The need to use the internal tube torpedo was due in a memorandum filed in GMSh May 30, 1905, Rear Admiral, head of the diving Schensnovichem Eduard Nikolaevich. In particular, he drew attention MGSH the successful construction of the Baltic factory submarines "Killer Whale" and the creation of a 400-strong bodied engines for surface running. Considering it necessary to further develop the Russian submarine shipbuilding, Schensnovich suggested "Eager to order the Baltic Shipyard submarine torpedo tubes with inner."
The content of the memorandum Schensnovicha EN coincided with the plans of the Ministry of Marine, because MTC May 3, 1905 saw the design of the submarine displacement of 380 tons, compiled by naval architect IG Bubnov and the captain of the second rank Beklemishev MN The designers have chosen the path of future development of submarines of "Killer Whale". Submerged speed was increased by 4 nodes (up to 18), the cruising range on the surface — five thousand miles, underwater — 32 miles (vs. 24). The project foresaw the installation of the bow torpedo tube and cut-outs add — 6 torpedo system Drzewiecki. The members of the MTC, in a detailed review of the project, expressed a desire to move the tubular device in the higher part of the superstructure to prevent damage to the touch of a submarine on the ground. The meeting approved the MTC project, pointing out that "the construction of such a submarine in Russia … their money is desirable for self-development, construction and improvement of means of scuba diving." Baltic Shipyard and Engineering Works was offered as a builder, and the factory "L.Nobel" — as a manufacturer of engines surface speed. Based on the positive response of MTC vice-admiral, Managing Marine Ministry, Avelan FC May 4, 1905 ordered to make to the overall shipbuilding program from the project.
IG Bubnov Sept. 25 sent a memo addressed to the head inspector of shipbuilding. In it, he pointed to overcharge explosive petrol units. Two 600-horsepower gasoline engine offered to swap with 2 diesel engines with 600 and 300 hp, running on a single shaft turns. To maintain the design speed IG Bubnov proposed to reduce the width of the submarine by 305 mm and renounce the use of wood in the hull plating. In addition, the designer suggested using instead of the 1st tube and 6 torpedo tubes Drzewiecki four tubular device with 4 spare torpedoes.
Made to the configuration of ITC approved, immediately subjected to the review and approved the presented IG Bubnov small submarine project 117 tons displacement, armed with 2 tubular nasal tubes. The basis for the development of this project were the findings of the commission MGSH the need to have in the fleet submarines 2-types — coastal, with a displacement of about 100 tons, and cruising, with a displacement of 350-400 tons. Meeting of the ITC project a small submarine and configurations made to the documentation of the submarine, with a displacement of 360 tons, approved. The construction of the submarine was assigned to the Baltic Shipyard, and the general observation has been assigned to the ship's engineer IG Bubnov Department facilities GUKiSa, based on the subsequent resolution after which the Minister of Marine Birileva AA, 9 February 1906 issued the Baltic factory order number 4457 for the construction of 2 submarines displacement of 360 and 117 tons. Performance time — 20 months.
Order Baltic Shipyard from the outset was not funded (total 200 000), which gave only the opportunity to begin negotiations with contractors and expand the preliminary work. Experts at the factory in the summer of 1906 have been negotiating with the company "MAN" (Augsburg, Germany), which was engaged at the time of the construction of diesel engines rated at 300 hp for French submarines. Petersburg factory "L.Nobel" also took on the establishment of such engines, but it seemed very unclear due to lack of experience. IG Bubnov August 19 submitted a memorandum to the MTC, which offered to swap power plant for underwater travel. Given the fact that the alleged 600-horsepower diesel engine in a sound body size did not come and had a number of shortcomings, Bubnov proposed using three diesel engines rated at 300 hp, any of which will work on a separate shaft.
So unusual project meetings ITC considered three times — 21 August, 22 September and 13 October. Members of the committee at the first meeting of the proposed order to stop construction and 1 diesel for comprehensive testing. All of this entry submarines into service back by time, that's why the head of the Baltic Plant PF Veshkurtsev took responsibility for the construction of submarines and the displacement of 117 360 tonnes. At the last meeting of the MTC Veshkurtseva proposal was accepted. Plant in October introduced the MTC those. provisions, approved on December 7. This date should be considered as the beginning of construction of submarines.
Factory "L.Nobel" in January 1907 received an order for the ready 3 300-horsepower 2-and 120-horsepower engines, and the factory "Volta" in Revel — for propulsion motors. With all of this the delivery of diesel engines — 15 months from the date of receipt of the order. The French company "Meto" was to supply batteries (term of 11 months). Hulls were going pretty quickly, especially on a small submarine, formally pledged February 6, 1906.
June 14, 1907 small and large submarines of the Baltic plant have been enrolled in the lists of the fleet as "Lamprey" and "Shark."
Launching of the first of them, which is scheduled for spring 1908, had to be postponed because the plant "L.Nobel" supply engines surface speed delayed. Much time was spent at the ready reversing device developed by engineers Hagelin KV In this regard, first of diesel was presented in July, and the second — in October 1908. Factory "Volta" in the contract terms are also failed to meet. All work and complicated the fire that occurred on March 21 in the Baltic zavodke and destroyed the new batteries. This was the premise of the secondary order of "Meto". Submarine "Lamprey" October 11 was lowered into the water from a diesel engine, 15 days started the tests that had to be completed in connection with solid ice. November 7 were carried out only mooring tests. In April 1909, the submarine "Lamprey" raised on a wall to install a lead keel, as a huge number of pipelines in the hold position inside the housing additio
nal ballast is not allowed.
First of June was set second diesel, battery and tried all the gears. June 7th Submarine "Lamprey" under the command of Lieutenant Brovtsyna AV beginning in the Sea Canal runs under diesels and later defected to acceptance tests (15-18 October) in Borke-Sound. Acceptance Commission concluded that the submarine is subject to acceptance into the treasury, even despite the lowering of underwater and surface velocities in comparison with the contract (0.75 and 1 unit, respectively). Also, the Commission has proposed to strengthen the armed submarines with 2 torpedo tubes Drzewiecki. But the proposal remained on paper due to fears of deterioration of stability submarine.
Submarine "Lamprey" (displacement of 123/152 tons of buoyancy in store 24%) is an upcoming development of submarines of "Killer Whale" with the appropriate placement of the head of ballast housing is strong in the lung extremities. Strong body for up to 45 meter dive, gaining the transverse system. Concentric frames from 18 to 90 were made of angle steel 90h60h8 mm with 305 mm frame spacing, sheathing — 8 mm, limited the sturdy case with a bow to stern. By the strong body in the middle of the round strong riveting Pilothouse (wall thickness of 8 mm), lining the lungs of the extremities (from 0 to 18 and from 90 to 108 frames) was twice the least thickness.
Throughout the upper part of the body, to improve the navigability of properties sbiralas waterproof lightweight superstructure (trim width of 3 mm). The system immersion "Lamprey" consisted of 2-tank (any 9 tons) of the headquarters of ballast in the extremities, which were calculated on the 6-foot depth of the dive. The end tanks in the stern and bow filled with 2 centrifugal pumps reversible systems "Maginot Line" (120 mm diameter valves, performance, depending on the depth ranged from 45 to 200 m3 per hour). Inside the terminal tanks located fore and aft trimming tanks (capacity of 0.75 tons each) and with the maximum depth. To fill them used 76-mm valves. Inside the sturdy body (ribs 48-59) placed two medium tanks (capacity of 2 tons each) that are filled through separate 152-mm Kingston valves, actuators, which were in the conning tower. In the superstructure in the bow and stern (frames 23-49 and 57-74) were two tanks on deck 4 tons with a pressure of 0.5 atmospheres and fills during a dive through the scuppers gravity. Trim and medium tanks blow air under the highest pressure (about 3 atmospheres) at the maximum depth. The water was pumped out of the tank through a special pipeline centrifugal pumps. Residual buoyancy regulated by 2-malehankih tanks for a total capacity of about 15 liters., Were in the aft of the conning tower. The filling was made hand pump.
In general, the ballast system of the submarine "Lamprey" different reliability and simplicity. The principal innovation was the presence of deck tanks with any air valves which (after filling the stern and bow) submarine passed into positional position in which on the surface to be just cutting.
Average bow immersion tank filled with one hundred percent, aft — in part, making it possible to adjust the residual buoyancy. In essence, the feed tank was doing the role of equalization. Purging medium tanks with compressed air high pressure allowed the submarine to swim rapidly in an emergency situation.
Breech of torpedo tubes, compressor, centrifugal pump, bow electric motor for underwater anchors were in the upper part of the nasal compartment (frames 18-48). Located at the bottom of the battery system, "Meto" consisting of 66 units, located at the board 2 groups with a passage in the middle. With all of this laminate floor served as a battery. BATTERY over on the sides were fastened iron lockers. Their caps were intended for recreation team. In the hold of the nose compartment was located 7 vozduhohraniteley, torpedo firing are performed by means of the 1st of them. On the starboard side (frame 48) was secured fresh water tank capacity of 400 liters .. Between frames 48 and 54 were available enclosure space for the officers who dissociate themselves from the walkway made of cloth curtains. Then placed the bed and assistant commander, electric periscope and fans. Aft bulkhead "cabins" were the walls of fuel tanks and nose — light bulkheads (frame 48). Between frames 54 and 58 were located fuel tanks, riveted steel 7 mm wide, with a walkway in between.
Between the 58th and the spherical bulkhead bulkhead housed the engine room, in which there were two three-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine (stroke 270 mm, the diameter of the cylinder 300 mm), the total power at 400 rev / min — 240 hp In surfaced engine allows you to reach speeds up to 10 knots and a cruising range of up to provide 1,000 miles of 8-nodal economic progress. Underwater submarine moved by rowing 70-horsepower electric motor at a speed of 4.5-5 knots. BATTERY enough capacity for the passage of 90 miles. The electric motor and diesel engines installed in the center line between itself could connect friction clutches Leblanc. On charging the battery worked aft engine. Under the foundations of diesel fuel tanks are 6 having a capacity of 5.7 tons, where solar oil supplied to the tank supplies the hand pump, and then flows by gravity.
The presence of a submarine "Lamprey"On one propeller shaft dissimilar engines, and small power configuration speed diesel engines identified use (for the first time in world practice) CPP, fin only set no load regardless of the mode of operation. As a result of this technical innovation is not actually used. In engine room apart from the above items were compressor, centrifugal pump aft ballast tanks and 5 vozduhohraniteley. vozduhohraniteley One (capacity 100 liters). was used to start the diesel engine.
The submarine was ruled by a vertical rudder area of 2 m2, and 2 pairs of hydroplanes — the stern and bow (area 2 m2 and 3.75, respectively), the last posts were in the bow and stern compartments, making it difficult to control. The central office was absent as such, and the vertical steering wheel housed in the conning tower. Such as steering wheel was installed on the roof of the cabin to control surfaced. The visual observation of the external situation was carried out in 5 windows in the wheelhouse. Here in the upper part was made strong cap with 4 portholes, it also served as a cover input hatch. Another two hatches were in the stern and bow were used for loading parts, torpedoes and Accum. In the underwater observation was conducted using a periscope and kleptoskopa zabugornyh designs, while the first had a subsequent difference: while watching the rotation of the lens remains in place, and in the criteria for the latter constraint it was very basic.
Armament submarine "Lamprey" — two VTTA factory "G.A.Lessnera" and two torpedoes R34 mod. 1904 caliber 450 mm. In the absence of torpedozamestitelnoy tank firing a volley was impossible. In the supply were underwater mushroom anchor weighing 50 kg and over-water anchor weighing 150 lbs. The crew of the submarine totaled 22 people, two of whom — the officers.
Based at Libau submarine "Lamprey" the beginning of combat training, produced independent outputs, took part in the yearly fleet maneuvers. March 23, 1913 during a training dive unexpected happened — a strong
body through the ship's ventilation shaft, due to the ingress side of the subject of its valve was not completely closed, the water began to flow. Submarine lost buoyancy, sank to a depth of 30 meters, but thanks to the skillful actions of Lieutenant Garsoeva AN, the commander of the submarine, windless weather, time and assistance provided, the victims managed to escape. With the help of professionals Libava military port of the submarine was raised and repaired. The practical lesson from this incident, concelebrated better service — to all of the following submarines of the Russian Navy ventilation valves are now made opening just inside the housing.
During World War II submarine "Lamprey" came in the first division teams of the Baltic Fleet. "Minogue" intensively used for carrying patrols in the area Moonsund archipelago in the central mine and artillery positions.
He was called Barsoev
Once in my childhood Garsoev dreamed to become a gunner. House in Tbilisi was near the artillery regiment. Alexander used early stallions carved out of the pavement sparks and singing pipes. He liked the small, like toys, mountain pushchonki with which soldiers on the parade ground smartly managed. But the fascination with guns had disappeared as quickly as it appeared. Went to Moscow to study, he said good-bye forever to Tiflis. Later came the sea. Garsoev to the 23 th year ended Capital Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Mathematics Department. Father wish that his son became a scientist. At the same time, Alexander believed days when he will receive a diploma and be able to apply for admission to the Navy cadet.
August 6, 1904 Garsoev to report to the officer in charge of the capital Eighteenth Naval Depot. Summer was cool and rainy. Thick, like the fortress, the walls of large barracks were covered in mold …
During the 16 months of the crew managed to overpower Garsoev full course of the Marine Corps. After passing the exams and received the rank of warrant officer, he was assigned to the destroyer. First was the number 217, later "attentive", "prominent", "Finn". Drank some minonosnoy plenty of life, all of a sudden transfer to the battleship "Andrew." Later transfer to the high-spirited cruiser "Diana". But Garsoev wanted to scuba diving. October 19, 1910 he finally manages to reach areas in the training squad of scuba diving. After a history of the submarine "Lamprey" he realized — he did not live without a navy. Then he could send to the devil and the boats and the navy. I could, but did not.
Boats … He failed to explain why they came into his life. After all, people are on the cruisers, battleships, are on the thin end of the destroyers. After all, are the people, and he himself served. He repeatedly offered to go to headquarters. During the war, it was a bit Garsoev not hit the headquarters in perpetuity. How is it — it is not clear, but plain confusion led military commander boats to revel in the land office. With its stately hard to drag yourself to the operatives of the Head of the Naval Staff. But "nepriznatelny" Garsoev continued to file a report for a report. The position and title of officer of the highest staff did not suit him. He wanted to submarines.
Head Garsoeva — Ignatiev NI (After year After the October Revolution, they met again at the Research Committee, where Ignatieff became the head) commanders of submarines Baltic Podgurskaya NK: "Dear and dear Nicholas, how to you clearly, in my department on a scuba diving is Lieutenant Garsoev . This officer is very willing to command the boat and constantly pestering me with the translation. course, remain without special on scuba diving does not suit me, but that still do … But if you have a lot of candidates and no Garsoeva, or do you even have that- or against this officer, I will not cry very much, because without it I would be hard. On the other hand sad not to use such an officer during the war …. Your Ignatiev.
Garsoevu immediately gave submarine "Lioness" — the latest for long submarine type "Bars". On the correspondence between Ignatieff and Podgursky he did not know.
Yes, out of the "Lamprey" — an iron coffin — he could throw a diving without fear of accusations of cowardice. I could, but did not. Especially since Garsoev vinyl in almost everything but themselves. How was it?
Garsoev, ending diving training squad, has been appointed assistant commander Underwater boat "Shark." Being in the squad, but he studied "Minogue", "Beluga", "Shiga", "Mail". During the course, students moved from one boat to another. The same questions and the classes, but all the different boats. It seemed Garsoev on the submarine "Post" may blindfolded eyes to understand the intricacies of the motor and the maze of highways. If for justice — boat was eerie. Its designer Drzewiecki SK for the first time attempted to embody the idea of a single motor for surface and underwater travel. Everything came out hard enough, habitability conditions — to the limit, something broke down almost at every exit. No one grieved when, in connection with the utter uselessness of the submarine "Postal" was put into port, in other words — to be scrapped.
In 1913 Garsoev took a submarine "Lamprey" — the latest, third submarine IG Bubnov, the world's first submarine with a diesel-electric power plant. With the arrival of the new commander of the command to "Lamprey" almost all been replaced. In main navigators were from the submarine "Zip" — enlistees, family, power. With the device submarine "Lamprey" superficially acquainted, considering that after the "Mail" is not afraid of the devil himself.
March 23, 1913 at 14:00 Garsoev for the first time took the submarine "Minogue" in the sea. Immediately began the "Carousel." By working backwards from the wall, Garsoev, not knowing the inertia sub, hit her standing at the stern on the back wall of the bucket barge. The double-headed eagle on the stern frame gleaming gold submarines, shattered into fragments. Provided, or as stated at the time, escorted submarine boat harbor "Libau". Garsoevym was sent to him managing submarine "Lamprey" Guriev: sailor knew how to handle an emergency situation with the phone on the rescue buoy. Earned pumps, filling the tank. At first, the boat began to sink smoothly, but failed, and hitting, lay on the bottom.
Garsoev knew there depth is 33 feet, but is mechanical look to the device. Arrow confirmed that the boat is at a depth of 33. Out of the car received the report: "Between the diesel water at the site." Here he made a mistake. Garsoev blew not all tanks at once, but one by one … inconclusive. Ran to the car and realized that too late. From somewhere in the hold lupila powerful jet. The water level is rapidly increasing. Perhaps the ship's ventilation shaft valve is not closed. The pipe is like the hold and on the bridge of the valve. Swore to myself, because I was not sure what exactly this is the case. Scanned drawings quickly, relied on the memory — as he studied "Minogue" listener squad only recently. It seems that at the moment it does not cost a high price … Garsoev caught the eyes of the sailors. Mused. Gave the order to rescue buoy. — "Permit me, Your Honor? — Before Garsoevym appeared Ivan Manayeu, non-commissioned officer in the second article. — As the boat began to prepare to dive, I felt that something wrong is left flap ship ventilation is not locked to the end. " — "So why did you not report?" — "For consider him that" Lamprey "on all other than" mail. "-" This is by whom will die "- someone screamed. -" Hush, my friends, we do not drown m
yself, "- said Garsoev, but did not feel stiff conviction. At the moment seems to be looking at himself, was taken aback own folly. How he decided to go with a team that actually did not know the boat? About for himself, he tried not to think, later leaving to flogging himself. But whether it would be "later"? Taking up the phone started calling Gurieva. response to the silence. Where Gurev What happens on the surface?
The crew of "Lamprey" attempted to defeat the stream pouring into the boat. Someone raised decking and looked into the hold, led, from where water enters. Confirmed — the water gushes out of the lower end of the vent pipe. Cut the pipe above the deck and wished her silence. Garsoev, taking off his coat and gave the order to score it as a "chop". Not a lot. Pulled off a greenish cloth from the table in his own cabin, tore the bed curtains gave the order to bring out the officers' room curtains. In the case went pillows, mattresses and a ripped set of Ensign … From the commander's cabin even brought a torn into strips mat and beat him. All for nothing. The water could not tame. Maybe at some time stream weakened, but then "chop" fly over. Oily cool water rose above the head of the motor.
"What is still left later?" — Recalled Garsoev, feeling the cold grave wreck. The commander made the right decision, and ordered all to go away from the battery — the stern. Knew when the water gets to the battery, start the selection of chlorine. In this case — just the end. It is necessary that the battery has flooded once, then the chlorine dissolves in water. Commanding as a daze — perhaps it was true — he somehow managed to lift the stern. Water rushed to the battery. Garsoev a reduced risk, but with all this, the lights went out in the boat.
People gathered at the stern. Established recreational played by the cover boxes BATTERY (personal belongings were stored in boxes team) was flooded. Because where everyone could arranged in the feed. Nerves passed. Many raved about someone moaning …
Then, thinking about the incident, Garsoev could not grasp what all the same when they were breathing. Fatal consistency of carbon dioxide, chlorine, oil and fuel vapors. An hour, two, three … Sailors in turn force held Nazarevskiy. A healthy and strong non-commissioned officer in the mind dizzy. Boatswain's mate Oberemsky incoherently shouted something. The mine operator Kryuchkov, who lost consciousness and fell into the water from diesel engines. Hardly taken out because he could utopnut directly into the submarine. Garsoev sometimes sinking into oblivion and was pulled out of sheer will complete silence and darkness on the wreck. Sweat poured person Garsoeva fever, because after he gave his jacket, it has remained one shirt. The sailors brought a blanket.
Garsoev, creating a trim, pursuing another goal: to lift the feed, may be released to the surface, which will accelerate their disposal and make it easier puzzle rescuers.
Why, thought leader, no one is there, why not a floating crane? Garsoev realize that their destiny is one hundred percent, depending on what will be done at the top.
On the surface, a lot of air and people breathe freely and easily, without even noticing it. And then every moment of their chances of survival are reduced. Should breathe a sigh for, saturating the already poisoned atmosphere of the boat the next portion of carbon dioxide …
So why is the top of the Gimp, where Guriev, in the end, and what happens?
From a report of the first mine division chief of the Baltic Sea Naval Commander of the Baltic Sea, "During the very first dive boat sank, but because the water was clearly visible flag on the mast, the Guriev, did not mean that misfortune came, and went on to hold 5 cables. Only 5 hours, coming up very tightly to the mast of the boat, he saw the ejected emergency buoy. excitement was so strong that it take the boat to the buoy was impossible without the threat to destroy the wire because Gurev went to a floating lighthouse, where he took a boat and people also asked the give an alarm … Himself Guriev was on the boat that took up the displacer. makarom So, contacts were made with the crew of the submarine. "
Guriev said electrician sergeant Nikolaev: "Help me, so hurry!" From the port came on duty destroyer. In a boat directly from the board jumped captain second rank Plaine, picked up the phone Guriev ordered Nikolaev report seriously and in order. The information is not amused: the water in the boat, the people gathered in the stern, there was formed a large air buffer. Garsoev asked whether there was food on the water. If not, you need to pick it up faster as you can, so to show the hatch …
Rear Admiral Chief of the first mine division Shtorre, who took over the management of the work of salvation, nervously walking along the deck of transport "Aquarius." Divers wore suits. Prior to approach the site of the tragedy, the admiral spoke with the head of the port and the teams vyznat floating cranes are a civilian, at 5 pm, they finished the job and not being aware of the tragedy went home. They live in town, and not in the port. When they manage to track down the messengers? And in the end what to do without a 100-ton crane? Because the first priority is to ensure the boat air. Divers went down to the bottom, they have filed with the transport hoses, and they attempted to join any of them to the spec. valve on the conning tower of a submarine "Lamprey". Destroyers that surrounded the place of the tragedy, the sea flooded the spotlights. Soon the 1st of divers caught in his air hose brought to the surface unconscious. Other from the bottom gave a sad news to the gate no one nut hoses do not join because they do not fit thread … Shtorre whom everyone knew as a cold-blooded man, stamping his feet and cursing like drunken fireman.
-"Your Excellency, — he shouted kavtorang Captivity of the boat — no one answers the call, can only hear the groans!"
Shtorre ran away from the deck. It seemed like he did, but people were dying. Only at 22:25 personal tugs, which hired the chief port, summed up the 100-tonne crane to the site of the tragedy. While the crane is anchored, while the diver dressed outfit, it was still an hour and eleven minutes. The diver went to the submarine, laid the Gini — devices that are used for lifting more weight. — "Moaning over, — yelled, not looking up from the tube, Captivity. — From the submarine nobody responds."
At midnight, the commander of the Navy Shtorre reported that people in 9 hours are in an atmosphere saturated with chlorine and the hope of salvation is constantly decreases. Earned a 100 — ton crane, a few people with chisels and hammers ready to open the hatch, it seems the water. Shtorre risked giving the order to begin recovery, as soon as laid first Gini. Diver, without undressing, expected to come out of food. Then you can lay the second Gini for insurance, and the boat is not exactly fail. Above the water at 00:45 seemed to flap, which here began to unfold from within. Means there's still alive! To the submarine boat with three officers rushed out of listeners Training Detachment diving — Midshipman Terletskii, lieutenants and Gersdorff Nikiforaki. "According to their waists in water — wrote Rear Admiral Shtorre in its own report — they assist to lift the hatch and began to alternately pull the saved. Lieutenant Garoseva raised the eighth. Humans passed on the boat, and their transportation," Aquarius "and the crane, the state and appearance was terrible after experiencing them. Garsoev lieutenant commander of the boat, past unconscious soon as opened the hatch came to life. His cross to the crane, where they have laid about boilers … In the boat was managing boatswain's mate Ivan Gordeev, who was in the commander's cabin cut off from the aft compartment with
water. With it states boatswain's mate and said that it is enough air, but before pumping the water to retrieve it from the wheelhouse is impossible.
Midshipman Terletskii, lieutenants and Gersdorff Nikiforaki than once descended into the submarine and getting out there and exhausted and weakened people, according to those officers who selflessly devoted service, showing outstanding example of courage, even in the open air access holes in the boat was not feasible, there are suffocated. To release Gordeeva water was pumped out of the boat harbor tug "Avanport" and "Libau". The water subsided slowly, an hour and 45 minutes the level was reduced to a level that has permitted the lieutenant Nikiforaki pass Gordeeva board, on which he slid himself out of the hatch, the boat floating on the water surface acid coming from the BATT and butter. "
Shtorre further noted: "According to the report Garsoeva lieutenant, commander of the submarine" Lamprey "behavior during the tragedy manager boatswain's mate Gordeeva is outstanding and beyond praise: Do not lose your temper, some words of encouragement all around the lower ranks, administrative and personal example, boatswain's mate for some time before the hatch was open, took over from Lieutenant Garsoeva boat, called out to him for that purpose and had lost consciousness at the same time. His stamina is amazing: in the sunken boat, he stayed a little longer, and all was rescued around 3:00 am, refused any assistance, and at the same time mastered the health of the commander and other lower ranks. "
After the tragedy in 6 days came the order to award the boatswain's mate Garsoeva "for distinguished service at the rank of lieutenant." Gordeeva was promoted to sergeant second article.
The trial was held in May.
Before the special presence of the Kronstadt naval vessels appeared Rear Admiral Chief of Training Detachment diving Levitsky PP, his assistant captain second rank A.Nikitin and Lieutenant AN Garsoev
From the decision:
"A prerequisite for the sinking of the submarine raid Libau" Lamprey "that occurred on March 23 this year, was that the unharvested bundle of rags and two semaphore flag left in the shell cuttings came under vent valve, not allowing the ability to close it tightly. Consequently, during the dive boat in the firing position through said valve water began to pour into the hold and lost buoyancy, the boat sank to a depth of 33 feet, where it lay on the bottom. At this position she stayed from 16:00 to 00:45 … when it brought to the surface. Everyone in a boat rescued … But many of the boats were damaged by correction of which will be 20,000 rubles. "
The verdict on Garsoeve stated: "Although Garsoev and did not show up at the said immersion appropriate diligence in respect of the security of the tests, and did not appreciate the tribute and on time at one point caused the accident by loss of buoyancy boat, nevertheless, the following actions in their own showed diligence and full presence of mind, was able to keep the team in courage, has always worked with outstanding energy on the submarine, and stood before the assist. "
The Tribunal acquitted Nikitin and Garsoeva. For the bad control Levitsky was announced remark. The tragedy of the submarine "Lamprey" forever left Garsoevu memory — disordered health, and pallid complexion — the result of poisoning by chlorine and acid vapors. From bitter lesson "Lamprey" he concluded. In fact, the real submariner Garsoev was only after the tragedy, after going through what fear all employees on submarines. Garsoev mildness of temper did not suffer in the past, but 9:00 conducted in an iron "coffin" were not in vain: but became stricter and stricter.
Submarine "Lamprey" he commanded in for another 8 months. How much exposure it took to make the first dive after the tragedy? "Submarine "Lamprey" and make friends Garsoeva Terletskogo. Garsoev forever kept the good feelings to the person who came to mind, I saw first. Meeting both of pleasure, the more so that their fates were similar, as many officers who swore allegiance to the modern Russia. The names of these famous people forever remain in the history of the Russian submarine fleet. When Garsoeva was assigned to the submarine "Lioness" type "Bars", podplavskie wits gave him the nickname Barsoev and so for him it's gone.
At one point, came out the following … It was a fog in which the submarine "Lamprey" made its way to the position. Fog cleared at one point, was actually near the German torpedo boat coming head on course and immediately noted the Russian submarine. Commander "Lamprey" saw the destroyer sank stern and actually grew simultaneously surf, with all this water under the stem reared — the enemy ship increased speed. — "Urgent dive!" — The signalman and the commander of the submarine rushed down and closed the hatch. Already was heard the sound of propellers destroyer. And in the stern of the submarine cars tossed about Gregory Cowards, non-commissioned officer in the first article. It turned out that it has long been conjectured: clutch has failed.
Submarine "Lamprey" was the world's first submarine with diesel engines. On one shaft operated propulsion motor and two diesel engine. Couplings were in 3 places gross strip. The submarine without joints can not do, because the engines submarine and surface course are on the same shaft, and the transition to the motor must be disconnected diesels. From clutches, all was not well.
Third feed clutch installed between the electric motor and diesel engines, housed in the engine hold smallish, in a place where the accumulated waste oil and water. When pitching, especially during a storm, a mixture of water and oil gets into the box, because at the most opportune moment, she did not fire. So at the moment, when the fate of the submarine failed.
Diesel engines are stopped, but because the clutch did not work, the electric motor, strained whine on load, only turning the screw on, and diesel engines. In turn, they have become a reciprocating compressor, sucking the air out of the boat, driving it into a gas reservoir. A few turns vacuum becomes critical. And besides, the submarine sinks very slowly …
Wielding a crowbar Trusov still manages to throw out the clutch. Diesel braked, the sink rate increased. Above the submarine "Lamprey", stunning everyone with their screws, raced German destroyer. U-boat of ramming separated won Troussov seconds. He acted contrary to all the rules, which strictly forbade disconnect coupling during travel. Working without disconnecting the motor Cowards very risky — it could tighten hit with a crowbar or a shaft. But there was no choice. As stated in the order of the commander of the Baltic Fleet, "submarine destroyer passed over in such proximity that the latter received a slope of 10 degrees." In October 1915, non-commissioned officer awarded the George Cross Trusov third-degree …
In winter 1914-1915 years during another repair in the stern of the submarine established gun caliber of 37 mm. The fall of 1917 after a couple years of military service, the submarine along with four submarines of "Killer Whale" was sent to Petrograd to Polga repair. But the revolutionary action of repair quickly pushed back indefinitely. By order of the MGSH number 111 of 01/31/1918, all these submarines were put into storage at the port.
In the summer of the same year, it took an urgent strengthening of the Caspian Flotilla. On the orders of Lenin, VI, Chairman of People's Commissars of the RSFSR, submarines "Lamprey", "Killer Whale", "mackerel" and "Perch" urgently repaired and sent to Saratov at the railway transporters. November 10 after launching they were enrolle
d in the Astahansko Caspian Flotilla.
Submarine "Lamprey" under the command of Poiret Y. May 21, 1919 at Fort Alexander in battle with British ships on the verge of death, because having lost the winding course of the metallic wire to the screw.
Only the courage steering-signalman Isayev VY, smogshego in cool water to release the screw of the submarine successfully repelled the invaders shot. VJ Isaev for this feat he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Submarine "Lamprey" after the end of hostilities on the Caspian Sea some time in storage at the military port of Astrakhan. November 21, 1925, after almost 16 years of service she was scrapped.
The long-lasting operation of the submarine "Lamprey" only confirmed the correctness of the design decisions IG Bubnov Some of them (the unit of the dive, the general assembly) found a forthcoming development during the design and construction of small submarines in the Russian and Russian fleets.
Astrakhan … The strategic and economic importance of this outpost of the Russian Republic on the Caspian Sea in the summer of 1918, it was not small. He chained, not allowing unite forces advancing from the North Caucasus "voluntary" army of General Denikin, and move from Gurieva Ural White Cossack army. Through Astrakhan at the mouth of the Volga, which has become almost the only thoroughfare Russian Republic, surrounded by enemies, were products of sea fishing and oil, keep in touch with the revolutionary forces in the Caucasus.
Brand new and possibly the most severe threat to Astrakhan was approaching from the Caspian Sea. British invaders in September 1918 began sformirovyvaetsya own navy in the Caspian. They seized merchant ships "Africa", "America", "Australia", the tanker "Immanuel Nobel," etc., they were armed with long-range naval artillery and turned into auxiliary cruisers. A huge number of small and medium-sized vessels were converted into frigates and gunboats. From Batum, where at this time hosted the British, on the Caspian Sea through Georgia by rail brought new torpedo boats of "Thornycroft" also naval aircraft "short." And all this force was moving to the north — to the "reddish" Astrakhan. In addition ships interventionists and White Guards, ammunition and armament White Cossacks and the forces of General Denikin, threatening to penetrate the town at the mouth of the Volga.
Russian government decided: "… in the shortest possible time to organize a strong military fleet, the main task of which — the mastery of the Caspian Sea, the expulsion of its waters and the coast of the enemy — Russian opponents of the proletarian revolution and the enemies of Russian power …"
During the formation of the fleet had to overcome a lot of problems. There was a shortage of technical equipment, supplies, and most importantly experienced personnel. Russian government and Lenin himself had harsh military assistance and support to young Caspian Flotilla. In autumn 1918 from the Baltic to Astrakhan came destroyers "Rastoropny", "initiative", "Muscovite". A little later — destroyers "Turkmenets Stavropol," "Emir of Bukhara", "Finn" also minelayer "Demosthenes".
VI Lenin in August 1918 gave an indication headquarters of the Naval Forces bring to the Caspian Sea with the Baltic several submarines. Lenin, checking the performance of the order, Aug. 28 asked: "How does the question of sending submarines to the Caspian Sea and the Volga? Is that possible to send just an old submarines? How many? How instructed to send What is produced? "
The next day, having received an unsatisfactory response from the staff, he again categorically claimed: "Limit to such uncertainty -" seek "- is unrealistic (We are looking for your own property?. By tomorrow I need to submit the names of those who looks for, the date from which the search began, and t . etc.). "It turns out the possibility of sending" — is also incredibly vague. Who and when ordered to "learn"? Excuse August 30, in other words, tomorrow, I say it officially, as the case with sending submarines is urgent. "
Exactly a week VI Lenin, who never recovered from the wounds after the attack Kaplan, gave the directive in Petrograd: "There is a struggle for the Caspian and south. To throw this area for themselves (and you can do it!), You need to have a few pieces of light destroyers and two submarines … I beg you to break all the barriers and facilitating moving his case forward frisky obtain the desired. northern Caucasus, Turkestan, Baku, certainly, will be ours, if the requirements are met immediately. Lenin. "
This directive came to perform in S. Sachs, a member of the Board of the National Commissioner for Maritime Affairs. The funds of the Central State Archive of the Navy kept voluminous case: orders, telegrams, letters, telegrams, who order or otherwise related to the transfer of the Caspian Sea Submarine "Lamprey," mackerel ", and later, similar to the last, submarines" Perch "and" Killer Whale. "And does not require any special comments on the document to recognize the scale unheard of since the maneuver submarine forces, to assess the difficulties that stood in front of Lenin's task performers and feel the spirit of the time.
August 31. Saks — Sklyansky. "Minogue" can be terminated after two and a half weeks. To send a boat requires two conveyors, each lifting more than 3,000 pounds. The length of the submarine "Lamprey" 108 feet … width — 8.75 feet, the height from the top of the keel to cabin — 22 feet, weight and fuel without a team — 150 tons … "
September 1. Sklyansky — Saks. "In Izhorskij transporters are required. Immediately start the preparation and loading of 2-defined types of submarines …"
September 7. Saks — Sklyansky. "Repair of submarine" Lamprey "and" Mackerel "launched on September 3, … To the place of loading to the plant Izhorskogo translated conveyors for loading submarine … to maintain the strength of working time per day is released flour for baking bread … repair is successful."
September 17. "Comrade Breytshpreheru, emergency Commissioner. Propose to you to give this instruction immediately after departing Moscow to Saratov, Volga and other items to the coast for the realization of control over the activities of the commission consisting of engineers: Alexei Pustoshkin, Vsenofonta Ruberovskogo, Paul Belkin and wood master Semenova Ivan, whom should find, to adapt, to make preparations, and to equip the place for launching submarines, what will arrive by October 1 of this year to the place of descent. you have to guide the relentless surveillance of the commission entrusted to you, and once a day to inform me about the telegraph During the preliminary work … Sacks, a member of the board of the National Commissioner for Maritime Affairs. "
September 30. Altvater — the chief military posts. "Echelon number 667 / a in the night from 29 to 30 September came from Petrograd submarine" Lamprey "on the route Moscow-Saratov.
Please dispose of unimpeded and urgent progress tier … "
October 1. Member of the board of the People's Commissariat for Maritime Affairs — Commissioner submarine division of the Baltic Sea. "I propose to immediately begin recruiting submarines" Killer Whale "and" Perch "teams, of course, the Communists and the most sympathetic, because these boats are designed for demanding operations in the Caspian Sea."
Echelon fit out in secrecy. He looked very especially: a stunning car, commodity, and between them multiaxial transporter carrying a huge metal box. Under the conveyor hard working railway workshops and Oilers. And that
sounded horns 2-steam locomotives and a hidden part number 667 / and moved … It happened on the night of the year … 30/09/1918
Unusual-track train was moving. Under the platform on which was installed with a cargo box, muffled moan sleepers, rails sagged. So by rail on a long journey went submarine "Lamprey" mass of 115 tons. And after a number of days since the submarine "Mackerel" and torpedoes left the second echelon. Petrograd shipped after two more submarines — "Killer Whale" and "perch". The end of the route of Fri 4 submarines was the Caspian Sea …
South trains were without delay, with unprecedented speed for long. Telegraph, warning station adjacent to send trains tapped: "By order of Lenin …"
Yes, in 1918 it was very hard to smuggle across the country, in fact, the main overland, a division of submarines. But the military situation in the Astrakhan region sought it, and people have done everything to submarines in turn came to the banks of the Volga. But got another question — how to remove without cranes and conveyors into the water iron colossus weighing more than 100 tons?
Miracles of engineering inventions were developed by Constantine Breytshpreherom Extraordinary Commissioner and members of the Technical Commission sent to Saratov. After all, the smallest inconsistency and oversight could be a precursor disaster, since the width of the slip was less than the length of the submarine 10 times. Were very complex and preliminary work, but they were held at the technical level is good, and the Volga waters perceived Baltic submarines, one after the other. "Mackerel" and "Lamprey" in Astrakhan came in late autumn. And if the first ships were deployed more or less smoothly, then later decided to counter-revolution is a mistake to "correct." The enemy has done everything in their power to make so that the Baltic submarines have gained no purpose. In the course went sabotage, sabotage, sabotage. Some secret plans were disclosed — for example, a plan for the withdrawal of the conveyor system.
A few days later came an emergency. In connection with this Vakhrameev II, managing the technical and economic part of the Navy Department and the Commissioner of the Republic of PBC "very urgent" reported the People's Commissar of Railways: "In Bologoe came wreck the train with submarines. Understood that the transfer of the arrow was premeditated. Ask orders the tragedy of the train rigorously investigate. " During the investigation it became clear that the transfer was not a random direction … Baltic divers in the Caspian Sea have made many glorious military affairs. But in the spring of 1919 they particularly distinguished themselves in battle. During this period, the submarine "Lamprey" not just come out to the enemy fighting positions on the banks. Skillfully and bravely acted in these fights submarine crew, led by commander Julius Vitalyevich Poiret. Despite the difficult and very challenging sailing conditions — frequent storms and shallow water, Poiret submarines managed only skillfully. Thanks to the skill of the captain, "Lamprey" shied away from attacks from the water and from the air, and the enemy airplanes and boats have never been able to catch the crew of the submarine by surprise.
May 21, 1919 auxiliary cruisers British invaders tried to break into the bay of the Caspian Sea Tub-Aaragansky where several Russian ships stood at Fort Alexander. Tie a sea battle was described more than once, and we only recall that even in spite of almost 3-fold capable of an advantage, the enemy of his own plan refused — priemuschestvenno because of the threat of getting hit out of the water.
In this battle, the submarine "Lamprey" and its commander from the outset not lucky. Please go haywire engines, and the captain of the submarine led to a tabletop steamer "Revel", so as then commander wrote in a report, "hastily repair the engines." But a little submarine moored to the "Revel", as in his missile hit the ship, "lit up like a torch, boat also been shrouded in fire. "Poiret tried to take a boat from the burning plavshtaba, but" on the screw is wrapped around a metal mooring line, and the machines do not have the strength to rotate. "Then Poiret and 5 sailors, despite the fact that the ship with supplies of torpedoes and mines on board at any moment could have blown up, jumped into the barge and towed the submarine to the non-dangerous place. But how to get rid of cable? Maybe it will turn the motor shaft? But where there! — "Let me try — turned managing member panel (b) Isaev Vasili to Poiret. Without diving suit, nearly naked hands to release the screw of the iron cable length of 40 meters? Whether cope? The water is cold enough, it has more than a quarter of an hour did not survive, and in fact work for a few hours. Y. Poiret wondered weigh all the "pros" and "cons" and eventually ventured: "Okay, try it!"
Vasily Isayev worked in the frigid water has the second hour, when the commander of the submarine "Lamprey" has received a written order to undermine the ship. Came Minutka painful thoughts, as captain and he has started to believe in the fact that the man-of-war's man-hero will be able to make unenforceable. But orders are orders … — "The Order will not break — Isaev said when he rubbed alcohol before another dive — and interventionists submarine will not surrender. Please prepare the ship to explode. When approaching enemy ships all have to go on is laid up." — "I will stay Julius V.. Together safer and more convenient," — said one Isayev — Communist electrician "Lamprey" Gregory Efimov. So they decided.
Isaev and again dived beneath the screw, and Efimov, standing on the safety end, supported the other. There was an anxious moment when the British ships withdrew from the scene and went. Surely, this is the end. But no, the enemy ships do not go to the bay and off. It looks like they were running away from someone. So it is, "run" from the submarine "Mackerel" that Misha Lashmanov led towards the enemy, even in spite of the fact that the submarine was found by airplane and attacked them. Led in shallow water when under the keel was only a few feet away. And the opponent flinch, and departed.
"With rotor blades first turns of rope I managed to take relatively simple, although the body from the cold constantly cramping — recalled Isayev Vasily Yakovlevich, a few decades later. — Work progressed slowly, as it had to stop a couple of times because of the enemy airplane who bombed in the Bay of judgment. "
Isaev the evening managed to almost completely free from the cable screw. The remaining end is pulled by a small winch is used for loading torpedoes.
Next is an excerpt from the report of the commander of the submarine Poiret Y. from 25.05.1919, "On the" Lamprey "all day were working on cleaning the screws that culminated in success at 17:30. consider it my duty to note the signalman Isaev who did the work in this infernal reckless cool water and was rescued from the sinking of the submarine … When the submarine was able to move, I immediately transferred it to PRODBAZA, from there at 21:30 on the 12th went ftovy raid. boat arrived there on May 23 at around 14:00. "
It remains to add that during this feat and other awards to the country Isayev Vasily Yakovlevich in 1928 bestowed the Order of the Red Banner and the Worshipful of Presidium of the Central Executive Committee.
Poiret's own conclusion in the report wrote that "… in the bay of the enemy is not entered as an airplane and ship found the submarine" mackerel. "It is clear that in our war Russian boats can play a major role … Our boats in the fleet are needed so the same as the Russian Federatio
n to the fuel. "
All four submarines — "Lamprey", "mackerel", "Killer Whale" and "Perch" — in the spring of 1920 were already in Baku at the mother ship, against the Maiden's Tower: in Azerbaijan came to Russian authorities. The White Guards and interventionists were defeated and thrown out beyond the boundaries of the Caspian Sea. Came the days of peace.
Garsoev Alexander in 1918, ran out of old fleet in the Red Navy, not demobilize. Service Garsoeva evolved interesting: virtually all the posts he had to establish or create something, as he was assigned to the case, is in complete disrepair or completely new ones. Garsoev training unit was engaged in the revival of diving, which completely fell apart after the two-time evacuation of Libau and from Revel. One squad of scuba diving, which he combined with Zarubin completed in time. In 1920 Garsoev was sent to the south. He participated in the development of the naval forces of the Dark Sea of Azov and the seas. In 1921, he became the principal submariner, there was a position in the Navy. A year later, was chair of the Naval Academy. Garsoev made according to the latest Department of discipline — a strategy submarines. Later organized its own faculty.
In December 1923 while continuing to work in academia, Garsoev entered into just made scientific and technical committee chairman of the section of scuba diving. But that's not all .. Garsoev in 1925, retaining all the other posts, begins work at the Technical Management. The load is increased. All Garsoevu committed, he did perfectly. R.Muklevich, chief of the Red Army Navy summoned for themselves Garsoeva with Leskov, chairman of the NTC. Warning that the topic of conversation is completely hidden, and the action will claim the most critical, Muklevich said: "It is time to proceed with the development projects of the first submarines. Those charged with?" He saw the ordinary pallor Garsoeva replaced feverish flush, as he lit his eyes. It seemed a moment, and Garsoev, forgetting about the chain of command, to dance or zaoret of ecstasy. But the submarine, bound within the discipline, patiently expecting utter Navy chief of the Red Army. "Comrades, there is a suggestion?" Leskov stretched "Yes, sir. Has long been waiting for such an order, not once thought through. Friend Garsoev We believe that the task to develop the boats and all the calculations should conduct small group of trusted individuals within the walls of the STC. Nowhere better to do, well, as long as there is no organization that can take on a similar case. " Muklevich looked at Garsoeva, "slated structure?" Muklevich nodded, "I can report. Guess at the first place to the engineer Boris Mikhailovich Malinin. This engineer is known to me for 10 years. Once perceived his submarine" Lioness. "Real submarine, one of the narrow brain."
Muklevich confirmed: "I know him, is the undeniable". — "Yet, 'continued Garsoev — engineers Ruberovsky Xenophon Ivanovic, Goldfinches Alexander, Nikolai Kazansky." — "And Zarubin?" — Interrupted Muklevich. — "Of course. A similar group without just thought …"
Temporary design team also included Dr. Papkovich PF, electrical engineer Govoruhin VI, a mechanical engineer Bielecki LA, three constructors — Konstantin Kuzmin, Fedorov FZ, Shlyupkin A.Kyu .
"To work needed to complete secrecy, nor Minutka not to waste" — NTC Muklevich admonished workers.
All gone a year — from 1 October 1925 to 1 October 1926. Worked in the evenings, because everyone on the main places of work had responsibilities. Twelve months from the engineers and designers, invited to the NTC, there was no 1st prazdnichka, on the 1st of free evening. Development of specifications Garsoev ran, as they say, at a public basis. He was not paid a 1st rate. The command only at the very end of the participants are very encouraged moderate amounts. Working in STC, for sure, the most important thing he did for the Russian submarine fleet Garros.
All preceded the life and military service prepared Garoseva to that work, because it not only knew the device submarines, and brilliantly understood the principle of their combat use.
In 1930 Garsoev was appointed commander of the division of new submarines. It was reasonable, as it stood at the cradle of them, and he entrusted the company to establish service on these boats.