Staff Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine (ICBFM) SB RAS under the guidance of Academician Valentin Vlasov synthesized 22-mer double-stranded RNA which inhibits the growth of tumor cells and stimulates the synthesis of IFN. The invention protected by the patent scientists of the Russian Federation № 2391405.
Their work was supported by the program of the Presidium of RAS "Fundamental science — medicine", "Molecular and Cell Biology", "Fundamental research of nanotechnology and nanomaterials" for Basic Research, Laurentian competition of youth projects of SB RAS and interdisciplinary integration project of SB RAS number 41. Preparations based on interferon stimulate the immune system and thereby suppressing the growth of malignant tumors . However, their use can be very limited, because they cause in patients inflammation and allergic reactions. Therefore, doctors try to use not the interferon and drugs that stimulate the synthesis thereof in the patient’s body. As such, Russian and foreign experts try different sequences of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which are now experiencing in cell cultures.
Scientists ICBFM RAS synthesized biologically active dsRNA consisting of 22 units. Its action is tested on cultures of human epidermoid carcinoma cells and human embryonic kidney cells. After the RNA was introduced into cells epidermoid carcinoma their division rate dropped to 3-3.5 times. Fission rate healthy embryonic kidney cells also decreased, but only 1.5 times. The control RNA, which has a slightly different sequence, had no effect on cell division epidermoid carcinoma — both cancerous and normal. Scientists theorize that the "therapeutic" dsRNA interacts with the cellular enzyme ds-RNA-dependent protein kinase R. The enzyme protects the body from mammalian viruses whose genome contains the dsRNA inhibiting the division of infected cells. When the cell gets "medical" molecule enzyme reacts to it as a virus and does not allow this cell to multiply.
The scientists also examined the ability of the drug to cause the synthesis of interferon. After the culture of human macrophages treated with dsRNA cells were synthesize interferon? three times more active. This molecule, unlike other known drugs based on RNA hardly causes inflammation. Authors believe that the resulting product would be their useful in treating tumors.