russian influence in the post-Yugoslav space. However, in 2000 there was an important event may be the most important event since the end of the Cold War (even more important than September 11, 2001): The coming to power of Vladimir Putin. It was one of those events that happen from time to time in history, returning to the natural balance of the impact of geopolitical constants of the historical process after the historic bursts.
Putin has been very clear and distinct program: using energy exports again to restore the power of Russia. Oligarchs had to remove control of the mineral resources of the country, because they almost did not care about the national interests of Russia. Putin has built a powerful oil (Rosneft) and gas (Gazprom) concerns which are instruments of public and strategic interests of Russia. But Putin still has not opened his cards as to what position Russia in the US-Japanese struggle. This question it left open. Some, including myself, held earlier view that the convergence of the U.S. and Russia will be a short-term and purely utilitarian nature of the conjuncture (the official U.S. doctrine of the war against terrorism would not allow the U.S. to put pressure on Russia because of its military actions in Chechnya), but in this case, and I and the other from the very beginning that Putin will seek to pursue a policy of independence of Russia, although there were others who believed that Putin is a pro-Western politician. Putin had to first resolve the conflict in Chechnya and the energy to put under the control of the state and it was the hardest task. One simple and clear criteria but pointed out that Putin returned to the basics of Russian great power politics: policy change in favor of Iran and the resumption of arms sales, as well as assistance to Iran's nuclear program in the conduct for civil purposes.
Why Putin's rise to power was so important an event? Although at first then it was not so clear, the coming to power of Putin's Russia meant the non-entry into the transatlantic alliance, which automatically meant the collapse of the unipolar world the United States, including the collapse of Grand Strategy (Grand Strategy) for China, which is supposed to break the backbone of China and those thus prevent the onset of a multipolar world order.
In addition, many Europeans do not immediately realize that Putin personified the effective response of global economic competition, the answer is that supposed economic competition between the countries in the world on the basis of their identity and their membership of a particular civilization. Perhaps Americans have understood it better than the Europeans. Do not confirmed this Bush Jr. in his own words about what he saw in Putin a man who without reserve devoted his life to the interests of Russia?
September 11, 2001 the Americans opened the opportunity to accelerate their program of Americanization of the world, ie establishment of unipolarity. In the name of the war against evil, which they themselves had created, Americans have without any delay: unlimited support of Europeans (ie, they stepped up, "Atlanticism" and at the same time weakened the "great power of Europe"), a temporary rapprochement with Russia (Russia went on this convergence to crush Islamic separatism in Chechnya); squeezing Chinese influence from the Muslim republics of the former Soviet Union in Central Asia through this time of US-Russian alliance, the U.S. presence at the border of China and the West on Russia's southern border in Afghanistan, the return and the growing influence of the United States in Southeast Asia.
But the euphoria of Americans in Central Asia lasted only 4 years old. Fearing at the Orange Revolution, the Uzbek government shooed Americans at the same time become acquainted with Russia, although he had a split second of Uzbekistan shall think to rise to great power in Central Asia, in contrast to his older brother Russia. Since 2005, Washington has begun to lose its position in Central Asia, as he increasingly retreats in Afghanistan, contrary to the requested assistance in additional troops from Europe, whose troops are not able to take in their hands the destiny of their own civilization in the fight against the Taliban-Pakistan alliance supported directly by China, which the U.S., in turn, tried to oust from Central Asia.
The Chinese are now again can dream about access to Kazakh oil and Turkmen gas in exchange for the construction of oil and gas pipelines in their own East Turkestan (province Sintsyan). Beijing also hopes that in the future Russia will balance its energy supplies to Europe deliveries to China (not only in China but also in India, Japan, South Korea, etc.).
Thus Putin's political game is brought before us in all its clarity. Russia started rapprochement with the United States for the suppression of Islamist terrorism in its territory, which was so badly weakened the country. But this approach Putin has in no way intended to abandon the legitimate interests of Russia: reunification with Ukraine (Ukrainian and Russian peoples are related, and in addition reunification with Ukraine would give Russia access to the Mediterranean Sea through the Black Sea from Sevastopol in the Crimea) and vospripyatstvovanie Georgia's accession to NATO. And if the United States and the European Union supported the independence of Kosovo, why deny Russia the right to promote the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, whose residents do not want to be a part of Georgia?
Mackinder was right. In the big game of the Central Asian Russia remains an important player. Putin's policies to a greater extent than China's policy of blocking the way to Washington, although the main goal of America — China, as the only potential challenger for the world championship among the great powers. It was exactly Putin's policies that created the energy axis Moscow-Tehran-Caracas, comprising a quarter of the world's proven reserves of oil and up to half of the gas (which will soon replace the oil). This axis represents a strategic counterweight to the United States belonging to the Arab gas and oil. United States intended to help control energy resources to China to pull the plug. But even if the United States controls oil and gas in Saudi Arabia and Iraq (1st and 3rd place respectively the world's proven oil reserves), the United States does not control nor Russia, Iran or Venezuela or Kazakhstan. On the contrary — these countries splochayutsya more and more closely. Together, they intend to put an end to the hegemony of the dollar in the global economy (this hegemony of the dollar allows the U.S. to force Europeans to pay the debts of the United States and help the bankrupt American banks).
No one has any doubt that the U.S. will try to put an end to this policy of Russia, putting pressure on neighboring countries to Russia. The Americans will also try to build an alternative to Russian oil and gas pipelines, because Russia has an extensive network of pipelines covering the whole of Eurasia and provides energy and Europe and Asia. But what can the Washington against the energy and strategic heart of Eurasia? Russia — a nuclear power. Those savvy Europeans, who are not blinded by the American media disinformation, know that they are more dependent on Russia than Russia from them. All of Asia, whose economy is now growing by leaps and bounds, eager Russian and Iranian oil and gas.
In these circumstances, and in the process of a multi-polar world, the Europeans would have brought a lot of good if they are now beginning to regain consciousness and waking up. Will the consciousness of Europeans in the current deep crisis in which they are now? Let us hope that this will be a positive consequence of the difficult situation in which the people of Europe will be in the next decade. "
Emerick Chauprade (Aymeric Chauprade)
About the Author:
The author Frenchman Emeric Chauprade (Aymeric Chauprade), studied at universities in Switzerland and the Sorbonne in Paris, has a scientific degree of Doctor of Political Science, an associate professor at the Military Academy of the General Staff in Paris in the period 1999-2009 (according to some sources was fired from there with scandal because of disagreements with management's vision of the geopolitical reality) is the author of fundamental works on geopolitics (below), is collaborating with a variety of magazines and newspapers as the author of articles (information about him in wikipedia in french:
has a website "Realpolitik" on geopolitics (
Proceedings in geopolitics
Geopolitique: Constantes et changements dans l'histoire (Geopolitics: fixed and variable values in the stories)
Dictionnaire de geopolitique. Etats, concepts, auteurs (Dictionary / Encyclopedia of geopolitics. Countries, concepts, authors)
Translation: Dmitry Backlash