Recently the October Revolution of the Russian Navy surface ships than were 52 submarines, of which 41 were in the ranks, 7 — in the construction and assembly of 4 — in storage at the port.
By the number of Russian submarine fleet did not concede many large fleets of naval powers. But a significant shortcoming Multi-submarine were also moral and technological obsolescence of nearly half of them.
On the Baltic Sea were 32 submarines 6 types, on the Black Sea — 19 PL 7 types. One submarine came into the composition of the fleet of the Arctic Ocean ( "Holy Jora ").
Only about 60% of the submarine fleet (31 submarine types "Killer Whale ", "Lamprey ", "Walrus ", "Leopard " and "Crab ") were built at Russian shipyards project Russian designers. Other submarines were built in Russia or in international projects, or purchased from foreign companies. Of the 52 submarines and 49 torpedo was 3 — mine-layers. In the Baltic submarines that were in service have been reduced to the division of the Black Sea — the brigade.
By the beginning of 1918 in the Baltic submarines were in the following bases:
In Revel — 17 submarines (like "Catfish " — "Minnow ", "Beluga ", "Pike ", "Sturgeon, " type "Cayman " — "Cayman " "Gator ", "Crocodile. " "Dragon ", type "Leopard " — "Tiger ", "Panther ", "Lynx ", "Cougar ", "Jaguar ", "Unicorn ", "City ", "The Snake ", "Eel ".
In Helsingforse — 4 PL (type "Leopard " — "boar ", "Wolf ", "Leopard ", "Ruff ").
In Hange — 4 PL (type "AG " — "AG-11 ", "K-12 ", "K-15 ", "AH-16 ").
In Petrograd — 7 SP ( "Lamprey, " type "Killer Whale " — "Killer Whale ", "Chum ", "Mackerel ", "Perch, " type "Leopard " — "Trout. " "ide "). PL "Trout " and "ide " have been translated from Revel in November 1917 PL "Lamprey ", "Killer Whale ", "Chum ", "mackerel " and "Okun "Profit from Finland to repair Polga December 19, 1917 PL " AG-16 "to 21 July 1917 was called " AG-13 ", " Chum "before August 17, 1917 — " The field marshal Earl Sheremet ".
In recognition of the 18 (31) December 1917 the head of state of Finland's independence Russian government, Lenin considered it necessary to fully complete redeployment of ships of the Baltic Fleet to the latest database system — Kronstadt, Petrograd, Sestroreck, Luga Bay.
February 15, 1918 the fleet was an instruction to prepare all that were present in Revel icebreakers. February 16th chief of the 1st Brigade of cruisers in Revel was ordered to bring the ships in readiness for a two-night transition in Helsingfors. On the same day Naval General Staff gave an urgent directive command of the fleet, in which, as it is envisaged the relocation of ships from forward bases (Revel and Helsingfors) in Kronstadt. February 17, on behalf of the CPC Central Committee of the Baltic Fleet (Tsentrobalt) was transferred to the College of the telegraph directive People's Commissariat for Maritime Affairs, in which the ships were instructed to begin the transition from Revel to Helsingfors, and then in Kronstadt .. These guidelines were the initial documents for the preparation and holding of the first Russian strategic operation AMP — Arctic campaign, carried out in February — April 1918
February 17 divisional diving (these duties temporarily performed Captain 2nd Rank V.F.Dudkin) was ordered to immediately begin the transition of all submarines in Helsingfors, as mother ships and other support vessels wintered in Revel.
Virtually all of the submarine division of scuba diving, wintering in Revel, a repair device
February 20 from Revel in tow icebreaker "Volinets " came out the first three submarines. After a day or two icebreaker "Ermak " took the Helsingfors 2 more submarines and two loaded vehicles.
February 24 came from Revel transport "Europe " along with PL "Tiger " and "Cougar ".
The Luftwaffe tried to prevent the bombing of the transition ships, but it failed. Baltic sailors in a very languid criteria derived from Revel 9 Submarine "Leopard ". At the transition to Helsingfors faulty submarine sank "Unicorn ". This boat, which had no running, led the tug "Germanmark " otschvartovav it from their own side. In the boat always acted water, because in tow worked without annoying water pump. When the pump is clogged and the submarine was quickly filled with water, mooring lines had to give. Submarine sank. In PL "Unicorn " was very typical fate. September 25, 1917 she sat on the stones near the island Era (Abo-Alan archipelago), receiving all of the hole. After removal from the pebbles, following in tow, once again pounced on the reefs and sank. Was raised by rescue vessel "Volkhov " October 7, 1917
At noon on February 25, German troops entered Revel. Then they took Submarine "Catfish " Training Unit "Beluga ", "Minnow ", "Sturgeon " and "Pike " (commissioned in 1905 — 1906.), And 4 PL type "Cayman ", which came into operation in 1911, outdated, and therefore handed over to the port (PL 'Crocodile "has been converted into a charging station). Failed to withdraw from Revel transport "St. Nicholas ", which was the property of the 4th Division Submarine "AG ", based in Hange, tug "Gren 's property and by certain mechanisms PL " Eel " , a floating workshop Baltic shipyard.
Total has been derived from Revel 56 warships and vessels. Several vessels were icebound, they came to Helsingfors first of March.
In Helsingforse was intensive preparations to relocate ships in Kronstadt.
March 12 released the first group of ships as part of 4 battleships and three cruisers. Wiring made icebreakers "Ermak " and "Volinets ". But soon, the military-political situation in Finland is much difficult. April 3 Hange Posada German division.
Because sailors of the 4th battalion were obliged to undermine PL "AG-11 ", "K-12 ", "K-15 " and "AG-16 " and kill the mother ship "Oland " that they have not got the invaders.
By this time the focus Helsingfors 12 Submarine "Leopard " mother ship "Tosno " and "Soldier " training ship "Peter Lofty ", which was used as a mother
ship and salvage ship "Volkhov ". Follow its course could only 7 submarines. in particular, was a languid state of the submarine "Cougar " and "Eel "
On the night of April 5, Kronstadt began its transition to the second unit. In tow battleship "Andrew" was a submarine "Tour" at the cruiser "Oleg" — Submarine "Tiger" in the cruiser "Bayan" — Submarine "Lynx". Abeam the lighthouse Grohar about 6 miles from Helsingforsa, PL "Lynx" has been overwritten with ice, its case has been damaged. Cruiser "Bayan" has given tow. By the evening of April 6 this submarine managed to return to Helsingfors.
Submarine "Tour" and "Tiger" at noon on April 11 came after the icebreaker "Ermak" in Kronstadt. At the submarine "tour" have been severely damaged nose ballast tanks and superstructure with PL "Tiger" was the tip of the nose is broken. Going third unit was implemented five trains from 7 to 12 April. This detachment consisted of 48 destroyers, 10 submarines, mine-layers 5, 6 minesweepers, 11 patrol ships. It was the most challenging and difficult step of the Ice campaign. The German government demanded ultimaticheski disarm up to 12 hours on April 12 all Russian warships in ports in Finland.
At dawn on April 7, patrol ships "Hawk" and "Ruslan" brought together with the tug "Arkona" from Helsingforsa 8 submarines. April 9 submarine left the harbor "Eel" 9na towed by transport "Begotten") and PL "Cougar" (towed by mother ships "Tosno"). On the submarine "Cougar", published last, was acting head of the division captain 2 rank V.F.Dudkin.
At the transition the ships were often compressed ice. Submarine "Leopard" had no watertight bulkheads and the appearance of holes in a strong case could lead to their death. Boat so covered with ice, which sometimes over boulders, piled on the decks to evict only the cutting. Submariners constantly cutting away ice. Often pave the way for ships had crowbars. In particular the shifting of the ice was unsafe. Ice crept on submarines, clutching them. In the buildings were created dents, flying rivets, seams sprawling. Many submarines were damaged caps bow torpedo tubes, nasal and ballast tanks and superstructure, bent vertical and horizontal rudders broken off blade propellers.
April 15 in the coming darkness Submarine "boar", "Wolf", "Jaguar", "Lynx", "Ruff", "snake", "Leopard" and the mother ship "Tosno" with PL "Cougar" in tow arrived in Kronstadt, and The next day they fled to Petrograd.
April 17 has come Submarine "eel", April 18 — Submarine "Panther", April 22 — The mother ship — "Soldier".
So Makar, moving the third squadron was successfully completed. In Helsingforse from the division were snorkeling transport "Europe" mother ship "Memory of Azov" and salvage ship "Volkhov" who could not get out because of the lack of significant coal and crew missing items.
The last third detachment ships out on April 12, when the German troops had entered the outskirts of the town. The next day went on a raid Helsingforsa German dreadnoughts "Westfalen", "Posen" battleship "Beowulf" and opened artillery fire on the beach.
In the Ice expedition exceptional courage and dedication shown V.F.Dudkin, S.P.Yazykov, G.V.Vasilev, B.M.Voroshilin, N.A.Gornyakovsky, G.I.Gutta, A.A.Zhdan- Pushkin, Ya.K.Zubarev, A.A.Ikonnikov, N.K.Kechedzhi, M.V.Lashmanov, Yu.V.Puare, M.F.Storozhenko, G.M.Trusov, and G.A.Shreder many others
Rescue ship "Volkhov" came out of Helsingforsa May 11, 1918
His last ship left the May 28 "Memory of Azov", which was used as the flagship of the senior naval officer in Finland.
Saved by the submarine together with a small number of submarines that were in Petrograd, formed the core of Russian submarine forces.
Russian government to take urgent measures to protect Kronstadt and Petrograd. Due to the deterioration of relations with Germany on May 14 was blown Fort Ino.
Ship Baltic force given in the state of over-alertness, May 16, 1918 were divided into 3 categories:
The current fleet,
Armed with a reserve,
Ships on the long-term storage.
In command of the division submarine fleet Baltic Sea on May 22 joined Captain 2nd Rank K.E.Vvedenskitsy, the main division commissioner for political affairs was appointed as a mine engineer I.V.Vladimirov.
Instead of six divisions, of which previously was division was formed two.
1st Division (Head — Lieutenant K.L.Sobolev, Commissioner I.E.Ivanov) are spare and totaled 11 PL: "The Wolf", "boar", "Ruff", "snake", "trout", " Cougar, "" ide "," eel "," chum "," Killer Whale "and" perch ". They are all in need of repair or are in the completion.
2nd Division (Head Captain 2nd Rank Ya.K.Zubarev,, commissioner S.P.Yazykov) were increasingly capable submarines — "Tiger", "Panther", "Lynx", "tour", "Jaguar", "Leopard "" Minoga "and" Mackerel ".
The division has 5 support vessels.
During the campaign of 1918 of the division has undergone significant changes. In July, the existing fleet was left only 6 submarines ("Tiger", "Panther", "Jaguar", "Leopard", "Lynx" and "Tour"), summarized in a separate division. The reserve in Petrograd were Submarine "Wolf", "boar", "Ruff", "Trout", "Lamprey" and "Mackerel" and other submarines (from the beginning of August as "Lamprey" and "Mackerel" _ — in storage at Petrograd port.
Submarine "chum" was completely excluded from the Navy.
Four submarines operating division conducted reconnaissance in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Narva, and two — in Lake Ladoga to prevent the landing of enemy landings on the near approaches to Petrograd. First came out July 3, 1918 in Lake Ladoga Submarine "Wild Boar", the second — 23 August — Submarine "Panther".
In autumn 1918 the military-political situation has changed dramatically. Allied troops defeated the exhausted German army. November 13 Central Executive Committee passed a resolution to annul the Brest peace treaty But the defeat of Germany in the war allowed the United States, Britain and France to use the vacated force to gain Russian armed struggle against Russia.
In the summer of 1918 was the main front of the East, hinges on its southern flank of the Caspian Sea. While holding in his hands the Volga delta and controlling the northern part of the Caspian Sea, Russian troops were not given the ability to unite the armies of General Denikin and Kolchak. At the direction of Lenin were made to strengthen the naval forces in the north of the Caspian Sea.
In August 1918, began a translation from the Baltic Sea by Mary aqua system to the Caspian detachment destroyers. But due to the aggravation of the situation on the Eastern front destroyers were included in the Volga flotilla.
Lenin insisted on the transfer here a few destroyers and submarines.
In Petrograd immediately prepared for shipment by train to th
e Caspian Sea Submarine "Lamprey", "mackerel", "Killer Whale" and "perch". Soon these submarines were delivered to Saratov on the Volga, and lowered water. November 15th Submarine "Lamprey" and "Mackerel" arrived in Astrakhan and became part of the Astrakhan-Caspian Flotilla, formed in October, 1918, the submarine "Killer Whale" and "Perch" wintered near Saratov.
April 30, 1919 landing, planted ships Astrakhan-Caspian Flotilla captured Fort Aleksandrovskii) Fort Shevchenko) situated in the Tub-Karagan Bay Peninsula Mangishlak. Meanwhile flotilla received agile base on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea. By mid-May, the ships were concentrated in the Tub-Karagan Bay, but soon ran across the main forces of the flotilla raid on Astrakhan. At the Fort Alexander left only a few ships, including a submarine "lamprey"And" Mackerel, mother ship "Revel".
May 20, 1919 over the Gulf appeared reconnaissance plane of the enemy, and about the subsequent day or an afternoon on the horizon were found 11 ships of the interventionists and White Guards. 6 enemy ships, at 14.20 approaching the bay, opened fire. Unequal battle ensued. PL "Mackerel"At this time perceived torpedoes. G.A.Shreder Its commander gave the order to sink immediately. Rapidly stepping into the water," Mackerel "headed out of the bay towards the enemy ships. Fairway depth does not exceed 7 meters, and the draft of the submarine running at periscope depth , was 6.6 meters. To increment in store water under the keel, PL "Mackerel" coming out of the Gulf in the lowered periscope. submarine commander led blindly. On horizontal rudders was managing foreman MV.Lashmanov. highest skill allowed him to delay the depth of the dive, regardless of the continuous change trim the boat because Thu seals and rivets missing water.
2nd PL — "Lamprey", which were out of diesel engines, electric motors went on to board the mother ship "Revel" at the marina. At this time, "Revel" hit one of their shells. There was a fire on the floating base, the flames spread to the submarine. The commander of "Revel" to protect the wood dock, ordered to chop off the moorings. Burning mother ship deployed to the wind, and it fell upon the artillery trucks "The Fog". Near turned Tender "Gelma." The ships were enveloped in flames.
Submariners fast you got rid of the water moorings "Lamprey", wound up on the board, "Revel". But when the submarine gave the course, the case is wrapped around the metal screw anchor leg. Then the commander of the "Lamprey" Yu.V.Puare, divisional mechanical engineer A.N.Kalinin with 3 sailors by jumping into the boat, took a submarine in tow and struggling beat on the oars. Hardly managed to pull the submarine "Lamprey" from the burning ship, as "Mist" was an explosion. Transport, Tender mother ship and sank almost immediately.
Hastened to the rescue submarine support vessel "Bakinets." Submarine "Lamprey" was assigned to one of the piers. Soon there was a seaplane over the bay of the enemy, who began firing at the ships and dropping bombs. Opening the small-arms fire, Russian sailors repulsed the attack of the aircraft.
At night, it became clear that in the 30-40 km from the Fort Alexander opponent landed marines. Enemy ships as ever kept nearby Tub-Karagan Bay. The command of the fleet sent against a land assault detachment, reinforced by military navigators removed from the ships. The commander of the submarine "Lamprey" lost power due to wind it onto the bolt rope had been ordered to kill her. But the divers decided to save their own ship. Communist Managing Petty V.Ya.Isaev volunteered to release the screw of the iron wire. Working in the cool water, he showed perseverance and endurance. After 2 hours, the screw was cleared of the rope, and the submarine was able to proceed. Meanwhile, coming out of the Bay Submarine "Mackerel" was found by enemy aircraft, was bombed, but left unscathed from the blow. The emergence of the submarine at sea alarmed the enemy. In its own report commander of Submarine "Mackerel" wrote that the enemy, finding it, "he turned back, concentrating all its own fire on the square of finding Russian submarines that helped out from a complete rout in the harbor vessels with mines and shells fence." Fearing a torpedo attack PAUL, enemy ships rushed to leave.
In this challenging environment particularly distinguished manager foreman L "Mackerel" M.V.Lashmanov standing on watch on the horizontal handlebars. It is 8:00 in a row holding up the ship at a given depth in the shallow waters of the criteria. At the request of the commander of the submarine division G.A.Shredera and Commissioner S.N.Naumova M.V.Lashmanovu for their courage and skill shown in this battle, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. G.A.Shreder in the petition of January 2, 1924 to award the Order of the Red Banner M.V.Lashmanova stated: "Upon his return to the fort became clear that the only assistant on submarines
Renoyan of experienced memories came from the mind, and on the march comrade. Lashmanova had to change my order for the retired assistant that he and brilliantly executed. "Rewarding V.V.Lashmanova held in April 1928
Go to Astrakhan Submarine "Mackerel" failed due to a sharp decline in the water so called the 24-foot harbor formed by the delta of the Volga River. Boat had to stay on the roads. Together with her was a river tugboat, armed with a machine gun. On the submarine "Mackerel" were only 6 people, including the commander and commissar. As for the week divers successfully repulsed the attacks of enemy aircraft and motor sailing boats — "Rybnita" armed with torpedo tubes. Only with the rise of water, removing part of the submarine devices and pumped out ballast, sailors were able to lead by tug Submarine "Mackerel" in Astrakhan. Safely reached Astrakhan and submarines "Lamprey".
Baltic divers, carrying out the task, Lenin acted decisively in the Caspian Sea and dedication. Submarine crews almost completely composed of communists and their sympathizers.
On the submarine "Lamprey" 10 divers were Communists, 8 — sympathetic and only 2 — non-partisan. The crew of the submarine "Mackerel" consisted of nine Communist sympathizers 8, 2 non-partisan.
He commanded a division of submarines (submarine and immediately "Lamprey") Yu.V.Puare. Commissioner battalion motor sergeant was a communist S.N.Naumov, Commissioner PL "Lamprey" Communist V.I.Zhukovsky, the commissioner "Mackerel" — Communist I.V.Kelner.