Siberian and Belarusian scientists have created a new type of material for hydrogen energy systems

Nikolai Uvarov and Oleg Bobrenok

 

The unique material to create a fuel cell COPAH.info told members of the integration project on the Russian side: the rector of Novosibirsk State University and head of the Laboratory Institute of Catalysis. GKBoreskov SB RAS Doctor of Sciences Vladimir Sobyanin, Doctor of Chemical Sciences Vladislav Sadykov, Chief Scientific Officer Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry Doctor of Sciences Nikolai Uvarov Favstovich and Researcher Institute of Thermal Physics. SS Kutateladze SB RAS Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Oleg Philippovich Bobrenok.With the development of fuel cells in the world has high hopes: these devices, according to experts, in the future, should provide power to all of what is now "charged" with the help of non-renewable sources. Transforming chemical energy into electricity, power plants based on fuel cells will be able to provide work toasters, cars, factories, and other things.

"This study is aimed primarily at the development of the fundamentals necessary for medium-temperature solid oxide fuel cells have emerged as a unit. The task is very difficult, because the electrolyte and the electrodes must meet a number of properties that are difficult to reconcile, and the Russian Academy of Sciences joined forces with colleagues from Belarus was a necessity. Scientists at the Institute of Powder Metallurgy of NAS — is serious specialists in the development of porous metal substrates ", — says Doctor of Sciences Vladimir Sobyanin.

According to the candidate of physical and mathematical sciences Oleg Bobrenko Povich, a fuel cell — is an analogue of the batteries, but it when it is discharged or charged, some chemical reactions take place, and the uniqueness of the fuel cell is that it can operate without recharging: supply up to as long as there is supplied oxidant and reductant.

 

V.A.Sobyanin

 

"He can always work continuously — all defined by its resource: modern high-registered members can operate for about five years. The working temperature of these systems is 900-1000 ° C, and the main idea is to reduce it — here’s the dock all the sciences. Therefore, in the interdisciplinary integration project and attended by experts from various fields, which resolved all the difficulties, through a variety of approaches ", — said O.F.Bobrenok.

As explained V.A.Sobyanin: "The task of researchers RAS was to identify, first, the chemical compositions of the tracks from which to produce an electrolyte, and secondly, to offer very active and stable catalyst to a reducing environment that will allow not use hydrogen in these devices, the mixture of hydrocarbon and water vapor or air to get directly to the anode compartment of the fuel cell and the hydrogen-containing gas is oxidized to try it with the advent of electricity. "
According to the scientists of the SB RAS, fuel cells are many different types, but all over the world it is believed that solid oxide are the most promising, so researchers in many countries are paying serious attention to the search for new materials.

"Getting this work, we did not forget about what we need to move away from the mineral resources: hydrocarbons, gas, oil, etc. We found interesting approaches, both from renewable raw materials to obtain material for the operation of the fuel elements ", — said Head of the Laboratory of catalytic processes in fuel cells of the Institute of Catalysis. GK Boreskov

Scientists RAS developed technology to be applied as a thin film electrolyte on the ceramic substrate and the metal at relatively low temperatures (700-800 ° C), while most of these methods of forming such an electrolytic membrane — is 1300-1400 ° C.

"Our colleagues from Belarus deposited layer of nickel metal on the plate of polyurethane foam. Then, in a medium which contains hydrogen, all the organic portion was removed and the plate was obtained from the foam and nickel. With the powerful presses her clenched, and she was getting enough light, but strong enough (the substrate used as structural materials in order to collect on their base and fuel cells, and structured catalysts for the conversion of fuels). After sealing the surface layer of aluminum have implemented — was obtained nickel-aluminum alloy, then it is all oxidized, and there is quite a unique composite construction, which allows to provide the necessary strength and corrosion resistance. All kinds of metal foam and sintered porous metals are well known, but the uniqueness of our design is that razarbotanny our colleagues from Belarus material combines strength with ductility, thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity ", — told the doctor of chemical sciences Vladislav Sadykov.

"Metal manufacturable than ceramics, so we take a porous metal surface treat a nanolayer, and then a second, in order to obtain a composite conductive layer, which would be stable and have good conductivity. Fill microparticles, nanoparticles and then to score a hole, but not completely (the gas must pass), then we are doing is an electrolyte. That is the work at the nanoscale — the solid electrolyte is obtained five microns thick. Also we make the protective layer, the cathode does not react with the electrolyte, and only then put cathode (also applied nanocomposite). We do not call it nanotechnology, but the mean ", — said the head of the laboratory of non-equilibrium solid-phase processes of the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry Favstovich Nikolai Uvarov.

 

Vladislav Sadykov

 

For three years, during which the Russian and Belarusian scientists are working on an integration project was published nearly thirty works. As a result of the research team was awarded the Academician VAKoptiug in 2011 for a series of scientific papers "Development of scientific bases for creation of composite and nanostructured materials for advanced systems and hydrogen energy research devices with their use."

Angelina Ivanova
Photo by the author.

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