Author of the report — Vadim Mahora (LJ dedmaxopka)
So happened that most draws me to the objects pomassivnee, I love to pass the scale structures and their greatness, but today I want to tell you about two small hydropower plants, located on the river Karakoysu in Dagestan. Before I visited this plant, I do not understand why do we need small hydro? Is not it easier to build a huge power plant and provide electricity for the whole country? It turns out, not easier. More under the cut.
1. Gunib plant
The story will focus on the two hydropower plants — and Gergebilskaya Gunibsk that are built one after the other on the river Karakoysu. Today is the anniversary at Gergebilskaya plant, exactly 75 years ago, was launched the first hydraulic unit, with a capacity of 1.4 MW. The post is dedicated to this significant event.
2. Gergebilskaya plant
What is a small hydro?
Small hydropower plants in Russia is considered to be less hydroelectric power 25-30 MW. At the moment in our country exploited the order of hundreds of power plants with total capacity of over 600 MW. Of these, about 30 MW was introduced over the past 15 years.
3. Today Gergebilskaya power plant of 17.8 MW
Why small hydro?
Small hydro — by far the most cost-effective solution to the energy problem for areas relating to areas of decentralized power, which account for over 70% of the territory of Russia.
In short, it is not always possible to build a large power plant with all necessary infrastructures to her. And it is not always possible to lay power lines from the existing federal power system, while maintaining the lowest cost of electricity. It is much more economical to develop the capacity of small-scale power, the economic potential of which in Russia exceeds the potential of renewable energy sources like wind, solar and biomass combined.
4. One of the features Gergebilskaya GES — ORU is located on the roof of the turbine building.
Small hydro power plants can operate as a unified Russian energy system, and completely independently. Therefore, the owners can be: energy companies, various government / municipal agencies.
The main advantage of small hydro power plants is that they allow you to maintain the natural landscape, forming a small reservoir. Another advantage of low energy — economy. At a time when natural sources of energy — oil, coal and gas — are being depleted, constantly becoming more expensive, the use of cheap, affordable, renewable energy rivers, especially small, can produce cheap electricity.
5. Bottom spillway used earlier to prevent siltation of the reservoir bottom. Now in use by another spillway.
The payback period of small hydroelectric power stations, according to the Ministry, 8-10 years in a centralized system for specific capital investment ($ 1,500 for a 1 kW), in the autonomous power system: 3-5 years ($ 2,000 per 1kW). The cost of hydropower equipment for small hydropower plants in Russia: $ 300-1200 per 1 kW, abroad: $ 1500-1800 per 1 kW.
As for the differences in the cost of construction of a small hydropower plant and classical, it all depends on the specific project. For example, the Lower Bureyskaya a 320 MW power plant is estimated at 31 billion rubles. Small hydropower plant on the average can cost from 400 million to 2 billion rubles.
6. Gergebilskaya hydro turbine building
Now about the Gergebilskaya HPP.
The station is the oldest plant in Dagestan and one of the oldest in Russia. It was built as planned electrification. Construction of power plant began in 1930, largely ended in 1940. Hydropower facilities are located in a narrow and deep canyon in the mountain s.Kurmi, 5 km upstream from Karakoysu s.Gergebil.
7. Central control station
Gergebilskaya plant is part of the Dagestan branch of JSC "RusHydro" (a division of "Cascade Sulakskih HPP"). The cost of 1 kWh of electricity in 2001 — 9.59 kopecks. (What is the cost to date, I do not know).
8. Average annual output station — 61,500,000 kWh
At the station, the reconstruction was performed twice — in the years 1956-1960 and in 1989-1992. Prior to the first reconstruction of the plant had a capacity of 4.2 MW, then to the second reconstruction — 8.02 MW.
Now the buildings Gergebilskaya plant has 5 radial-axial hydraulic units operating at design head 45.5 m — 3 vertical unit to 5 MW (introduced in 1991-1993) and 2 horizontal unit for 1.4 MW (introduced in 1938) .
9. Horizontal units on 1.4 MW each. The plant has more than 70 years.
10. Vertical units to 5 MW each.
11. Turbine conduits through which water enters the volute.
12. Spiral chamber where the water spins the blades of the turbine up to speed on the 375 min.
13. Turbine Hall
14. The concrete arch-gravity dam crest length of 76 m and a height of 69.7 m
Well, a little history of the materials, the free encyclopedia — Wikipedia:
In 1925, the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Dagestan Nazhmutdin Samursky addressed to the chairman of Gosplan Krzhizhanovsky from 12 March 1925 to include Dagestan in the overall plan for the electrification of Russia (electrification). The request was discussed at the meeting elektroplana "Glavenergo" from June 13, 1925, which resulted in the decision to allocate one million rubles for the
construction of five hydroelectric power station (Hadzhaev — Mahi, Qazi — Kumukh, Gunib, Hunzah, Akhty), and to strengthen and repair the existing thermal power station in Makhachkala. In 1926, the Dagestan Economic Council on the basis of economic considerations, it was decided to build a powerful (at the time) instead of five small hydroelectric plant. After carrying out survey work for the construction of hydroelectric power station was selected target Karakoysu on the river (a tributary of the Avar Koisu).
15. The dam of the same type as that of the Gergebilskaya plant in Russia is still far more powerful
Because at that time the domestic hydraulic engineering school did not have experience creating high dams, the drafting of the station were involved in the Italian engineers. They have been designed station with arch dam. In 1929, before the final approval of the technical project, begun preparatory work for the construction of the station. Immediately construction began in 1930, the first cubic meter of concrete in structures was laid in 1931. Shortly during mining revealed that the rock formations Gorge, which was supposed to rest against the dam, have cracks, putting into question the reliability of the construction of the dam. Construction was suspended, and after spending a group of Soviet and foreign engineers research station project has been redesigned — the design of the dam was changed to arch-gravity. In 1934, construction of the plant was reopened.
Construction of power plant took place in difficult conditions — target the dam was in a remote area, away from roads and railways. Loads on building delivered mainly drawn transport. Work on the construction of the plant was carried out mostly by hand, with minimal use of technology. The number of workers involved in construction, came to 1,500.
17. Gallery at the base of the dam to accommodate the instrumentation. It is said that in Soviet times this gallery planned to use to blow up the dam in the event of war, for example, to flood the troops downstream. I do not know how you can believe this rumor.
18. The current water main spillway.
19. Hydropower dam forms a small reservoir in a 4.5 km, an average width of 0.38 km, the total capacity of 17 million m?, Useful — 9.6 million m³, with an area of 1.75 km ².
In March 1937, a trial was conducted filling of the reservoir, which revealed the presence of leaks on the concrete blocks that had to be eliminated by cementation. March 19, 1937 the construction of the dam was completed. The first hydropower unit was started July 19, 1938, May 16, 1938 the station was approved for temporary operation at a power of 4.2 MW (3 hydroelectric 1.4 MW). In August 1940, hydropower was, although with significant subquality, put the state commission.
20. Reservoir flooded 151 hectares of agricultural land. In addition to energy, the reservoir is used for water supply and irrigation.
23. At this all about Gergebilskaya plant.
24. Talk about a young Gunibsk HPP.
Gunib plant is located upstream of the Gergebilskaya. And if Gergebilskaya 75 years in service, the Gunibskiy fully built until 2005.
25. Gunib plant is also small. Plant capacity of 15 MW.
26. Gunib plant is one of three hydroelectric power station Russia with arch dams (along with Chirkeiskaya and Miatlinsky. About them, by the way, will also be photos)
27. Gunibsk hydro dam has created a small reservoir with the following parameters: maximum length — 3.8 km, maximum width — 350 m, maximum depth — 53 m, total volume of the reservoir — 10,580,000 m³, its storage capacity — 0.87 million m ?, surface area of the reservoir at a normal level — 0.6 km ². The reservoir flooded a total of 55 hectares of low value land. In addition to energy use, the reservoir is used for water supply and irrigation, and hydropower at Gunibsk organized trout farm.
28. One unpleasant thing is garbage, which brings with villages upstream. At the dam it accumulates a lot, especially after heavy rains and floods. Before the plant was built Gunibskiy, all this rubbish going to have Gergebilskaya HPP.
31. Full dam height — 73 m, of which the arched portion is 33 m and 40 m on the plug.
32. We see powerhouse.
33. For me as the most impressive in Gunibsk power plant — is target in which it is located. Rocks cover if the dam from the outside world.
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35. I also was lucky deep spillway was opened slightly, which made these shots.
36. The capacity of the spillway of 448 m³ / s.
38. Gantry crane, which opens the gates of the spillway.
39. Power house
40. Both the turbine building, which houses three hydroelectric, each rated at 5.2 MW.