The first commander of the submarine forces of the Russian Federation was promoted to Rear Admiral Edward N. Schensnovich. Back when he commanded the battleship "Retvizan", the officers of the ship called Schensnovicha among themselves, "Hidalgo." So it went later. Was very similar to Don Quixote, as it draws the books: mustache, goatee beard (goatee). As he fought for the Russian boats. Here, for example, the story of Friedrich Krupp.
German submarines of the type F.Krupp "Carp" (3 units)
Home Russian-Japanese war of 1904 — 1905. gave rise not only to the construction of submarines in Russia (such as "Killer Whale"), and ordered them abroad, including in Germany. March 6, 1904 a trusted company "Friedrich Krupp" K.L.Vahter has proposed the construction of a factory "Germany" (Kiel) for "Russian pravitelskogo government" 3-PL with subsequent Timing: 1st — 9 months later, the two following — a day or 11 months from the signing of the contract. In the beginning of the particular negotiations with the Russian side was represented by the ship's captain and engineer IGBubnov 2 rank M.N.Beklemishev who developed the specifications and test conditions. They contained information about the "approximate" amounts of PL: length — 39.5 m, width — 2,7 m, displacement — 170 t / 240 t Two kerosinomotora rated at 200 hp each. Speed surface speed — 11 knots, range — 1,100 miles (9-speed hub — 1600 miles). Range submerged speed — 27 miles 9-speed hub, 55 miles of 5,5-node, 80 miles — 4-speed hub. Buoyancy in store-not the least of 15%. Stipulated that the submarine "Must stay on the surface in all weathers and make transitions when the wind force 6 points, respectively, and the state of the sea." The supplies air for 20 people for a 10-person crew. Two periscope length of 4 meters each. Armament — one torpedo tube. Ammunition — 3 torpedo Whitehead (one in the office, two — in special canisters on TA.
April 4, 1904 specifications signed by the chairman of ITC Vice Admiral F.V.Dubasov and representative offices Krupp K.L.Vahter. April 10, followed by a resolution of the company to order all 3 submarines. May 24 Head of GUKiS Rear Admiral A.R.Rodionov and K.L.Vahter signed. Final assembly of the submarines sought the presence of mandatory "1st experienced engineers." Beginning of their first test scheduled for January 10, 1905, 2-uh — "within a month of the preceding." The price of each submarine was determined to 1 million 200 thousand marks.
The company Krupp "Germany" did not have sufficient experience in the construction of submarines. Immediately after the contract began building ships, get a room, "109", "110" and "111". December 2, 1904 at a plant in Kiel arrived Captain 2nd Rank M.NBeklemishev and Lieutenant A.O.Gadd, by the time the body of the first submarine and batteries were actually ready and kerosinomotory Kerting going to the factory in Hannover. In early August 1905 began testing Submarine "109", which were carried out only under the motor. The highest rate on the surface of 10.7 knots, then the boat picked up on the slipway for inspection and removal of comments, and they were many. Required to increment the volume of fuel tanks to improve the system immersion and ventilation, to change the design felling diameter increment input hatches, modify the controller. Russian-Japanese war was drawing to its own sad end, and submarines were still being built.
Department facilities GUKiS proposed to abandon the railway transport and overtake the submarine ready to Libau its course, keeping company with the amount for parts. But the cost of insurance and payment of the crew would have exceeded those 15 thousand marks for each of the submarine. We decided to take a submarine in Kiel and without the help of others to overtake them. December 21, 1905 recognized this decision final.
January 31, 1906 Kerting plant failed, in the end, produce the first engine, and a month later, has successfully passed the tests and second. February 3 both engines was taken to Kiel and began to prepare for installation on submarines "110", which is May 30 safely lowered to the water. Getting the remaining 4 benzinomotorov delayed due to the strike of the workers.
Period of construction submarine German company Krupp did not survive, and the reason for the delay became clear very simple …
Go with the submarine for the Russian Federation Krupp laid the first German submarine "U-1", about the same tonnage. He built F.Krupp tricky — in comparison with the "Russian" German submarine boat built slower. Because ordered Russian boats in the sea came first. Here also climbed out of every crevice design flaws. The point is new. How could something happen, because German designers in their precious "U-1" will wear the amendment. For example, three ready-compartment submarine "U-1" tested for water resistance. Bow torpedo tubes on the Russian submarine was shifted downwards at an angle relative to the waterline, as on the old destroyers. At shallow depths not shoot — certainly torpedo slam into the ground. Having established this event, German designers have arranged for their own torpedo submarine "U-1" horizontally. And in 3-submarine to the Russian Federation, this angle was saved. Cutting in Russian boat were leaking, the water in them no one could be. The private submarine "U-1" cutting sealed.
Blemishes on these first ordered the submarine was a lot.
Ultimately, the company received the highest Russian submarine more properties, avoiding unnecessary costs for the construction of the most experienced boat. Specifically, this event and assured E.N.Schensnovicha the need to conduct a building submarines at Russian plants and projects of their own engineers.
Only 12 June 1906 began testing Submarine "110", which during the two-hour surface speed under electric motors ensure high speed 8.4 knots, then started installation kerosinomotorov. On all 3 Russian submarine torpedo tube was not installed horizontally, with a significant slope down as destroyers. Out of Sevastopol in Kiel sent mine Whitehead for more precise adjustment of the standard torpedo tubes 13 September 1904 made the first shot without a drummer because of his "mustache" is not allowed to close the nose of the product. Results recognized "certainly not bad," but in his own submarine "U-1" company immediately established a torpedo tube horizontally.
September 26 dimensional PL band "110" did not have gained under the contract speed motors, pointing to the 5 highest mileage of 10.34 knots.
November 2 plant management for receipt requested in Kiel Commission for acceptance testing. But E.N.Schensnovich proposed in view of the "late season" transfer tests in the spring, and while seconded to Kiel Lieutenant T.A.fon Raab-ler Tilenau. On the submarine "109" and "111" works were "sluggish" because in order to avoid alterations German specialists "want to enjoy the fruits of the parent submarine."
February 21, 1907 was approved by the
commission, chaired by Captain 1st Rank M.N.Beklemisheva for the acceptance of the submarine, which by that time received the name "carp" ("109"), "Karas" ("110") and "Flounder" ("111"). Of the 9 members of the committee voted for the reception 7 PL provided eliminate Fri 60 comments, two abstentions. By the act was made a separate world E.N.Schensnovicha, considered a huge structural shortcoming of lack of high-pressure tanks. But the project is not provided.
Submarine "Carp" was deeded to the treasury committee of 27 July 1907. The issue of 2-other submarine postponed until the torpedo firings. In August, the submarine turns without the help of others went to sea at a distance of 28 miles, made test dive. Vorachivayas from 1st march, PL "Flounder" in Kiel Bight faced with the German coaster, which received the above-water hole in the stern and submarines turned fore end, fortunately without injuring strong body. The repair took 10 days and 8 September PRL "Flounder" took to the Treasury, subject to the substitution of batteries, electric motors and anchors a number of alterations in the ventilation system. After a day or two and the Commission signed the instrument of acceptance of the submarine "Karas", which also had lots of punch.
During the summer of 1907 all three submarines accompanied transport "Khabarovsk" arrived at Libau and became part of the Training Unit of scuba diving. Lasted tests revealed a number of structural deficiencies. Thus, the batteries were not equipped with special ventilation, cut not tried out the pressure inside the ballast tanks at great depth is not blown by compressed air and pumped the pump. More on the acceptance tests in Germany, it was found that external ballast tanks filled with water very long time (7 minutes 38 seconds), although under the terms of the contract the dive was to be 5 minutes. Alteration of immersion in Kiel further pushed to terms of acceptance, because they decided to perform in Russia at the expense of the plant, which soon sent reinforcement, documentation and transferred the necessary funds. Reduced rework the dive on 2 Minutka 20 seconds, the spices satisfactory. A lot of wraith brought laid in the housing tube — from water it swells and does not confer on submarines positive and negative buoyancy. Tear same keels are designed to ensure safety at the right moment, or not completely surrendered or been detached with difficulty, as happened near Libau on the submarine "Karas" during training dives in September 1907
April 22, 1908 Submarine "Flounder" and "Carp" and on April 26, PL "Carp" sent by rail to Sevastopol, and in a day or two of them listed in the squad of scuba diving Black Sea Fleet. In June, we are talking about the rearmament of each submarine with 2 grated torpedo Drzewiecki and placing high-pressure tanks "by remaking now available." But these improvements could make to 2-PL, because the submarines "Flounder" at the time of the first night attack May 23, 1909 died protaranennaya battleship "Rostislav".
With PL "Karas" and "Carp" removed by 12 BATTERY, whereby one of the inner tank could recycle tank top under pressure — Safety provides more than imperfect detachments keels.
By the beginning of the First World War on the Black Sea were in the ranks of the submarine "Salmon", "Pike", "Carp" and "Carp". With the entry into service Submarine "Walrus" obsolete submarines surrendered to the port. The fate of the submarine "Carp" and "Carp" decided in December 1916, the commission, chaired by Captain 1st Rank P.P.Ostoletskogo, to know their status. Recognizing both PL inapplicable to the upcoming service, spices, namely, noted that even after repair "fortress housing remains very low …" February 12 Submarine "Carp" and "Carp" surrendered to the Sevastopol port where they have stood up to April 1919 Leaving the city, the British, among others, brought the submarine and sank the submarine on the roads, "Carp" and "Carp".
Building Submarine "Carp", has a number of significant design flaws, once again confirms the truth proven over the years — a hasty decision on placing orders without sufficient analysis of the experience of the manufacturer occasionally brings relevant results.
June 21, 1905 the company Krupp through their own representative K.Vahtera proposed to build a ship of 35 tons, is the upcoming development of the Submarine "Trout" but endowed with 2 kerosinomotorami to 60 hp for surface course and a 60 hp electric motor — For snorkeling and charging Accum. Command tower was now a greater volume, it could fit and the commander and navigator, and in the bow of the supposed two beds for the serial rest of the crew.
But the head of the diving Rear Admiral E.N.Schensnovich based on the review of the project IGBubnov representative Krupp said that "the proposed type boats without difficulty can be engineered and built by our engineers in Russia. "
September 2, 1905 at MTC received via K.Vahtera drawings and a short description of the submarine displacement of 21 tons, speed 10/7 knots, cruising range 250/25 miles, and kerosinodvigatelem equipped with an electric motor. IGBubnov expressed the view that the construction of submarines for the Russian companies is not difficult.
But M.N.Beklemishev called for an immediate order of 5 submarines. But the offer is not accepted by F.Kruppa conclusion E.N.Schensnovicha.
"December 4, 1905 Very secret.
We are at the present time possess in the Baltic Sea with 2 types of submarines (Lac-Holland) is already floating and more than or less experienced. From Kiel boats arrive Krupp factory in the Baltic Beklemisheva completed boats and Bubnov. You have to wait, that the latter will be finished by the boat and put next spring .. So Makarov, in the Baltic Sea will be 4 types of submarines. In each of them there are their shortcomings and their dignity, and to cause the boat to life, but do not throw them, it is a matter of personnel, the preparation of which we should bother. We have more or less acquainted with the submarine owned 2-types. These two — foreign types.
Neuzh something to us and in this case to be behind strangers and give them the opportunity to learn how to win us to our same tools? A custom boats abroad m, even in Russia of foreign types leads to it. We construct four 400-ton boat, though in Russia, on the Ohta, but strangers, and even the inventor g.Lek, getting from our government almost a million (958,508 rubles) as the first payment for the boat, immediately after the conclusion of the treaty opened an office for the construction of these boats in Berlin, where he works on the development of boats, and in St. Petersburg sends only completed projects for implementation. He's still a lot of need to tinker …
Form boats Krupp is unsatisfactory and will never be repeated at another time. It is conscious, although boats are not ready yet.
The point of diving can live an independent life, if we are going to build a boat at home and on our projects, to what we already have enough practice. Our boats Beklemisheva Bubnov and swam near Vladivostok without the help of others and gave the results are not worse than the other boats tipolv, than the only sin, it is mine machines, do not apply to submarine vessels — are devices Drzewiecki.
We have already experienced such control boat-building, as Beklemishev and Bubnov. There are projects boats Gavrilova, Matsievich wants to design the boat. Neuzh the same thing to throw? It is necessary to allocate for the next year of about 40
0,000 rubles, that Russian business building boats did not die. "(Head of a memorandum snorkeling Rear Admiral E.N.Schensnovicha).
"Naval General Staff … came to the conclusion that at the present time quite impossible to build submarines, which could be considered completely reliable and useful tool, but it can be run
"Naval General Staff … came to the conclusion that at the present time quite impossible to build submarines, which could be considered completely reliable and useful tool, but it can be done only a boat that could be applicable to military activities recognizable suitable criteria" . (From the report of the Naval General Staff of the Minister of Marine Russia. 1909)
"Donoshen that during the expiry of almost 2-years of state PL has changed for the best, because the premise that cause it, have not been eliminated for lack of funds … It is necessary to change all the other boats division, which we can now give a modern state of the art underwater case abroad. need to give the boat a greater tonnage, large surface and underwater speed and great underwater area. " (Report from a secret division chief of the submarine in the Pacific Captain 2nd Rank Ivanov-13th. 1910)
Getting to the implementation of the 50-year shipbuilding programs from as it relates to building submarines, Navy Department braked on building the first 2-PL series by engineer Major General Bubnov. "(Representations of the Ministry of the Navy of the Russian Federation to the Council of Ministers. 1912)
Together with the fact justice asked to note that the submarine "n-type" had severe structural defects. And it is their strong body is not divided into compartments watertight bulkheads. IGBubnov incorrectly believed that the divisions may be ineffective on the submarine, and therefore in the best interests of the internal arrangement of habitability and decided to completely abandon them. Then, practice has shown a deep inaccuracy of this decision when the three victims of the tragedy Submarine "Leopard" were killed, having received relatively little holes. Another drawback of the submarine "Russian type" was a bad dive system, which ensures a very leisurely boat dive (up to 3 minutes and more than).
Like all submarines of the century, the boat "Russian type" went under the water only to comparable kutsee time, less than 5-10% of the time at sea. In connection with the new criteria of warfare became necessary to significantly increment length of stay submarine under water. In 1914 IGBubnov tried to solve this dilemma by creating a project submarine displacement of about 3,500 tons was envisaged that the main engines are massive steam turbines minonosnogo type that will be able to move the submarine in the positional position at speeds up to 25 knots. Operating depth "submarine" (100 m) is twice the depth of the dive submarine "n-type". Underwater cruiser motors could go under a rate of 3 — 4 nodes within a few hours. This project has not been approved by the MTC and has remained unfulfilled.
For the competition of the Ministry of Maritime shipbuilding program there in 1915 IGBubnov presented several options for submarine project increased displacement (920 m, 854 m and 971 m). One of them was recognized as the best, and in 1916 it was ordered 10 submarines that were never built.
PL displacement of 971 tons has already had double-hulled design. Brain ballast tanks were located in mezhdukorpusnom space and therefore Makar, the designer managed to bring in store buoyancy of submarines to 32%.