Scientists from the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. MM Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute opened in the venom of the wolf spider substance that serves as a potent analgesic than morphine and is not addictive. Now it takes place pre-clinical trials.
Pain — the main reason why people go to the doctor. This kind of signal: if it hurts, it means that something is wrong and we must take action. But there are pathological persistent pain that signal the most dysfunctional neuronal systems and the transfer of the pain signal. Such, for example, phantom pain — the pain is nothing, but still hurts. In such cases, in the course are painkillers. These or other side effects have all the prescription drugs, the most powerful of them — opioids — are addictive. Therefore, scientists are constantly in search of new analgesics.To develop a new drug, you must first determine which receptors in the human body, it has to act. Detailed mechanisms of pain are not fully understood. According to a simplified model of the main receptor systems involved in the generation of pain, focused on nociceptive neurons. Based on these receptors can create cell test system where receptors will function as in vivo and trace their activity in response to one or other substances which scientists synthesized or extracted from natural sources for creating chemical libraries.
However, a set of chemical substances in the library quite accidental, so the likelihood that they will act on the target receptors, and even necessary way low. They can serve as an alternative to poison spiders, scorpions, ants, snakes and other animals, including sea. They represent a natural chemical library, a substance in which evolutionary process were chosen so as to effectively act on receptors victims. Poison
Yevgeny Grishin, head of the Laboratory of neuroreceptors and neyroregulyatorov IBCh
To search for analgesic molecule the researchers chose receptors that play a key role in the generation of pain. Then they have genes encoding one of the receptors, and is created based on the test system. For this purpose we used roe African clawed frogs. In the frog eggs were injected RNA encoding a receptor. Scientists have worked to ensure berry produced and inserted into a membrane only required to study receptors, and thus in large numbers.
Much of the receptors associated with the transmission of ions through the cell membrane by ion channels. Track receptor can work by measuring current which creates a flow of ions through the channel. To this end, the eggs summed electrodes poison dripped on it and saw how it acts on the receptor. Finding the right poison, scientists have divided it into molecules that have established their structure, and then recreated artificially. The individual synthesized molecules tested on the test system by the substance that acts on the receptor is desired. For further investigations it was producing microbial factory of genetically modified Escherichia coli. As explained by Yevgeny Grishin, "with a lot of spider venom did not work — only a few micrograms of a single individual — and breed them specifically for the experiments is more complicated than getting the right material with the help of bacteria."
Currently, the laboratory staff found an analgesic molecule preclinical trials held in Pushchino branch of the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. The survey should take one and a half years. To pay for this work, the scientists have received a separate grant of the Russian Ministry. The future plans of the laboratory — to find substances that affect the other identified receptors are involved in the transmission of pain signals to be able to reliably suppress pain. In parallel, researchers are working with colleagues from the Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, analyzing the poison sea anemones, sponges, sea squirts and other marine animals.
Work was supported by the Federal Program "