Submarine B. Bauer

In 1854, a native of Bavaria, Wilhelm Bauer (Bauer, Sebastian Wilhelm Valentin, born December 23, 1822, Germany, Dillingen — died June 20, 1875, Munich, Germany) to the Government of the Russian Federation with a proposal to build a submarine (the creator referred to her "giponavtichesky machine "), also underwater corvette, filled 24 guns.

Appeal to the Government of the Russian Federation was preceded by a long history. Bauer, who at the initial specialty was a turner, he served in the Bavarian army in the cavalry, and then in artillery, where he earned the rank of corporal. During the German-Danish War, when the fleet of Denmark inflicted on the German coast harsh blows, Bauer came on the idea of constructing underwater vessels that can prevent water from under the attack of the enemy ships.

In 1850, with funds provided by the Schleswig-Holstein army, more personal parties and admirals in Kiel built the first submarine Bauer "underwater fire-ship» (Der Brandtauscher). As a result of those missing. knowledge of the inventor of the ship left the bad — in 1851, Bauer submarine sank in the harbor of Kiel. In her later lifted, and now it is kept in the museum of naval school.

Samples Bauer intrigue Austria and Prussia to his invention have not met with success. After that, Bauer turned to Britain, where in the past couple years, took the patronage of Prince Albert, but refused his services in the UK. After Bauer suffered a disaster in the U.S., he decided to try his luck in the Russian Empire, which finally found a use for his inventions.

Submarine B. Bauer
Drawing submarine B. Bauer "monkfish" Our homeland, 1855

"Giponavt" William Bauer in a memo to the RF Ministry of the Sea March 13, 1853, said:
"The undersigned at a model they invented giponavticheskogo shell which is capable of moving under the surface of the water, and the purpose of which is underwater military action. Shell … has the form of a seal moves with no steam and gas power at a rate that is equal to the speed of the ship on all fronts, not just on the water, and under the water surface. This shell, which is controlled by people within it, is able to fit the keel of ships invisible to the enemy … In the experiments, manufactured by myself, in the projectile has a sufficient amount of air 8:00 to 5 people, with no need for chemical oxygen or playing in the communication with the air outside. In the case when (for example, during the siege), you must stay at a depth of 150 feet more than 8 hours, then air can be resumed using the raised leather Sleeve length is sixty feet. With all of this is not necessary that the projectile itself was rising to the surface, while the float is attached to the sleeve, wrapped up the weeds so makarom that can indicate the presence of the projectile. When resumption of air after 20 minutes come true , the sleeve is moved into the shell until further use. projectile has six firecrackers, charged with 600 pounds of gunpowder, and eleven bombs set so makarom that the manager of a projectile without leaving it, attach them using the mechanism of the keel to the enemy ship. mechanism is attached bombs from inside the shell. Attachment occurs without knocking or noise, in 15 seconds, during which the projectile giponavtichesky using 2-hooks arranged on the rear and front parts of it, is attached to the keel of the vessel such makarom enemy that will not go away from it or from excitement, in no change of course … Shell supplied missile floats, which emit between 170 and 300 missiles at once in the bevel-helical fashion. These floats made a disastrous effect, but the enemy to recognize them on the water hard. "

Bauer provided an opportunity to build on the electroplating plant owned by Baron Leuchtenberg, a submarine, also make a model submarine corvette 24-packs of loaded guns in scale 1:12 in his studio. Bauer claimed, excluding foreign exchange rate, giving it a rank of underwater engineer. He enlisted in the navy for active service and was given a free uniform mechanical engineer.

11/02/1855, the boat was taken to economize the bypass channel, and on November 3, lowered — it was put on a barge sideways and held that position under the bridge. In passing barge ran aground and cracked, filled with water. Because of the severe frosts sample to remove it from the shallows of success have not crowned, and the submarine along with a barge spent the winter in the bypass channel. For the protection of the submarine and its next maintenance crew assigned to the ship. The first commander of the submarine Bauer became Lieutenant Krusenstern, who was later replaced by Lieutenant F. at which it took place and the main tests.

Submarine B. Bauer

May 20, 1856 submarine Bauer sent to Kronstadt port for testing. In the book "Scuba shipping" D. Goals this submarine calls the "Angler", but archival documents, this is not confirmed. Bauer prototype own ship believed dolphin because housing in cross section had an elliptical shape.

The case was made of the submarine 15-mm steel sheets. Used to bond the sheets thick elliptical steel frames. In the bow was diving chamber separated by a partition — diver to exit from the submarine it was filled with water, after his return — blown air. The motion was carried by the submarine muscle strength sailors who stepped spinning 4-wheel drive. Wheels affordable clutch set in motion the propeller. According to Bauer, the views, the speed of the submarine was supposed to be up to 7 knots, but tests failed to develop a speed of more than 1 unit, as the sailors quickly tire of. Due to the low speed boat unhandy. The highest run at 1 mile per hour — 100 fathoms. To dive vessel and keep it at a depth of 4 used cylindrical tank. When covered with 3 tanks were filled completely and the fourth — the regulatory having the smallest size has been created to keep the submarine at this depth. During the ascent, the water was pumped out with hand pumps.

On the nose the submarine was carrying a huge mine that to the enemy ship was to be secured by means of gutta-percha gloves. To clean the air of carbon dioxide was used artificial rain, which was created by a pump supplying water through the pipe 7 having small openings. Tests Underwater Boats began in Kronstadt May 26, 1856 Produced 5-6 dives. On the same day the submarine Bauer was inspected stately Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich. Later dives participated Academy Lenz and his assistant Frisch, who are interested in the impact of submarine dive compass work.

09/06/1856 g, a day coronation of Alexander II, B. Bauer made a dive, taking with him not only the crew, and 4 Navy musicians. Musicians and crew from the first shot fireworks began to sing a hymn, which on the surface was heard muffled.

26/08/1856, the submarine attempted to bring under surface ship mine (under the terms of the contract for one flight submarine was to install 6 min), which was not crowned with success. Tests lasted until 02.10.1856 g when Submarine was to be held under the surface vessel in the North fairway. If you try to go under the vessel, the submarine at a depth of 5.5 meters
buried her nose in a sand bank, and the screw tangled in aquatic plants. B. Bauer pumped from the water tank, otstoporil iron sinker, which served as damaged goods, then the bow of the vessel rose to the surface. After opening the inlet flap, regardless of the water flow into the boat, the whole crew came out and was picked up by boats with helical vessel "Bumblebee", which provided the testing. The submarine sank. It rose only 18/02/1857, after this submarine was taken to St. Petersburg for a brand new Admiralty. In November 1857, the year it was taken out by a small boathouse Okhtinsky shipyard. Bauer acknowledged the submarine does not meet the contract — to dive to a depth of 1.5 meters required 25 minutes at a depth of 2.5 meters began to flow grooves; estimated depth of 46 meters (150 feet) was not provided, etc.

Submarine B. BauerSubmarine B. Bauer
First submarine B. Bauer (external appearance and internal accommodation. Maritime Museum of Kiel)

Bauer was asked to make a list of fixes that would have allowed further tests submarine in 1858 but instead of the Bauer accused of ill-trial participants claimed that the funds allocated for the repair, handed to him personally in hand and refuse to provide list of fixes. February 25, 1858, after unsuccessful negotiations, Bauer was dismissed from the service with the wording so as "not fulfilled the ready submarines and model submarine corvettes." Unfinished model submarine corvette left Bauer, submarine 22 May 1858 launched the mechanics and handed Bauer a receipt. About the fate of the upcoming submarine no information. In his book mechanical engineer Goals D. writes that the submarine remained forever Ohta.

Technical properties of the submarine B. Bauer
Length — 52 ft (15.8 m);
Width — 12 feet 5 inches (3.8 m);
Height — 11 ft (3.4 m);
Diving depth — 50 feet (46 m);
Crew — 9;
Machine gun — 1 (first set of war);
— in tube torpedo tubes — 4 (2 aft, 2 bow);
— in the external grating devices Drzewiecki — 2.

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