Russian captain Nemo/19 March — Day of the Seafarer — Sub-Mariner

  Commander and designer of the first Russian military submarine "Dolphin" Mikhail Beklemishev.


In 1936, in Leningrad, in a house near the bridge over the Moika Potselueva, a 78-year life passed away quietly commander and designer of the first Russian military submarine "Dolphin" Mikhail Beklemishev.

Dying, he said to his son: "At my grave not go. For you I ever went to sea …"

Talk about this man is hard, because of all his remarkable life was only a couple of broken images but had never seen his grandson and granddaughter, whose memory has kept very little about his grandfather. It is overgrown grave in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Once upon a time made out of metal steel brainchild Beklemisheva — "Dolphin", even mortgage board did not survive for a long time lost in the depths of the archives and drawings of the first Russian submarine, so that they could not find them and the authors of the fundamental work "submarine in Russia." And yet …

Old Photo. With fractured obliquely mat, once decorated with gilt vignettes, sad and strictly looking gray-haired officer. On a white jacket shoulder straps captain of the first rank. Acute mustache and beard make him look like a Don Quixote. However, his contemporaries called him "Captain Nemo's Russian."

In winter 1525 on the banks of the Moscow River martial people of Grand Prince Vasily beheaded Beklemishev Ivan, a former ambassador to Poland and the Crimea — "for bold words against the Emperor." They say it happened against Moskvoretskaya towers of the Kremlin, and since then she called Beklemishev (There is another explanation — as if from the tower belonged to the Kremlin courtyard Boyar Beklemisheva. (Hereinafter — approx. Aut.)).

Rhode Beklemishevo gave Russian ambassadors and attendants, the governor and the Colonels … "Worthy comments — noted genealogist — that Prince Mikhail Pozharsky, the father of Prince Dmitry Mikhailovich, was married to Efrosin Beklemishevo Feodorovna, and Hilary Matveevich Golenischev-Kutuzov, the father of Prince Mikhail Kutuzov, Smolensk, and was married to a girl Beklemishevo , so that the main leaders of the Russian troops in the great years of 1612 and 1812 both occurred in women's knee Beklemishevo of names. "

To this we must add that in the veins of Alexander Pushkin Beklemishev blood flowing fraction (Prince Dmitry Pozharsky (Beklemishev) falls Pushkin cousin prapraschurom.).

In the ancestral arms Beklemishevo were lions and eagles. And if the revolution did not abolish the Department of Heraldry, in the ancient coat of arms, perhaps, there would be a new character — a dolphin.

No one knows where or when the first submarine. As stated by Aristotle, Alexander the Great has descended into the water in the glass barrel with full military purpose — to explore booms Tyre.

The submarine was born as a weapon of revenge — a secret and merciless. Whenever the shores of the country, has the weak navy, others were marching squadron, the Patriots enthusiasts urged their admirals to hit the enemy out of the water: projects underwater Tara, minors, and even submarines were put forward one after the other. Submarines invented by monks and photographers, retired lieutenant and political criminals, serious engineers and incompetent adventurers. And the case took professionals: naval engineer and sailor-miner — Bubnov and Beklemishev. One only twenty-eight, he had just graduated with honors Naval Academy (his name is engraved on a marble slab), the second is not young — he was over forty, and he swam a lot, commanding gunboats coastal defense. Agreed talent and audacity, experience and calculation. The work was conducted in the strictest secrecy. It was forbidden to use in documents and correspondence of the word "submarine". Underwater ship was known first as the "destroyer number 113." Then, replaced the name of the room — "Dolphin", and then years and years even submarine disguised term "torpedo" Dolphin ".


Before you start working, Beklemishev, a little-known teacher of mine Kronstadt classes, visited the United States, England, Germany and Italy — in countries where a frantic pace, looking at the neighbors — do not be overtaken — built submarines. Beklemishev unable to attend during one of the dive boats of the famous American inventor Holland.

Any designer, before sitting down at the drawing table, exploring all that is created in his area colleagues and predecessors. It did so with the Bubnov Beklemishev — they have integrated information obtained Mikhail Nikolayevich, and developed their original project, whose basic principles are respected Russian shipbuilders fifteen years.

By 1900, in any of the world fleet was fighting submarines. But in the first three years of the new century maritime powers vying started building underwater torpedo — America, France, Germany, Italy, England … Do not fall behind, and Russia, and in some ways, and ahead …

If you compare the two commensurate boat — Russian "Dolphin" and the American "Fulton" (the firm of Holland), the comparison would not be in favor of overseas designers.
"Dolphin" sank to twenty feet deep, "Fulton" (50 and 30 meters) above the water quickly went on a half knot, twice the power was armed (two torpedo tubes instead of one). The only thing he conceded, "Fulton" — a cruising range.

Immediately after the "Dolphin" Bubnov with Beklemishev drafted a new boat with a large displacement — 140 tons. Head ship called the "Killer Whale". After it went "Scat", "burbot", "mackerel" …

Russian submarine fleet came not from the backwater. Fiery whirlpool Russian-Japanese war drew a newborn ships directly from the stocks. Flimsy, dangerous to their crews rather than to the enemy, they boldly went diving boats in the sea do not even — in the Pacific Ocean and took up positions there.

RECORD WITNESS: "… Early in the morning — wrote in his diary, the commander of the submarine" Killer Whale "- Lieutenant Michael Teder, I saw on the horizon, some haze, why immediately began to raise the anchor. Shortly clearly taken shape silhouettes of six destroyers, which steered a course straight for me. Assuming that this is the enemy destroyers, I was about to start a dive to take the attack submerged, but … remembered the injunction authorities — not to dive.

Here's the thing. My superiors, sending me into the sea, and of course, knowing well how experience snorkeling I possessed, having the most insignificant of his course, and fearing to take responsibility in the event of the death of my crew and the boat disaster, has decided to get out of a difficult situation and gave me just in case the injunction is, of course, verbal — during this "fighting campaign" — not to dive …

It was impossible not to bow to each of the commands of our unit. That have driven him here, on submarines, in a crucible of danger, where every minute could cost him his life, where each lay a mass of responsibility and hard work, at a time when the big battleship, he could almost get rid of them. The officer could still count on us every kind of "well-being", because nothing like he could not wait for the sailor, yet how many of selfless service was evident in his every step on the boat, how many ideological performing his duty, is alien to any selfish purposes. "

In fact, they were polueksperimentalnye samples that have not been really any factory or field testing, with nedoobuchennymi teams with bezopytnymi officers. But even in such a family of steel Dolphin inspired serious concerns about the Japanese fleet. Ships Mikado did not dare to come close to Vladivostok with its desperate submarines. And let them into the sea Beklemishev. He also did a tysyacheverstny way with their first child.

But the first was still "Dolphin" 1903 birthday …

Old Photo. Which antiquity breathes when you look at photos of "Dolphin", which lies next to the image submarine. It's hard to believe that this frail bark and mighty steel giant underwater separates only some fifty years — incomplete human life.

Upper conning-tower hatch closing as beer mug, hinged lid round, angular contours, hilenkie mast and samovar type air intake. But it's founder. Honor and glory to him! Otsalyutuyte him flags, submarine cruiser.

According to custom, bridge builders, the author of the project was getting under the span during the passage of trains, demonstrating their confidence in the calculations, the first Beklemishev first immersed in his "Dolphin", and then led the first crew of volunteers and ten sailors, the two officers. With commander — thirteen sailors.

Seventeen times sinking "Dolphin", and each had a deadly risk. Eighteenth proved fatal. Beklemishev that day for service he moved to Kronstadt. He is replaced by a senior officer Lieutenant Cherkasov.

Record witness: "Pilot boat, usually accommodating twelve people, began to dive for practice and training team, with thirty and seven men, of whom, except the commander, had two more officers.

The dive on the spot — the boat took in water ballast tanks. Has remained low buoyancy. The boat was ready to sink to the bottom, just had to close the main cover and destroy the remaining buoyant.

But at this time far from the dive site took the steamer; wave of him ran to the boat, covered her and looked into yet unclosed door. That was enough to cover open it rushed to the bottom.

The horror of death for the first time bound mind had seen in an uncovered manhole gushing water. The great danger, however, quickly brought the people out of his stupor. Rushed to close the lid … earned lowering mechanism … Immediately dropped and the rapidity of flow … Here was the mechanism, the lid covered. Salvation is still possible — water flooded only part of the boat — the air may be sufficient until help arrives from the outside … Break out the cries of relief, but then break off and freeze — the water keeps coming …

Cover, it turns out, is not closed to the place, one of the crew, the closest to the exit hatch, he sought salvation through the door and was on the verge of it, but the underwater vessel was not willing to part with his victim, and captured close at this time, cover, man was crushed by it: only his bones were opposed embrace the vessel that he entrusted his life, they and did not allow the hatch to close the place.

Water was coming. It was getting hard to breathe.

All the ways to find salvation seemed to have been exhausted.

In the minds were already a few. They were in the water up to his chest, but a desperate struggle with death continued … Some hovered near the exit hatch … Finally someone has to open the lid again … water quickly ran inside, condensed from the air pressure began to struggle out … Unseen hand of fate has sent some elected to the output through the hatch and threw it on the surface of the water. Since escaped from thirty-seven of the twelve men, selected from the boat, that is just as much as this boat had to accommodate during their normal dive, since the project crew of the boat was limited to just that number.

And the commander was killed (meaning Lieutenant Cherkasov.). Lacking experience, young in diving, he ruined himself and caused the death of most of the crew entrusted to him. Who is to blame? .. "

These lines are written Lieutenant Teder, Cherkasova, who replaced the deceased as a Senior Officer of the first submarine ("Dolphin" sank in shallow water, and a few days later it was raised.). The second officer was succeeded Kronstadt diving school teacher Lieutenant Ivan Riznich. The June accident did not dampen fervent faith of the two officers in the future of scuba diving. On the contrary, made them passionate advocates of ideas Beklemisheva. Now without a shadow of a doubt we can say: the commander of the "Dolphin" was enviable assistants. After a while, every one of them, having Beklemishevskaya school will become the commander of the submarine: Teder — "Stingray" Riznich — "Sterlet". In the Russian-Japanese war Teder led his "Scat" in military campaigns — that was the first in the history of sea warfare raids submarines. Riznich tested new submarine crews prepared for them. And Teder and Riznich were dismissed from the Navy in one year — over fierce criticism of the Admiralty, who did not want to see a submarine formidable weapons. Then both took up pens and began to defend the rightness of their views in the press:

"Submariners — the sailors of the future!" — Prophetically exclaimed Teder. And just as prophetically claimed Riznich, necessarily became for a time a merchant bicycles: "… I do not see nothing impossible in the appearance, perhaps in the near future, a submarine with a displacement of 18,000 tons."

"With special urgency — wrote the historian of Russian submarine fleet GM Cowards — a problem of preparation of teams and officers for the construction of submarines. In those years, in Russia there was no organization for the training of submarine. The only authority in this matter was considered Beklemishev, and laid him on the training of personnel for the construction of submarines. "

Then, a few years later, to replace Beklemishev come first "underwater Admiral" — the hero of Port Arthur, a former commander of the battleship "Retvizan" — Edward N. Schensnovich. He will lead the training squad submarines, whose old body is still standing in Liepaja (Libau was then). A major-general of the Admiralty Beklemishev become head of the department of scuba diving in the Naval Staff, a member of the Naval Technical Committee. With what wonder and delight with which the first submarine class, students saw the lecture Schensnovicha with them and outline Beklemishev Bubnov. Founders of Russian scuba diving, not boasting of ranks, experience, merit, held together with young midshipmen and newly made lieutenants All training officer submarine fleet. They understand how important it is to strengthen the credibility of the new fleet business, raise in the eyes of the sailors podvodnitskoy prestige profession. Alas, at the time he was small.

"Few of the officers of the fleet dreamed of service on submarines — admitted one of the first graduates of the squad lieutenant Vasily Merkushev (During the First World War, Captain 1st rank VA Merkushev, the commander of the submarine" perch ", was one of the most daring divers. Awarded St. George's arms.) — barely move, and fraught with bad plunging into its technical nerazrabotannosti a lot of trouble. Prior to 1910 there was a case where an officer commanded two or even three boats when on a boat, but her commander, was not a single officer. However, to the beginning of the war, all we had quite a decent and well-trained personnel. "

Much credit for that was Mikhail Nikolayevich Beklemisheva. Together with other devotees of the underwater case, breaking the barriers of mistrust and routine, he managed to have a shipbuilding program in 1909 was provided for and the broad development of submarine forces. By 1921, a Russian submarine fleet was supposed to have 15 admirals, 881 officers, and more than 10,000 sailors and conductors.

Old Photo. Among the sailors in his cap cocked jauntily pea jackets and wide-open, joyfully and boldly staring at the photographer, — grizzled naval general. His eyes slightly confused.

This yellowed snapshot saved granddaughter Beklemisheva — Natalia.

According to family legend, he was placed in Kronstadt — the first day of the February revolution. Beklemishev on official business had to spend the night on one of the ships. He slept peacefully through the night and in the morning, looking in the wardroom, he found it empty. All officers of the ship were arrested, some — shot. Its the same general, not just the sailors were spared, and asked permission to take a picture with him — the father of the first Russian military submarine.

At the time he was fifty-nine years. At this age, it is difficult to change beliefs. Yes he does and did not change: after the October Revolution continued to do what has devoted his life. Especially as the Red Fleet much needed submarines.

On the orders of Lenin's two "liner" — "Lamprey" and "Mackerel" — were deployed to the Volga to the Caspian Sea. One of them — "Mackerel" — was the brainchild of Beklemisheva. A little later, from Petersburg to Astrakhan gains two more Bubnov-Beklemishevskaya subs — "Killer Whale" and "perch". Together, they made division.

"Mackerel" — Beklemishev commanded by two years after the "Dolphin" — wore a red flag and was part of the Navy of the Astrakhan region before the end of 1925. In November, with the "Killer Whale", "Lamprey" and "Perch" she was scrapped.

"Dolphin" also sailed for almost fifteen years. Knew he waters of the Baltic and the Pacific, the White and Barents Seas. The fate tossed his preizryadno … In April, 17-year "Dolphin" was standing in the harbor of St. Catherine, in the Kola Bay.

A strong spring storm that hit is usually a safe haven, proved fatal for two (and only some of their fleet in the Arctic Ocean had two) submarines — № 1 and "Dolphin".

Record witness: "You donoshen — wrote in his report to the commander of the submarine number one lieutenant Slavic — that on April 26 at 6 pm 30 am I was awakened by the watch, and reported that the boat as if sinking. I ordered immediately to put the pump and pump out all the time, and he quickly got dressed and went on deck. I saw that the boat has sunk to the deck. Seeing clearly that it is sinking and that the hoses to pump it did not have time to cook, I ordered the cast off and move it closer to the shore to a shallower depth, where it finally sank.

I suppose that the flow has turned from shock in the wake of a storm of barriers hydroplanes submarine "Dolphin" because the fenders were driven from the place of worry, and probably sold somewhere seam or knocked out a few rivets. "

"Dolphin" is also hurt. Since it was removed copper fittings, periscope and put into port for parts. Silver mortgage board took one of the officers, probably emigrated abroad. Perhaps this priceless relic and is now kept in someone's private collection.

In the first years of Soviet power retired general of the Admiralty Beklemishev served as a junior counselor at the College of Military Shipbuilding: was in charge of the construction and repair of naval ships.

In 1924, he was appointed captain of the vessel experienced "Mikula" — a floating laboratory wave control Ostekhbyuro. Beklemishev entrusted to participate in the work of major military importance. It was about the radio-controlled vehicles — torpedo boats without crew.

Record witness"In 1927, in the port of Leningrad Rowing SEC Chairman VV Kuibyshev — wrote Rear Admiral B. Nikitin in his memoirs — demonstrated radio control … small boat "Wasp". We went on a boat. It was strange to watch, doing radio commands, "it is" beginning to work arrangements, start the engine, were shifted steering wheel. "

Beklemishev was twelve years old when Jules Verne coined the literary voyage of his "Nautilus". He was in his late sixties, when he resumed his exercise idea worthy of another novel by the great science fiction.

If you believe the directories of the Maritime Office, the Beklemishev a lifelong bachelor. But it is not. The fact that the drafters of reference books, as well as the next of kin of Mikhail Nikolayevich, refused to recognize the marriage Stolbovoye nobleman, a naval officer with … daughter of a laundress. It so happened that one day the washerman, do all the washing Beklemisheva, ill, and shone white shirt brought him to the apartment of her daughter Ludmila — a girl of extraordinary beauty. Its something, defying caste customs, and called Beklemishev his wife. In 1908 Ludmila Esperovna gave him a son.

Recipient of the first-born had an older brother Mikhail Nikolayevich — Nicholas Beklemishev wonderful sailor hydrograph, after which to this day on the cards Bering Sea is listed "Mountain Beklemisheva".
Of course, with such a heredity pervonarechennomu Vladimir way in the world had no choice. He came to the ship as a deckhand. Then he graduated from the naval college, I went on a foreign line of Leningrad — Le Havre — London. Soon became a captain, led the bulk carrier "Pioneer", "Repin". During the Great Patriotic War, commanded a military license plate transport. The Order of Lenin, the Order of the Red Banner, World War II — His reward. In honor of the oldest and well-deserved named the new captain of the Baltic ocean lifeguard — "Captain Beklemishev."

The son of Vladimir Mikhailovich, named after his grandfather, Michael, too, became a sailor. He graduated from the Nautical School of the Admiral Makarov, went to distant seas and in Australia, and Cuba. The captain of the Baltic shipyard, the one where at the dawn of the century his grandfather launches "Dolphin", the ancestor of the current atomarin …

Beklemisheva great-grandson, Cyril, served in the Air of the Moscow Military District.

Glorious old no translation.

Any student will tell you who built the first Russian steam locomotive or an airplane. But, alas, not every sailor will call the names of the creators of the first Soviet submarine.

In the evaluation of human affairs we have come to rely on the time it will judge all by itself, sooner or later, the descendants will appreciate and will pay homage to each according to his works. Sooner or later … More often — too late, as seen on the fate Beklemisheva.

Yet every year the face of the man more clearly emerges from obscurity. Here's meticulous archivists found the design drawings "Dolphin" and the magazine "Shipbuilding" published them. Then the Tallinn Maritime Museum a portrait of M. Beklemishev — and exactly the same (made with the same worn-out photos) hanging over the model "Dolphin" at the Museum of the Higher Naval School of Diving. I am sure, will be released on the sea space ship with the name Michael Beklemisheva on board. Maybe it will be a street in Leningrad. And a plaque. And stand in the Central Naval Museum. All of this — only a very modest tribute "Russian Nemo."



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