Feasibility of the project "Rolling organic solar cells", its strengths and "narrow" places were discussed during the debate "Polymer technology in solar power — Prospects" at the Physics Department of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov.
Presenting the project "Rolling organic solar cells," Associate Professor Physics Department of Moscow State University, a member of the International Laser Center of Moscow State University, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Dmitry Parashchuk noted that created by scientists in the laboratory of Moscow State University and Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FIAN) polymer photocell is a film consisting of an active layer — the polymer electrode of aluminum, a flexible organic substrate and the protective layer. Now the process of improving its performance.
While the polymer in the working area 13 mm2 photocell efficiency is 4 percent, while increasing it up to 1 cm2 in area efficiency is reduced to one percent.
His main problem to be solved by scientists, are precisely to increase the efficiency, the development of protective layers, "creating intelligent photovoltaic polymers" (stable polymer films with semiconductor properties) and scale.
Dmitry Parashchuk listed the requirements for such "smart" polymers:
the band gap of ~ 1 eV;
high absorption coefficient?> 104 cm-1;
light absorption> electrons and holes;
photocarrier diffusion length> 1 /?;
time> 10,000 hours, T up to 80 ° C.
The polymer must consist of common elements on earth, and the technology of its application — to be cheap. To create a roll of organic solar photovoltaic cells must be combined into modules.
In solving the above problems, the transition to commercialization and, accordingly, the industrial phase of the project scientist considers it real.
"We cover" all Russia, then — the whole world
To meet the needs of Russia’s energy need, according to Dmitry Parashchuk, "cover" rolled solar panels an area of 100 x 100 km. This will happen no earlier than their efficiency reaches 10 percent. Used to thin-film solar cells with thickness of 100 nm, and, according to scientists, we need one thousand tons of material with a thin-film coating. Technology and require quick cover such an area. They are in the printing industry and the polymer and provide a deposition rate of the thin film coating on one large surface of up to 10 meters per second. But in order to implement his plan, to "about 10 cars that would run continuously for a year."
The advantages of polymer solar cells, according to Dmitry Parashchuk is their low weight, flexibility, speed of application and environmental friendliness. To ensure the world’s energy needs to build six gelioelektrostantsy with an efficiency of 8 percent, the scientist said.
In raising this question the lawfulness of doubt head of R & D JSC "Energy Projects" Alex Tarasenko, according to which the transport of solar power more affluent areas of the Earth’s climate for distribution around the world will be very difficult. There were at Tarasenko and questions to the proposed Dmitry Parashchuk technology of production of solar panels. They regard the life, cost, resistance to high and low temperatures, the protection from external influences. The latter, according to the professor, academician of the RAC TsNIIMASH Vitaly Melnikov, became the basis for Japan and the United States "to make solar technology for space orbit" and create a solar power plant there.
One of the problems in the implementation of the project co-author Dmitry Parashchuk, doctor of chemical sciences, senior researcher Valeriy Lebedev Physical Institute Kobryansky considered defective disordered materials, which will help solve technology "Roll-to-roll". "We c Dmitry many pieces of this issue decided," — said the scientist. The second problem called them — to find criteria for the stability of the material. In their search can be used principles of self-organizing systems, and matrix synthesis.
Head of the Laboratory of the Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences Sergei Ponomarenko also admitted that the main problems of polymer solar cells are efficient and cost of materials, their purity, the thermodynamic stability of the compounds and the life of the polymers. According to him, "it is necessary to develop new polymers and, with them, and work actively looking for ways to improve efficiency by using different additives …" In addition, constraining the scope of research and development of high value offered in overseas markets polymers — 880 euros per gram and P3NT 749 euros per gram PCBM.
Some doubts about the elaboration of the draft under discussion expressed by the head of an innovative company Whisker Michael Givargizov. According to him, the project is not even at the stage of research, and the scientific stage, because the authors have not found the answers to the questions: who are the customers of products, what is the potential effectiveness?
Participants, of course, interested in the novelty and zest to present the project. Its basic meaning is said Valery Kobryansky, is that "we are trying to create new materials that will be highly organized, low-defect". The authors of the project have already received new polymers that have increased stability, "many thousands of times." And they are considered as prototypes of materials for solar cells.
The very same polymer approach, according to Dmitry Parashchuk involves not only the construction of individual power, but rather the creation of a network structure with the potential of decentralization. Scientists believe that the polymer photovoltaics will be competitive in a few years. The cost of the pilot module in the laboratory, according to experts, could be reduced from 8 euros per Watt to 1 euro per watt (especially when using a layer of graphene as a transparent electrode). A polymer photovoltaic power will increase to 2018-2025 years more than 10 times.
Head of the "Park-media", publisher NewScientist RU Alexander Gordeev said that projects in the field of solar energy will definitely find its niche in the economy.
The main areas where it will be used and already applied polymer photovoltaics, along with the proper solar energy — is consumer electronics, residential and commercial sector, defense industry. The market volume for 2017 is projected at $ 500 million. There are new products, some of them are already available abroad: awnings, translucent canopies, umbrellas, tents, bags, light-converting fibers and fabrics.
At the end of the discussion rector of Moscow State University, Academician Alexei Khokhlov said polymer solar power — a promising direction in the development program of the Moscow University and the technological platform in which MSU participates on nanomaterials and energy efficiency — will be actively developed in Russia.