Scientists at the Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences together with together with the Medical Research Institute for Northern Problems of Medical Sciences and Department of Food Technology, Krasnoyarsk State Trade and Economic Institute conducted a study revealing the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in human metabolism. These studies form the basis of new practical dietary guidelines.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are not synthesized in the body, but are essential for normal growth. Furthermore, they are present in brain tissue, the retina and breast milk. Most important for human omega-3 fatty acids are alpha linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It is believed that the most important natural source of polyunsaturated fatty acids — fatty sea fish. PUFAs are produced in the form of dietary supplements.
"In humans, DHA and EPA synthesis is absolutely indispensable from alpha-linolenic acid, but it provides only a 5% physiological needs, as 95% we have to get out of the food, — Says the Deputy Director of the Institute of Biophysics Professor, Doctor of Biological Sciences Mikhail Gladyshev. — The only organisms in the biosphere that can effectively synthesize these acids are mikrovorodosley some taxa, such as diatoms, algae cryptophytae. Land animals and people get on the food chain PUFA: microalgae — small invertebrates — fish. Our laboratory is moving in the studies on the chain — from algae to fish, animals and humans. "
Studies on the effect of PUFA on the human body began with the fact that scientists have tried to figure out why in Japan and northern peoples very low rates of heart disease, while in developed countries the disease — the main cause of mortality. It turned out, heart health depends on eating fish.
According to the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in the first place among the causes of cardiovascular disease are stress, the second — poor nutrition. Lack of food unsaturated fatty acids leads to low stress and frustration of the system of regulation of blood clotting.
It has long been known that cooking destroys PUFA. When heated pure acids is infringement of chemical structure. But PUFA found in fish in the cell membranes, they are "packed", surrounded by proteins including the heat shock proteins. Therefore, the thermal treatment they hardly affected. The required dosage of fatty acids contained in fish midstream (80-100 g) from 0.2 to 1.8 g of EPA / DHA.
Scientists have made a list of the types of fish that provide us with the daily share of PUFA: salmon need to eat about 150 g, 200 g of herring, plaice — 250 g cod — 400, the most striking was the fact that is particularly rich in PUFA canned fish! "When the water goes canning and short-chain acids. Therefore, the canned herring (in acetic oil filling) contains 2 times more EPA and DHA than in fresh. She needs to eat 60 grams, but the champion was saury. It must be a total of 40 grams per day, which is about a fifth of the banks ", — says Mikhail Gladyshev.
The studies were conducted in conjunction with the Medical Research Institute for Northern Problems of Medical Sciences and Department of Food Technology of the Krasnoyarsk State Trade and Economic Institute. The results of the work published in international journals.