In recent years it has become fashionable to criticize the military-industrial complex of Russia: corruption, inflated the cost of production, the failure to develop and produce modern armaments to meet the real threats to the security of the state — the main "the charges." Extracts and the Ministry of Defence: reducing the number of divisions and disorganization, modernization of obsolete military equipment instead of buying new and promising, placing orders abroad. Let us see how well founded or that charges by resorting to the inexorable facts and figures sold today projects the MIC.
The continued weakening of the defense of our country — the eternal subject for discussion in the media and society in general. Before coming to the post of Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov talks focused on the excessive attention paid to the development of strategic nuclear forces and the complete degradation of the rest of the Russian army. Today to critical topics added destruction of the management structure in the compounds and arms, sprovotsirovannje new reform. And the refrain of these invectives always accusations against Russian military-industrial complex — not able to create any competitive military equipment or launch them into production at the optimum time.
Without going into details, look through the eyes of the layman, it really seems that, despite the annual increase in the military budget, "nothing has changed" — to test missiles do not reach the target, the fighters fall with surprising regularity, and technically sophisticated weapons are beginning to buy abroad. However, to understand how these processes are visible reflection of the state of the system as a whole, it is necessary to look at the real history of defense science and industry in the last two decades.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, all of the domestic industry, including the military, was almost completely destroyed. The exception was made except that the oil and gas, mining, and food processing. Of the 24 thousand industrial enterprises working on military targets and producing dual-use products, only 1,200 survived. Moreover, all these factories without funding, did not develop — or technically nor intellectually. As long as they are "standing still" military technologies competing in the developed countries have stepped far forward. And among the more than 5.6 million Research and secret research centers engaged in the development of new military technologies, there were only 677, and then in a reduced form — not staffed with qualified personnel, without modern logistics, etc. Of the 126 thousand professional classes A1-A3 (ILO classification) employed in the defense industry in Russia in 1990 (we’re not talking about the USSR as a whole), 102 thousand, or more than 80% left to work abroad and are not going to come back. First of all, because most of them are already linked long-term contracts with defense companies in other countries.
William Fokkingen in charge at the Pentagon for the international military-technical cooperation, in June 2000 at a conference on national security said: "From the Russian defense capabilities, we estimate that there are not more than 6%. With the continuation of current trends in five years will be 0. " In 1999, the entire defense budget, including costs of ongoing maintenance of the army, was only $ 3.8 billion — an amount that is spent today on the financing of two Army brigades. And spending on R & D over the years were equal to zero.
And now tell me, as a system that has been created over half a century, and which is almost 100% destroyed, the only possible due to the political will and the upfront investment to revive a few years. I’m not even talking about getting more and make up for lost time in technological development. Any sane knowledgeable person to answer this question clearly: no way. In world history, there was only one example of the commission of such miracles — the industrialization under Stalin in Soviet Russia. However, it was associated with mass violence against the population of the country. Today, in times of democracy and human rights, is available only evolutionary path of modernization — the efficient use of available financial and intellectual resources.
Over the past 10 years, the country has managed to guide of the ruins, which he inherited, to build a new system of military-industrial industry — with a clear hierarchy of scientific, engineering and manufacturing centers. Of course, not the Soviet scale and across all industries. However, the coefficient on the classification of Russian defense Defence Review has increased from 12.4 in 2000 (46th in the world) to 49.8 in 2010 (sixth place). The growth of the state defense order for 11 years was 5600%! During this period, 104 universities of the country have been introduced special training programs developed by the military-technical commission MO. In the leading research institutes, retained its scientific potential at least to some extent, salaries of employees increased significantly. For example, today the average salary of an ordinary design engineer in marine KB Petersburg is 55 thousand rubles, "missile" of scientific institutions in Moscow — more than 70 thousand rubles.
Despite the unprecedented scale brain drain abroad, technology, managed to recover and develop new ones that meet the requirements of the last (fifth) of a technical nature. The state defense order for 2011 exceeds 0.5 trillion rubles, given the purchasing power parity — third in the world after the U.S. and China. A program of rearmament of the army until 2020, suggests to increase to a record 1.2 trillion rubles. The idea is simple: in the innovation and industrial development of the country in general, the Government had focused on the military-industrial complex as having the greatest potential to make technological breakthrough. In the same industries in which we have fallen behind — computer electronics, control systems and communications, kibertronika, Robotics — Defense resorted to buying the latest technology abroad. After landing and command ship Mistral purchased it for promising and recognized as the best in NATO weapons control system and fleet Senik 9, which strongly opposed the transfer of all the allies of the French military bloc. DCNS passes along with the ships of technical information on them for a full copy of technology and even military control codes. In the future they will be used for the development and production of effective modern systems for the Russian Navy. The same goes for unmanned aerial vehicles, purchased in Israel. However, the technology requires import only 10-15% of cases. The rest of weaponry and equipment produced by domestic enterprises, or not inferior in quality to foreign analogues, or exceeds them.
Of the 12 countries that are trying to develop a fifth-generation fighter, investing tens of billions of dollars, yet only two actually did it — the United States and Russia. Chinese counterpart, which recently, as well as our own, made the first flight, in fact, does not satisfy all the requirements of the Air Force to the fifth generation tactical aircraft. Domestic T-50 (PAK FA) not only meets these requirements, but also by some measures exceeds U.S. rival. F-22 Raptor is developing a cruising speed (without afterburner) 2 thousand km / h, T-50 — 2.4 thousand km / h, our aircraft capable of taking off on a runway length of 300 meters, the U.S. — only 450. Also, it is superior to the F-22 in maneuverability. Specific cross-section of scattering of radiation radar F-22 has been brought down to minus 40 dB at 1 m. m, airborne radar aircraft is capable of detecting targets at a distance of 220 km. Russian T-50 "sees" further — up to 270 km. By the way, Raptor is so expensive ($ 140 million), the United States in 2010, suspe
nded its production. And the company "Sukhoi", created by the Russian fifth generation fighter aircraft, in contrast, is planning to release it, including for the purpose of export.
During the operation to force Georgia to peace in 2008, has been successfully tested Ultra precise missile "air-land" X-59 "Gadfly". She was struck in the south goal Tbilisi (aircraft factory) with an accuracy of 3 meters It is worth adding that this product is standard military-industrial complex produced and delivered in missile units of troops along with correctable satellite-guided bombs KAB-500S-E. One of the most striking examples of the show "kuz’kinu mother ‘enemies — missile complex" Iskander ". He was so successful that experts consider it the best in the world and the most promising high-precision weapons. In part because of this newest weapon the U.S. plans to deploy missile defense in Europe have been revised.
Imagine flying to the tank shell and explodes, never reaching the armor. Fiction, which will become a reality in the new Russian tank T-95. This tank does not protect meter thick steel, and special active protection system, multi-layer composites and electromagnetic field. The crew of the T-95 will be located in an armored capsule capable of withstanding an explosion of ammunition. The car will be one tank commander, a job which resembles a modern fighter cockpit and fully automated. Of course, while the T-95 project is only in beta stage and finishing of the main systems and will be in mass production is not soon. However, his predecessor, the T-90, which is still recognized by the military in most countries of the world one of the finest examples of armor, has successfully delivered to the troops and to plan MoD five years form the basis of a tank grouping of ground forces.
The Russian army has taken on combat duty anti-aircraft missile systems S-400 "Triumph" production PVO "Almaz-Antey". They are an effective antidote to the "Tomahawks" and other modern damaging aircraft. This complex is created for the destruction of a target within 250 km from flying up to 4.8 km per second. The complex is equipped with S-400 missile 9M96, similar to the U.S. missile complex Patriot PAC-3. But the Russian model of efficiency by the American defeat in half, as well as the French Aster. S-400 can effectively reflect the massive raids of modern means of air attack in heavy jamming and perform combat missions in different weather conditions. Use the S-400 is planned in the missile defense system. First Division atonement for combat duty Aug. 6, 2007 in Elektrostal near Moscow. A second home in the region early in 2008 became the Leningrad region. In August 2009, after tests of ballistic missiles by North Korea, it was decided to place the C-400 in the Far East of Russia. Prior to 2015, is planned to supply troops in 23 battalions of S-400. Thus, in the area of detection and protection to the entire territory of Russia. While its export ban. This system will not fall to foreigners until such time as the need for the Russian army in it will not be fully satisfied.
As for the development of promising anti-missile technology, there is Russia also has something to boast about. Already being tested C-500 — the new generation of anti-aircraft missile systems, "Surface to Air" which is designed to intercept ballistic missiles with a range of up to 3500 km for medium and short distances. C-500 is also effective for the protection of aircraft systems and radio detection and guidance systems from jamming. It will be able to detect simultaneously hit ballistic supersonic up to 10 targets flying at a speed of 7 km / s (even those not yet exist in the world), and the missile churn in the near space. C-500 will surpass the U.S. perspective system of Patriot Advanced Capability-3, is still considered the best on the planet. SAM is now at the stage of prototype development (individual components of the system are already being tested at the Sary-Shagan) and the setting of the complex into service is scheduled for 2015.
Enumerate and enthusiastically talk about the latest weapons, developed and manufactured in Russia, could be long. One only "Bulava", which has a unique system of any existing anti-missile defense today, we can devote the bulk section. Oddly tried to catch it with modern means of interception, including a super-fast interceptor missiles, high-power laser and microwave installations, nothing happened.