Specialists of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian manufactured and launched in Spain superconducting synchrotron radiation generator — the brightest in the world in a range of "soft" X-rays, which enables high-precision study chemical and biological processes, for example, the behavior of atoms during chemical reactions and structure of protein molecules,, told RIA Novosti the project Nikolay Mezentsev.
Synchrotron radiation is emitted when accelerating or braking, the charged particles such as electrons traveling at nearly the speed. First physics encountered this phenomenon in the 1940s by electron synchrotrons, circular accelerators, when we discovered that this radiation is a considerable percentage of energy.
However, in the 1960s, scientists discovered that this radiation is an excellent tool for studying the internal structure of matter. Synchrotron installation gave a narrow monochromatic beam of very high brightness, far surpassing its parameters radiation X-ray machines. With this radiation can be visible in the lumen of the structure of matter at the atomic level, the structure of protein molecules.
Physicists at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Budker (INP SB RAS) create wigglers — "Heads" on a synchrotron in which the flow of electrons passes through the "cake" of the layers of the magnetic fields of different directions. The magnetic field causes the electrons change direction and generate a powerful stream of synchrotron radiation. Siberian scientists have set collected from superconducting magnets, in which the electrons change direction 119 times its flight, to achieve ultra-high brightness light.
"The radiation that generates our equipment has unique properties — the photon flux density is so high that it allows a very high quality of the sample to see, whether it is a living cell or nanostructure of the new material," — said Mezentcev.
According to him, if the previous generation facilities to receive images seconds left, the new bright source gives him less than a millionth of a second.
"Now it is possible to study the dynamics of fast processes, which were not available," — said the scientist.
He noted that in the world today is a race to increase the brightness of synchrotron radiation sources, as well as to reduce the duration of the light pulses. With the advent of sources with short electron beams and high brightness will be able to analyze the processes of femtosecond (10? 15 seconds).
This short flash allows you to "take a picture" is very fast processes, for example, to see what happens to the atoms of the explosive during detonation — Today, such studies are carried out only in the INP.
"Compared with previous installations that we have done for other foreign centers, the brightness of the beam (in Spanish installation) increased by hundreds of times in the same field of energy. This allows you to carry out an experiment at a significantly different level of measurement. Detailed and accurate portrayal of the structure of the object without the attendant noise enables an order of magnitude better define the structure of matter, "- says Mezentcev.
"In particular, from these small parts directly related activities and operation of developed drugs," — he added.
At this point in the INP for various foreign centers of synchrotron radiation has made 15 such generators.
Already begun work on the creation of wigglers for biomedical research contracts with the Australian and U.S. centers. In the coming months planned to conclude contracts for the development of such systems with German scientists and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, as well as for the Synchrotron Radiation Center at the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow.