In autumn 2009 during the military exercises in the Baltic Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was given to domestic knife combat swimmer "Qatran." This event is for some reason very excited the media, and soon flashed in the media of publications on this weapon. Emerged, and the name of its author — Igor disappeared. But the information about the blade in the press, to put it mildly, is not quite true. Creation of some types of weapons often has a rather interesting history. About virtually any product, taken into service, it is possible to write adventure novels. And often the real story is mixed with fiction and various legends. Over time, the legend may well supplant what really happened. This is what happened during the development of a new blade for combat swimmers. Topic called "Needle", and the knife informal name "Sea Devil" (a name he was given themselves frogmen on his trials).
Probably like most of these developments, it would have remained known only to a narrow circle of his people, but history decided differently. The exercise, which took place in the Baltic Sea in the autumn of 2009, this knife was given to the President of the Russian Federation. For some unknown reason, for me, it caused a great deal of interest to arms by the media. In the best traditions of our country all mixed up. So the correspondent of "Komsomolskaya Pravda" of the Naval Staff said that the knife is called "Qatran", and a little strained even remember the name of the developer — someone has disappeared. This is very surprising, because as a rule, the authors of such developments nobody knows. I myself have learned that my product has been the President of the first news when gave a knife, and then out of the newspaper, where a surprise was able to contemplate his own name. However, despite the mistakes, some things in this story was true. And Knife "Qatran," and I have a new development very relevant.
It all started in the 90s. Then the Navy has attended the replacement blade DDP standing armed frogmen. DDP stands for "universal diving knife." Indeed, this model has been designed and universal, not just for combat swimmers, but also for the Navy divers. And after all these professionals are completely different tasks. So for the diver knife is primarily a tool for combat swimmer and he and tools, and weapons. So fortunate to take into account in a model of ability to perform such diverse tasks does not always work. In addition, the DDP just morally outdated. There were a purely structural errors and problems with the choice of material. Since the blade length of 180 mm and a thickness of 4 mm had a double sharpener — regular and saw-tooth, which was located on the butt. At the root of it was carried out a cross-slot for bending and breaking the wire, but the place chosen for it is very unfortunate, because this is where there are the greatest bending moments, and the slit itself serves as an excellent stress concentrator, and thus weakens the blade. The overall impression is that the developers of this knife is not even heard of such a boring science as sopromat.
Knife handle is made of plastic, which does not have the necessary strength and slip in your hand. Position several rescues handle shape and corrugation. In this handle looks suspiciously like a knife handle PROMYSLOVAYA number 1, is issued as a hunting. The scabbard is also made of plastic, in which the knife is fixed in two ways — by snapping the primary fixation in the guard, the role played by the second locking element slip on a rubber ring. Such attention to fixing the knife is not accidental, it should ensure maximum reliability as to remain under water without a knife, at least not safe. After all, for the diver knife — a means of self-insurance.
Blade carried out the corrosion stability and polished steel 40X13. This is the right decision in terms of corrosion resistance, but very unfortunate for the combat knife, as the gloss polished edge — unmasks a strong factor. Besides, the steel 40X13 is not the best option, as the bad holds an edge. As you can see, the DDP really has a lot of disadvantages. There was another model that was used divers — is a scout knife NR-2. Despite the fact that it was designed for ground operations, it has been used and frogmen. HP-2 excellent combat knife, but its use as a submarine was still a necessary measure. In addition, he lacked the length of the blade. The main scuba knife and remained DDP. The new knife to replace it proposed to develop me.
So a theme of "Motorcade", according to the TOR (terms of reference), which is a promising model for combat knife should be a symbiosis between combat knife, a knife and a diver’s knife survival. This flexibility is largely a forced measure, as the sea commandos operating in different environments, both on land and at sea. In this case, it is the only knife edged weapons and tools in one. In the development of the knife was charged with the requirement that it had to cut the diver’s hose, reinforced with wire. So the knife appeared Saw specific form. It seems to consist of two types of saws. One big-step, similar to the wave-like sharpening, the other has small teeth located at these wavelengths. Such sawing the teeth and soft fibrous materials and metal (for that design was patented blade).
Another feature of the knife — is the presence of a strong and airtight canister under the NAE (portable emergency) was hermetically sealed lid, which can play the role of the hammer. Pencil made of steel since it must maintain tightness depth. He also served as the basis for a power grip. Therefore, the knife can be safely handle change and do it out of different material. The blade has a hole for attaching to a sheath, and then converted to a knife cutters. This design was borrowed from the bayonet. The blade is made of steel corrosion stability and has the added anti-reflective and protective coating of black chrome. Knife handle has been made of rubber. She had developed a metal pommel, handle located at the very podpaptsevye projections and transverse corrugations. All this is helped reliable retention blade as in the bare hand, and a hand wearing a thick glove diving. This model was developed, but never released. Were made only prototypes and to handle them is made of plastic. In the experimental model was modified canister lid, it is made frustoconical for applying it strikes enemy shocking.
By the time the prototype in metal, Navy lost interest in this development, or rather he had big financial problems, and it was just not up to the knife, which probably would have stayed in the form of prototypes, if they were not interested in the Tula FSB . Thanks to Major Sergei Velmezevu, an order for a small number of these knives was placed on the arms factory, has released his firm ACBA-TOZ. In this case, the sample was transformed into a model of land. Handle rubber was replaced by the handle from the tree. It was justified by the requirements of new customers who wanted to "warm" the handle and capabilities of the plant. It did not want to make a mold for the production of small series and used for the production of waste is the main arms production.
Therefore, most of the knife handle is made of aged walnut. Although there were other versions, good design is allowed without any problems.
Has been modified and the cover Naz. It has become flat again, as in the original embodiment. With the blade removed the hole to mate with wire cutters because they are rejected. Scabbards were made of leather with a steel liner, which was made of stainless steel and the well fixed the blade due to its resiliency. By order sheath supplied with an additional cover made of camouflage fabric. This model is a small amount entered service some units of the FSB. Actually this piece was called "Qatran." This recognition came to him with the beginning of the first Chechen war.
As it turned out, in the conduct of local war, the role of personal equipment, including knives. Fighting properties "Katrana" rose to the occasion. Undulating Saw played the role of shock tooth that inflicts a terrible wound, and not cling to clothing, that is, he was not the main shock minus the teeth of the extraction. Doctors who saw the wounds inflicted with this knife, even expressed the idea that it should be banned as not humane weapons, like guns can be humane. "Qatran" in this version was officially adopted for the Special Forces Emergency "Leader". It is also used in some parts of the Federal Security Service and Interior Ministry. According to some reports were issued only about 3,000 knives. Since it or not, is now difficult to verify, but in general, I think that figure is close to reality. However, the fate of the knife there was not the best way. Immediately after the fighting has stopped its production, since potential customers simply do not have the money. After a number of reasons it was not renewed.
"Qatran ‘first series produced in different versions. For example, a version of the knife on which a wavy saw replaced by two rows of saw of conventional type. In fact, this modification has become a common survival knife, as it has all the signs of it (the presence of the saw and the capacity for NAE). There were other modifications. But now these knives is a rarity, having a serious collector’s value. Connoisseurs of knives called them "Qatran-1", although officially this name was not.
The demand for "Qatran" forced to start production of its mini version. Development of new models led my company "NOX". Simplification of the design was done with the real combat use of the knife. In pencil case under the knife disappeared NAE changed the shape of the blade (it was massive), simplified guard, handle vsadnogo type of steel made from different materials. The most common are wood, leather and composing craton. Despite the presence of Kraton handle, the knife was not considered as underwater and came with a sheath of leather. In addition, the blade had not painted black, and the frosting, which makes it less resistant to corrosion, especially in a maritime climate. In fact, the first model was only a wave-like drink. This model is called "Qatran-2" (that’s her in the press and touted as the new combat knife, designed under the theme of "Needle", which was a mistake).
In this modification, the other was produced and on which the saw on the butt has been replaced by a second sharpened edge. This sharpened edge had a greater angle and was designed to bridge. This model is called "Qatran-3." Such replacement Pipa on chopping surface is quite reasonable, since the knife will be used in ground conditions. The third modification of this knife was issued at the request of the 45th Airborne Regiment. It changed a saw, it is made in the style of blade bayonet. Why do we need this replacement issue — a complex, but such was the desire of the customer.
On the basis of combat models produced and household consumer version. It differed from the fighting knives just sawed the tip. Later, he began to make a flat-head screwdriver. I must say that this version is not much different in their combat potential of the combat version, as the screwdriver is capable of applying effective thrust without any alteration. This modification is very popular among fans of knives. Some bought it for subsequent alterations, in any case, I have seen these knives. As you can see, based on a successful model there was a clutch of different modifications that have gone far enough in the evolution of its progenitor. Unlike "Katrana-1", these models never officially adopted were not accepted and produced mainly by orders of individual units.
With "Qatran" was associated almost a detective story. It was bought by Latvia to one of the arms of the police. And his rival in this tender was an American "Ka-Bar". From the series "katranov" this version differed only in the presence of logos units and the complete lack of other markings. Especially requested that nowhere in the inscriptions, allowing to identify the knife as a weapon, made in Russia. However, the manufacturer firm "Melita-K" did not care for than to make money, and the order was made.
Meanwhile, the newly emerged badly need a knife to equip combat swimmers, and this time it was solved in complex, as was the development of a set of arms, which was supposed to come in and a new knife. Quite naturally, the Navy and offered to drive the development of this company "NOX", as we have already had experience of such work. Topic called "Needle". The problems began with the approval of TOR, it laid the criteria that simply was not possible to combine. Desire military, who finally got the money for new developments, have the best of the possible it was clear, but sometimes it is more like a whim.
However, soon all the points have been agreed TOR and work began on the project. In many ways, this design is reminiscent of "Qatran", but in a simplified form. At the request of the customer in the knife had to be present pliers, then back again to the original idea of combining functions. But this time, the mating part pliers was not implemented in the form of a sheath, and a separate lever. This approach was used on the blade of sea scouts design Todorova, and then served as the basis for the wire cutters bayonets. And this idea remembered again. In addition to the functions cutter, additional leverage could play a role, and other tools. Drawings were made, the customer has given approval for the production of prototypes, but the tests of prototypes have shown that the idea of a lever is not quite correct. In addition, we had to abandon the universal saw, which was borrowed from the "Katrana." Cleaned and balanced contours of the handle, so as to touch the water was difficult to determine how to set the knife. And the idea is to remove the metal pommel and run it as part of the handle, on the contrary, was in demand, because the knife handle should not be elements that could damage the wetsuit.
In all trials revealed that … requires a completely different design! But precisely for this test and held. The new knife differed fundamentally from the experimental sample. Blade got a spear shape. This form of the blade has a high penetrating power. The blade bevel butt, used for
bayonet-knife was in a real war is not the best solution. Yes, it is possible to put an effective blow if the bayonet is fixed on the machine, but this impact energy is invested feet, turning the body, two arms, the weight of a fighter and the weight of the weapon. But if you use it as a knife, the blade bevel butt does not always show the desired efficiency in the piercing winter clothing and personal protective equipment. That is why the shape of a spear blade and got a new knife combat swimmer.
Blade length is pretty massive. Since the technical requirements it must serve a cold steel against not only people, but also against marine animals, which are used for the protection of essential facilities. This is primarily dolphins and seals. In addition, when using the knife as a tool of survival for the implementation of a number of works can also be demanded its size and weight. But it is important compromise, as the excessive size and weight of this knife is strictly limited. The knife is being developed as an element of a set of combat gear, and its parameters are tied to the weight of the entire set. And if the weight and size of the knife can be minimized, it is necessary to do so, because at the expense of grams can be freed, though not much, but increase the ammo fighter. The approach to the development of culture, the weight almost immediately as in aviation. In this case, the knife must have great strength, because in a combat situation can happen, it can be used as a lever on entering the room, as a point of support in the highlands, but you never know what situations may occur in the spy saboteur. Therefore, on a blind bend at securing the blade to bear the weight of 100 kg.
As you can see, the possibilities for maneuvering and a bit of constructive compromise. That is why the knife for combat swimmers are not primitive sharpened piece of iron, and the result of design calculations and real technological capabilities. For example, the pilot sample was Dola sample as its constructive usefulness in this case is minimal, but final sample appeared to reduce the weight of the blade by several tens of grams, without sacrificing strength. It was not enough of these grams to fit into the requirements of TK. There were other issues that could be solved only by testing various options in conditions as close to the fighting. Suffice it to say that the knife was tested on three fleets: the Black Sea, the North Sea and the Baltic. As we know, little things and determine the real quality of design and manufacture. Thus, in order to select the type sereytora were made with several different types of blades that element and empirically found the optimal variant.
A similar story was coated. The depot is that the TK knife must have anti-glare coating, but the frosting blade with glass beads gives the surface structure of the metal and as a result of steel in an aggressive marine environment begins to actively korodirovat. To protect the blade and the requirements for blade massirovki reflective coating should have a large resistance, corrosion both to itself and to mechanical abrasion. In addition to searching for coverage options on the test samples varied material of the handle, the technology for fixing the handle to the blade shank, shape and mount the pommel knife.
But the most difficult element were sheathed. However, this is not surprising, because the survival knife sheath has long been the most difficult knife. For example, take the knife "Basurmanin." On its scabbard are pliers, saws and universal mounting location for its placement while carrying a knife and auxiliary awl. In order to use the saw for example, need to remove the knife from the sheath to the belt, remove the knife from its sheath, remove the saw and secure it in its sheath. As you can see, quite a long and cumbersome process. On the "Sea Devils" have decided to simplify the process. Wire cutters are also housed in the sheath, the sheath in front of the pliers apart and placed flat screwdriver. In the grip pliers are wood saw and saw for metal. In a special recess removable tool that combines an awl and can opener. The kit should include a diamond hone straightening blades. Saw mounted on an axis and tilting the handle can be locked in its working position. But if it is worn or broken, the saw can be replaced. In tests it was found out that it is desirable to have a single combined on one side of the saw blade teeth for wood, on the other — for metal. Removable awl also secured by a sheath, and a can opener was removed as unnecessary. The design of sewing became more universal. Now it has a diamond coating and at the same time plays the role of honing bar. In this plane itself designed for finishing sewing of the main cutting edge and its back has a shape corresponding sereytora and designed to sharpen it.
Sami sheath made of plastic. But it does have some drawbacks — it is too noisy. For blade saboteur is unacceptable. Therefore, with a sheath knife carried in a special sub-cover, which are the elements of the knife attachment on equipment. This case is made of avizenta and has sound-absorbing pads. Fixing knife is twofold: it is fixed by the elasticity of the sheath, and a special rubber ferrule. The delivery to the knife goes spare parts, which includes the replacement saw, two rubber rings, a passport to the instructions for use and a packing box.
Another problem that we encountered in the course of work on the "needle" is competing companies that are proactively presented to test their models. So firm "SARO" offered his underwater knife "Murena". An interesting and in many ways in unusual design. On the knife used very tricky saw. In the butt blade is a wavy edge, designed in theory to cut ropes, sharpening located on an undulating longitudinal slot in which to insert additional saw for metal. It’s made from a conventional saw blade. This would be a very good solution: if the saw is worn or broken, it can easily and cheaply be replaced by a piece of saw blade. However, the reality is not so smooth. Contact corrosion stability of steel (which is made of the blade) with carbon steel (which is made of the saw blade) in seawater leads to intense corrosion of carbon steel. In tests so prirzhavela saw the knife that she simply could not be removed.
The second problem is the sheath. They are made of plastic and have a catch in the form of a recess, which includes the fork blade latch and lock occurs only due to the elastic sheath. Fixing reliable, but that’s to remove the knife from its sheath, they need to stick your finger and push the wall, and if the land this "trick" can still be done, then the water in the thick diving gloves, it will not work. In general, "Murena" an order of magnitude inferior "Sea Devils" and the quality of the design and manufacturing quality. There were other competitors. So firm "Kemp" from the Nut-Zuev, which is developing the diving equipment, including for the Navy, has developed its own model for divers knife, but the knife was focused mainly on the use of the tool. To combat swimmers MVD (there are) firm "Southern Cross" has also developed its own version of the underwater knife. Direct competitors "Sea Devil&q
uot;, these models were not, in fact, "Southern Cross" by then just disappeared from the market, but the design and the customers were.
Our opener for frogman served as the basis for other purpose knives. So for parts spenaznacheniya Navy has proposed a simplified version. It was taken without changing the knife itself, and simplified design of the sheath — they did not have wire cutters and saws. They just do not need. On the basis of the "Sea Devil" was developed and a knife "Killer Whale". It is designed to UPASRA (management of rescue operations of the Navy), and it changed the tip of the blade, in the form of tanto. This allowed harden blade and use it for heavy duty applications. A simplified version of this knife, and is regarded as a diver. It is easy to see that in one design concept is easy to get a few models for different purposes. On the basis of combat models designed and versatile sample "Murena", available in the form of diving knife and a survival knife (not to be confused with the "moray eels" from the company "SARO"). Our "Moray" changed the front part of the blade, resulting in a knife is not considered a cold steel. In the embodiment survival knife instead sereytora is rowed by Obukhov saw.
It is strange, but it is an underwater knife was the basis for the knife, developed by NACO on "Peregrine Falcon" (survival knife for pilots of the Russian Air Force). The reason — the versatility of the basic design and its flexibility. "Peregrine Falcon" has the same type of blade, shortened to 130 mm and slightly shorter handle, but the type of blade and even the type of sereytora remained unchanged. Just added a harpoon ledge. Reducing the sample size was forced, as dictated by the terms of posting on the flight zkipirovke and weight loss. Sheaths made of plastic, while the knife has two variants wear. The first is used for parachute jumping and must ensure the safety of landing. After landing outweighed knife on his belt. These features are reflected in the design of suspension.
Have one knife for all situations and all climatic zones is not rational, that is why there are so many varieties of knives, which reflect local conditions and customs, way of life and the development of technology, it is also true for the combat knife. So "Sea Devil" was very convenient for the conditions of the North and Central band, but for the mountains of this knife is too heavy and bulky. Therefore, the company has developed a version of the NACO combat knife for mountain conditions. The basis was taken knife "Irbis", blade length of the model 130 mm, Blade thickness 6 mm. Sharpening a knife-half, the root of the sereytor designed to work with a rope. Two-way guard and handle vsadnaya of the craton.
The requirements for this design — the minimum size and weight while maintaining combat and working properties. Martial properties are determined by the possibility of stabbing a warm clothes. Sheath of avizenta to be mounted in different places military equipment. On the sheath fastened pocket, which houses a mini-stupid. Mini-tul is made on the basis of the developed by NACO Tula "Biker". The only difference is the Army version — is the presence on the pair of pliers, crimp the detonator, "Biker" was chosen for its small size, and most importantly — for the flat dimensions that allow you to conveniently place it in your pocket. Thus, on the basis of a model of combat knife "Sea Devil" developed an entire range of knives of different purposes. In addition, according to the drawings "Sea Devil", which were referred to by the company "NOX", Zlatoust by "A & R" was released gift version of this knife. The demand for "Sea Devil" in the gift came by just after handing it to the President.