Ivan Alexander was born in Mitava in 1817 in the family of the little bureaucrat. Since childhood, Ivan showed possibilities of painting, reaching in this area great success. Arriving in St. Petersburg, Alexander became an art teacher and continued to improve in painting. First 1850s. Alexander participated in several academic exhibitions where his works were awarded big ratings, and he was listed as a prominent artist. In order to have a means of livelihood, Alexander discovered that the photo was listed in St. Petersburg best. But no photo or painting led his current path. IF Alexander energetically studied physics, mechanics, chemistry, arithmetic, and was well-known in the field of photographic inventor. Inspired by a patriotic desire to help the Russian Navy, Alexander proceeded to the construction of the submarine. The idea of building a submarine appeared at Ivan in 1853 when, as in the UK for a shop he saw the stern fleet, which stands on the raid and was preparing to attack.
Alexander, after returning home, he began to develop their own project. Soon after learning that the submarine is already building Bauer, Ivan finished "fear of being prirekaniyu in imitation and lack of independence." But in 1856, the Alexander managed to behold submarine Bauer in Kronstadt, and it seemed to him very strongly coupled. Having finished his project, Alexander offered his royal government. The project saw the Marine Scientific Committee and for the practical implementation was considered ideal. Taking into account the comments of the committee, the inventor has brought several improvements to the project and re-submitted it for consideration. Only 6lagodarya insistence Burachek SO, famous naval engineer, Scientific Committee again reviewed the project in May 1862. It should be noted that when considering the design of the Alexander, Burachek SO put forward a number of unique thoughts totality of which could make the basis for a new project. For example, Burachek offered:
— change the steering wheel and propellers "through-waterway," in other words, jet drive unit;
— to bring the body in cross-section and a lower broad form (to make it close to the ellipse);
— pneumatic machine to change the steam turbine with airtight tube boilers of their own design;
— apply horizontal extension rudders installed amidships.
Alexander IF refused to use in your own project proposals Burachek. Marine Scientific Committee on June 14 approved the draft of the Alexander, but it was indicated that the Ministry of the Navy does not have the funds to build a submarine.
After much wraith Alexander was able to achieve getting 140 thousand rubles for the implementation of the project. Baltic Shipyard June 18, 1863 issued an order to build the ship, and in May 1866 graduated from the boat. Boat dimensions were: length of about 33 m, the large width of 4 m, height of about 3.6 meters, displacement of 355 tons. Cross-sectional Underwater boats took the form of the tip facing upward triangle with convex sides. This hull form inventor proposed to slow the dive.
For the movement of submarines were set air vehicles (two-shaft installation), for which the compressed air is stored in 200 cans (thick-walled iron pipe with a diameter of 60 mm). In tanks hold up to approximately 6 m3 of air at a pressure of 60-100 atmospheres. According to the calculations of the inventor of supplies air was missed by 30 miles voyage. Part of the exhaust air from the air inside the car came to the boat breathing excess pressure was vented overboard through a special pipe, curb irrevocable valve that prevented water from getting into the cars as they stop the water. In order to replenish the supplies of air in a submarine had specials. high-pressure compressor, which was designed SI Baranovsky (For the first time in Russia).
At the bottom of the boat to the dive was arranged 11 m3 ballast tank, which was accepted in the amount of sea water, the right to actually complete repayment of buoyancy boats. Ascent to the surface produced by the blowing of ballast water by means of compressed air tank has been able to withstand the pressure of 10 kg / cm. On the boat, not including the ballast tank, there was a strong cylinder having a float gauge water in this cylinder water taken after filling the ballast tanks by paying the residual buoyancy (the prototype of the modern surge tank submarines).
In order to keep the boat when submerged at a given depth during the Alexander foresaw two the stern rudder. Vertical steering wheel created to control the horizontal plane had a form, everyday for the courts since then. Drives the vertical and horizontal control surfaces were placed inside the submarine.
Alexander for the first time in Russia used to own a submarine magnetic compass. To eliminate the effects of ambient iron compass located at the bow of the vessel, made of reddish copper device worked satisfactorily. Also, in the bow had a special chamber to exit the diver when submerged, at that time held down underwater boat anchors.
Armament boat — two connected between a rope floating mines, surfacing, the mines had to bow keel of the opponent (provided that Submarine will be under the ship). After the return min submarine to retreat to the non-dangerous distance and undermine the mines galvanic current through a conductor; explosive ignited by the heating wire.
In the event of a tragedy, for the ability to lift the boat of their own means, Alexander foresaw light pontoons made as leather bags, placed in the upper part of the submarine. These bags of the compressed air from the cylinder. Upon admission to the air bags increased their volume, creating a buoyant enough to lift the ship.
Holders of the Baltic plant had to finish the construction of the vessel to the September 1, 1864, but the treaty criterion is not fulfilled, the boat was launched on exclusively in 1865, while it had a lot of different defects. So, for example, the propellers were made without a protective enclosure; hatch diving camera is not locked tightly, giving flow; lever designed to return min, it is not done — the inventor was required to do it without the help of others. For testing the boat was transferred to Kronstadt. Alexander checked the correct operation of devices and started in the Middle 19/06/1866 harbor immersion tests. But Alexander had expected new difficulties. That's what the inventor wrote about it:
"To my last regret, announcements on the case, go down with me under the water in a boat no one dared. After a vain persuasion, I decided to go down one, though aware that handle all devices in the submarine was very insecure and hard, but to my happiness one Watson, a master of the plant MacPherson, showed a desire to perform descent with me. "
First dive submarine Alexander was not completely safely.
"After descending into the water at 6 feet, I stopped the boat, after keeping it in that position for about 20 minutes. During this time, the boat was completely motionless.
sfied with this first step, I prepared for the raising of the ship, when suddenly there was a crack, all the candles and lamps were extinguished quickly, and we found ourselves in complete darkness. Watson yelled that there was a gap of air pipe. He ordered him to go forward and open the hatch, I went to the touch making a recovery, but in the darkness could not build pressure gauge and so did not know what a let up in a water tank for air pressure. When I managed to open the water valve, the boat floated to the surface at one time, there was light, but terrible crackling lasted. I am, waiting for every second that crush us, did not depart from the tap until the moment when Watson was not open hatch. Only here, I saw that it was a prerequisite for the terrible cod that Watson was taken for an air gap pipe. "
Then it was found. Ivan Watson instructed to open the tank valve is blowing with compressed air, and warned him that he was looking for a gauge of the tank, avoiding the pressure increases more than 1 atmosphere. Alexander himself was at the opening of the drive, "tap water." Since the ballast tank was filled with one hundred percent, it was necessary first to make it equal to the outboard pressure air pressure, and then only open the "tap water." Inexperience Watson opened the valve blowing off more than you need, and the tank was created undue pressure, pressure relief valve started to really pop, and then there was a break tank. Alexander, fortunately, managed to fit to open the "tap water" and the first dive, so Makarov, there were no severe tragedy.
This case clearly showed that the submarine can not allow people who are not trained to use machines, devices and systems. After the repair of damage to the submarine was appointed commander — Captain Erdmann — and a team of 15 sailors and 6 officers. The crew was made several dives and short-diving, then the boat had a marine scientist Committee. Tests last 3 years. Then the submarine appointed a new commander — Captain Rogulya.
Marine Scientific Committee, whose meetings attended by Rear Admiral AA Popov and Vice Admiral Nevel GI, appreciated the invention: "The main question about the ability of swimming under water solved: the Alexander made easy and comfortable boat is lowered into the water and floats." Implementation of the idea of the Alexander recognized the "patriotic" and "courageous." Academic Committee of the sea offered to provide all possible support to the cause, which is "carrying a Russian invention, with the possible expected success, called to the majestic future of a revolution in maritime warfare and to give such power to the sea, which is not owned by other nations."
The submarine campaign of Alexander in 1869 was sent to inspect the fleet in Tranzund. The other day on the show she produced Tranzundskom raid rehearsal on a dive, the dive course is 4 feet of water and bubbling. During the show, which was held on the following day, the submarine frigate set about "Petropavlovsk". Boat commander had given orders to go on a 4-meter depth under water from the "Petropavlovsk" to the royal yacht "Standart" (about 600 meters). Captain Rogulya this voyage performed with success: while submerged speed boat kept constant deepening, keep an eye on the mast-foot rod, which specifically secured on a submarine.
After the review by Tranzundskom latest raid appointed a commission with which Alexander's had to go through at a depth of 5 meters distance of about 1.5 miles (from the English to the lighthouse corvette "Griden", which was put on the road). This distance was covered, but the boat is in the vertical plane was very unbalanced: it is immersed, then floated to the surface. Alexander explained to the instability of the boat shallow depth under the keel. The inventor stated that at a length of 33 meters distance between the keel and the bottom should be more than 6 meters, and the bottom of the keel in the area was only 2.5 to 3 meters at this depth the boat bumped twice on the ground.
Before diving at great depths was necessary body strength test dive to a depth that is greater than that which the inventor found it necessary to continue the experiments. In B'yerkezund in 1871 was made the first such test case. The boat was loaded to a depth of 24 meters without people. This it has stood the test: after climbing flaws body was found. On another day the submarine was lowered by 30 meters (no people), but raise it did not work: the body was crushed and the boat filled with water.
Only two years later, in 1873, Alexander was able to raise the ship. Recovery boats acknowledged inappropriate, because for military purposes it deemed inapplicable. The main reasons were named the missing strength of the housing, and other provisions, the chief of which was the inability to maintain a constant depth during the submerged speed of supplies and limited driving energy.
Academic Committee of the sea were given follow-up evaluation of the results of tests that were conducted to test the strength of the case:
"The ship went under water a distance of 1.5 miles in 1 hour, as it should, at a speed of 1.5 knot, preserving not a bad direction for the course, but could not hold on to the same depth, because during the time of transition is constantly sinking boat into the water, then show up their own end of the tower over the water …
50 minutes of running, an underwater path boats accounted for 30 1/4 minutes, the rest falls on the length of the frequent occurrences of the vessel above the water …
Adjusting the depth of swimming during the time of the jump is described by the intake of water in the tank and its release from the tank. Then another 30 minutes boat was under water. Depth with all this regulated hydroplanes. Ship also could not stay on the same depth, so that the dignity of the 1st method over the other … have been observed. "
After that, bearing in mind that at the request of the captain of the first rank Andreyev, the commander of the boat, in the ship "is not enough for the subsequent experiments, the compressed air released into the harbor boat in tow ship" St. Petersburg ". Following the approach to the Middle Gate tug gave the boat without the help of others came into the harbor, passing even with a 1/4 hours of their own means. "
In conclusion Kupreyanova V., "all the time course for the vessel which is sufficient driving force was equal to 1 3/4 hours at a rate that 1.5 unit will allow walking 2,625 miles."
In the coming Aleksandrovskii it was suggested that the submarine steam engine, why it was necessary to increment the displacement of the vessel. Apart from that he has brought to the project some other improvements. Marine Technical Committee Alexander saw the new proposals and in 1876 gave the conclusion:
"The new design of the Alexander removes the continued development of the issue of diving, and yet the question still remains unresolved because of the requirements that laid the inventor of the initial project and the hoped to achieve … and because shipbuilding department decided to reject the proposal of the Alexander restructuring on a brand new project of available boats. "
In connection with the decision of the Shipbuilding Division of the theoretical analysis of issues snorkeling, great work carried out Kupreyanov B. This work is concerned the problems of vertical stability of the vessel during the underwater stroke.
Kupreyanov in their own research papers examine what forces influence the motion in a submarine. He came to the conclusion that the ship are constantly changing forces that together with the tonnage of the vessel are participating in determining the movement of the ship in the horizontal and vertical directions. Considering the protagonists of power — wave and hydrodynamic resistance — Kupre
yanov find the most profitable form of submarines, with which it is possible to reduce to a minimum the vertical motion of the vessel during the underwater stroke.
Kupreyanov in search of a dynamic balance test concluded that the forces that influence the vertical stability, to a large extent on the location of the propeller and the boat load and hull structures. Comparing these terms with the reasons that violate the vertical stability, Kupreyanov came to the conclusion that the ability to combine them in one vessel. He pointed out that one of the main criteria is to eliminate the vertical resistance in the submarine force couple (water resistance and driving), so that the direction of these forces combined in a single straight line. Kupreyanov for this purpose have suggested axle propeller shaft in a straight line representing the direction of the resultant force of water resistance. This condition can only be done when the submarine hull will have a form in which the resultant of all resistances acting on different parts of the housing will be directed along a symmetry axis (which in turn can be achieved in this case, if the submarine is devoted form the body of rotation).
Kupreyanov their research work pointed the way designers eliminate torque emanating from the mismatch of the forces that act on the submarine during its movement. Finally Kupreyanov noted that satisfactory results are explained by adjusting the movement of the torpedo as a decent job control devices, and the fact that the torpedo shape is a body of revolution.
Apart from the deepest research Kupreyanova directing idea of inventors in search of the perfect forms submarine hull, published numerous articles enemies of scuba diving. One of the founders of the development of submarine building was considered for military use impractical, others — justify that the "harassment" of diving fruitless.
For example, in its review of the project subs N. Spiridonov, General Konstantin wrote:
"At the beginning of the present-day century possession of the submarine or the creation of on the subject of experiments could produce at the opponent concern for the general course of military action is useless, as this has generated concern in the UK, manufactured in France researches Fulton, but now the company experiments on submarines can not even hope to this indirect benefit militarily … "
Another founder, Captain First Rank greenish, presenting their own judgment in relation to the poor test submarine Alexander, came to the subsequent conclusions:
Alexander IF Awards in the history of the Russian diving unconditional. He was able to solve the puzzle of creation large iron submarine with a mechanical engine, with all this for the first time performed the double arbor machine installation. Alexander on his own boat as well for the first time applied the blowing of ballast water by means of compressed air, as is done in modern submarines. For the first time in the Russian submarine was applied magnetic compass.
Creative insight into the hydrodynamic phenomena that accompany the movement of the boat under water, allowed the Alexander understand the need to install horizontal rudders fodder, despite the difficulty of their devices in the aft part of the ship that housed the band propeller shafts and engine installation. It must be emphasized that South American boat "David", which were built in the same period in the United States had only a bow hydroplanes.
Stern hydroplanes major and modern submarines. At first glance create memories that with equal squares, bow and stern hydroplanes similar efficiency. But it is not. The fact that the hydrodynamic point of horizontal rudders always feed the 1st character, in other words, torque is equal to the sum of the moments rudders housing. Under the action of the nasal hydroplane hull hydrodynamic moment is focused rudders time ago, in other words, the torque is equal to the difference between this case and the case highlights the rudders.
Unfortunately, the speed of the submarine Alexander was so unimportant that he could not in practice applied to test the effectiveness of the stern rudders. In modern submarines are commonly used and nose and stern hydroplanes. Maneuvers ascent and dive boats are normally created by the action of the horizontal rudders aft, and to keep the vessel at a given depth use nasal hydroplanes that make the angle of attack, which is opposite to the angle of attack submarine hull.
Aleksandrov was developed in 1875 a draft alterations in semi-submersible submarine minonosnoe vessel has a displacement of 630 tons with a "tremendous speed of travel." With all of this proposed change Pneumatic steam engine capacity of 700 hp Given project, like his other proposals are not accepted. Overcome by the inventor of destitution own follow-up project (minonosnoe sinking ship of 460 tons and a length of 41 meters) suggested France, but the French government likely to pay much-inventor or solid reward is not considered likely.
In the late 1880s, Alexander once again returned to the idea of reconstruction of its own submarine. He developed a new project on which boat armed with 12 torpedoes had to have a speed of surface speed of 10-12 knots and supplies energy (air motor 150 hp) for diving in for 7 hours.
Above 35 years old Alexander IF labored on his invention. Excellent homeland patriot, Alexander did everything he could to strengthen the combat power of the Russian Navy. But his work at the Royal Government support she found. Alexander went bankrupt in 1894 and died in a clinic for the poor forgotten by everyone.