Submarines AG (Copa Holland)

The outbreak of the first global slowdown has become a prerequisite of the Russian shipbuilding applets and forced to revise existing plans. Ministry of the Sea to replenish the fleet had to take drastic measures to speed up the work and the additional placement. orders zabugornyh and Russian enterprises. In addition, the samples were made to purchase ready-made ships abroad.

The proposal, made by the Shipyard Joint Stock Company "Noblessner" (Revel) June 22, 1915 the Minister of Marine, Admiral Grigorovich IK, proved to be very timely. It was the proposal of the American company "Electric Boat Company" put to Fleet 3 or 5 submarines of "Holland" (the cost of each submarine 900 or 885 thousand dollars respectively, the surface displacement of 355 tons) by the summer of next year. South American side undertook to build these vessels in Vancouver on its own shipyard and deliver them to Vladivostok unassembled. Final assembly and delivery in Russia had to be done by the "Noblessner." Experts at the Naval General Staff acquainted with the submitted documentation, the positive reviews about British submarines of this type available to the them and concluded that the need for this transaction. It was assumed that these submarines for its features can act in the Baltic Sea without the help of others, and after the war, will be used as training submarines. Before the contract had to agree on a price decrease also receive guarantees "Noblessner" that the assembly of these submarines will not delay readiness submarines "Bars", which at that time were built in the factory. But since there were doubts about the latter, the Admiralty decided to give up the rights to the extent necessary to transfer the assembly to one of the state-owned companies in Petrograd.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

At this point more clearly expressed by Vice Admiral Kanin VA, commander of the Baltic Fleet, in an appeal from the September 18, 1915 by Vice-Admiral Alexander Rusin, chief MGSH. He asked to take action in order to not charging assembly Submarine plant "Noblessner," which is already unable to cope with the orders previously acquired, too, was "very fundamentally free from monopoly Nobel, Lessner and Bubnov." According to the results of the contest from 6 plants was elected Baltic Plant, offered a more rational terms and price of the order.

Another 08/18/1915 Major General Kovessky LA, Head of General Affairs, Directors of the plant "Noblessner" Plotnikov MS Karpov NA signed a contract for the supply of five submarines, "Holland". Construction in Vancouver, insurance and delivery to Vladivostok was estimated at 3,712,500 dollars (any Submarine from 742 500 dollars), or 7,239,375 rubles, and the price of the assembly in Russia taking into account all kinds of supplies — 1,340,250 rubles.

Delivery of the first 3 submarines planned for 9 months (counting from 17.07.1915), and others — in 10 months. Any of the submarines are of the type "602-F" and had the following specifications on the tactical and technical elements:
— surface displacement of 355.7 tons;
— water displacement 467 tons;
— length of 45.8 meters;
— width of 4.81 meters;
— deepening of 3.76 meters (49 in bulkhead);
— freeboard of 1.47 meters (up to the deck superstructure);
— Operating depth 45.7 meters (estimated maximum depth of 61 meters);
— submerged transverse metacentric height was 270 mm;
— on the surface transverse metacentric height is 170 mm,
— 22 percent of the buoyancy in store

Single hull structure having a circular cross-section, went to the bow of the total horizontal scroll upwards. This design should dignify seaworthy properties during surface speed. The outline of the stern — elliptical.

Inside the iron body (eight belts of plating on the bow and had a thickness of 9.5 mm, in the middle of — 11.1 mm), with 3 broken transverse bulkheads into 4 offices, located main and auxiliary machinery, battery, weapons, fuel, water and all of the ballast tanks and other equipment. To ship a set of frames used (starting from the stern) with a frame spacing 470 mm, angle 76.2 h203h9, 5 mm in the extremities, 88.9 h76, 2×9, 5 mm and 127h76, 2×9, 5 mm in the middle part, and the keel (frames 17 — 89) forming a box of strips of steel (305h99h99h15 8 mm) metal sheet and strips of 12.7 mm.

On top of a strong housing (bulkhead 89 — 18) was set to add a waterproof deck flooring, passing in the groove at the stern frame. Located inside the nasal horizontal folding handlebars, spiers lifting underwater (the weight of about 864 kg, the diameter of the iron anchor line 15.8 mm) and surface (weight 336 kg, anchor chain with buttresses caliber 19 mm) anchors the gas outlet of diesel engines, exhaust, signal buoy with a phone, etc.. In the bow there was a device for cutting the nets (length 5.55 m) and an elevated bridge and superstructure above the central station (frames 47.5 — 52.5) — zinc plated iron rack with bronze railing. Signals and lights were placed on the 2-mast height of 12.2 m, reserved places for the installation of underwater signaling device, gyro compass and wireless (power of 1 kW).

Any one of a pair of 8-cylinder diesel engines could at 375 revolutions per minute to develop a power of 240 hp (Manufacturer — the company "New London", Groton), allowing Underwater develop a boat on the surface speed of 13 knots. On the shaft with engines mounted two-stage compressors (working pressure of 176 kg/cm2).

Underwater course was provided with 2 motors (they dynamo), which developed into overdrive (1140 A) at 310 hp for 1 hour, and in normal mode — to 160 ps (575 A, 220 V), which corresponded to the underwater speed 10.5 knots, and 5. Above-water cruising range (1.98 tons in store oil and fuel 16, 5 m) at a speed of 11 knots — 2400 miles at a speed of 13 knots — 1750 miles.

All electrical equipment, including drive accessories, lighting, heating pads, portable 4 x 300 W any, galley and communication devices were designed for 120 V. For their power were sealed battery, consisting of 120 units (total capacity of 720 kW / h the charging time of 3 hours). Battery is located in the 2-watertight pits filled with hand pumps, which are used for removal of leaking acid. On top of the density of the wood paneling protect the deck consisting of strips, rubber and canvas. Immersion system, more reliable, and perfect in comparison with submarines of "Bars", consisted of 8 filled by gravity ballast tanks with total capacity of 86.52 tons, filled bolshennymi Kingston and air vents. Submerged normal filling of tanks — 78.3 tons. The main stern and bow tank connected through a box-shaped keel, the other connected to the auxiliary bilge piping system. Because the ballast tanks were placed inside a sound body, pumping would be carried out with at least some depth with the pump. B
lowing compressed air tanks (pressure 7 kg/cm2) via a junction box located in the control room could only be carried out to a depth of 51.8 meters. The auxiliary mechanisms include: the main centrifugal bilge ballast (7.64 m3 capacity) and the main piston (0.76 m3 capacity) pump, 2 hand and 3 auxiliary pump.

The two 127-millimeter periscope had different lengths: the first aft mounted in the control room — 6.4 meters, and the second, located in the conning tower, and made of non-magnetic material — 3.96 meters. Due to the lower and upper hatches, cutting could be used as a rescue chamber. All compartments were supplied with the same hatches. Compressed air (pressure of 176 kg/cm2) was stored in the iron of seamless cylinders. In the bow of the submarine located 4 bronze 450-millimeter machine mine Whitehead standard in 1910 with the mine and as much spare. Outside phones locked rotating cast lid has two openings for the shooting. Furthermore, this design allowed only shoot with 2 mines (one after the other, from the top right and bottom left of devices and opposite).

Mines Branch also served as location for officers (three folding wall bed). Recreational rest of the team were in the stern and the bow of the battery (just in the hammocks of the 34 sailors could rest 16 persons).

Company "Noblessner" to monitor the sending submarines seconded to the United States Engineer Lomnicky BS, and transported them three steamships — "Guichen Maru", "Koan Maru" and "Monteagle", with the last load in the port of Kobe suddenly removed , and from there by boat submarine delivered Volunteer Navy "Tula". Unloading and sending parts of the submarine was like under the control of Lieutenant Kopev MV Then he and Lt. Karaburdzhi DS were appointed in overseeing the assembly, and at the end of the assembly — the first commander of 2-submarines.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Builds the submarines, which had been relegated to the tab that began April 2, 1916 with the exhibition keel beams. But the lack of manpower to schedule violated — were required to enter a sequence of construction of submarines. All 5 ships at the suggestion of Vice-Admiral Kanin VA, commander of the Baltic Fleet, June 8, enrolled in the list of ships of the fleet of submarines under-lettered numerals "AG-11" — "K-15" ("Copa Holland"). Work Terms of engineers led by Wheeler, experts at the Baltic Shipyard for all that they have contributed well. But, in reality, "actually assembly"Did not correspond to the meaning of these words, because at the time it became evident that the previously discussed installation, fit body parts and equipment in the United States has not been carried out. Huge amount of iron sheets was" no drill ", and many of the holes are not cut down. Because already in place made fit, prirubka, vygibka "harvested only" parts. Besides, fixes all "unsatisfied." With all this Kopyev MV noted that "… in the United States to take all measures in order to profit in the order of things, which more applicable to frisky assembly. "

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines of the water lowered by crane. Preparatory and formal tests, which were conducted in Revel, Revel Borke and running Yankees Foster VV and Gilmore, RB, ended successfully. Battery capacity was greater, and the estimated cruising range at 11 knots and 13 increased to 2,580 and 2,200 miles, respectively. Only submarine "K-14" at 328 rev / min. has a top speed of 12.5 knots, but the selection committee headed by Rear Admiral Levitsky PP not confused. Against the background of the results of other submarines this case is due to the mismatch pitch propellers.

During the construction and immediately after delivery of submarines in treasury any of them has been added protective fencing of the nasal horizontal rudders, one 47 mm caliber gun, steam heating, also with 2 portable fans. Remove the comments and commission the plant were to malfunction "Noblessner" (from 14.10.1916 Joint Stock Company shipyard "Peter's Wharf") in the winter. Specifically, it was recommended to seek measures to eliminate all of the facts podvsplytiya boat hull after shots fired torpedoes, change logs on the British South American Forbes systems that are more reliable, better make an unsatisfactory habitability.

All five submarines were a part of the 4th Division based at specially equipped trucks "Oland" (former German steamer "Irma"). These submarine campaign in 1917 specifically with the enemy did not come across, but at one point, the submarine "K-11" in the Gulf of Bothnia found 9 large enemy ships that accompanied the convoy of Swedish torpedo boats, but they are strictly adhered to the territorial waters of Sweden. A month earlier (June 8) at the time to practice dive in the Bay Scrap sank the submarine "K-15". A prerequisite for the disaster was that the cook Bogdanov did not close the hatch in the 3rd compartment.

Boat, came up with the minelayer "Il'men," picked up the submarine commander Lieutenant M. Maksimovic, managing and boatswain. The courage and skill was exercised by Prof. five members of the crew led by Lieutenant-Matyevichem Matsievich KL, senior officer. Having spent in the flooded compartment number 1 for about 10 hours, they were able to release a mine with a note, and then, raising the pressure and opened the hatch and jumped out of the wreck. With all of this senior officer of the submarine left the last. Other 18 crew members died. The submarine "K-15", raised by rescue vessel "Volkhov" on June 16, after a short duration of repair again returned to duty.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

The submarine "K-13" July 8, 1917 received a number of "K-16". From fighting campaign in September, did not return submarine "K-14" (commander — Lieutenant von Essen AN, son of Admiral von Essen NO former commander of the Baltic Fleet). The fate of the other submarines proved disastrous — in order to avoid capture by German troops April 3, 1918 all four submarines, coupled with transport "Oland" had to undermine the harbor Ganges Hanko Peninsula. This difficult decision was taken due to the inability of their output in the sea in the criteria of the heavy ice conditions in the absence of an icebreaker.

Good quality and safe delivery of submarines "AG" have become a prerequisite in order that the Ministry of the Navy (again, at the initiative of the plant "Noblessner") has entered into 3 contracts (09/14/1916, 25/10/1916 and 02/08/1917) to supply 12 such submarines in the a total of 28,872 rubles
(excluding prices assembly). First six submarines due to minor structural differences were of the type "602-L" and "602 — GF" (boats intended for the Black Sea Fleet), others are related to the type "602 — R", had to share between a flotilla of Arctic Ocean and the Baltic Fleet.

The Black Sea submarines, broken down by 3 per batch, transported steamers "Arabian", "Strid", "Hazel Buck," "Harold Buck" and "Unkay Maru." The unloading of Vladivostok and send the following mechanical engineer captain of the first rank, PK Ivanov Maksimovic and Lieutenant N. The assembly also instructed the Baltic Shipyard, and the Black Sea submarines were to meet in his office Nicholas (in the upcoming plant "Remsud"). In Arkhangelsk from Petrograd planned to deliver three submarines inland waterways aqua on barges. Under appropriate criteria for the first three submarines in the Black Sea system were to start in June, the second — in the fall of 1917, and boat to the Baltic and the North — in November and September, respectively.

Corps last 6 submarines (3 of them had to get the name "K-16" — "K-18") in September were absolutely ready, but they delayed sending. The fact that the difficult economic and political situation in Russia, according to the views of the Yankees, did not contribute to frisky delivery and assembly. In addition, in this situation the Yankees are getting is not profitable to do the work for rubles. It was supposed to terminate the contract and return the acquired funds. South American side in the case of signing a new contract with payment in dollars was taken to send the November 6 buildings and batteries, and the mechanisms in February-March 1918. Our plans in this situation proved to be impossible and the Supreme Naval College on November 29 canceled the contract, then he finished the construction submarine under the names of "H-4" — "H-9" became part of the naval forces of the United States.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Delivered to the assembly in Nikolaev three submarines August 21, 1917 were enrolled in the lists of the Navy under the designation "K-21" — "K-23", and the other three later — "K-24" — "K-26". To manage the work of the company sent Johnston as the lead engineer, RB Gilmore — Mechanical engineer and Graves TA — Electrical engineer. Watching a Russian engineer Shaposhnikov produced by SS

The first of the Black Sea boats commissioned in 1918 became "K-21", which is April 26, 1919 has been eroded and flooded fleeing from Sevastopol British interventionists in Kherson lighthouse. Nikolaev during the civilian war passed from hand to hand, and any of the parties who have held the city, tried to finish the remaining five submarines. Because the tables are given a start date of early works, which were found in archival documents.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Work on the already launched on a submarine "K-22" to 15 May 1919 were at the end with a step. June 24 was scheduled to start commercial trials. Overall readiness submarine "K-23" was 60 percent, housing parts other submarines were on the stocks. The submarine "K-22" which became operational was in the middle of the ships of gone from Sevastopol Wrangel November 14, 1920 in Bizerte.

The surviving submarines filled-in criteria disruption, lack of parts, equipment and devices. Thus, all submarines in the control set just one Italian periscope length 5.1 meters. In a submarine "K-26" is temporarily established for the earlier renovated, two 120-horsepower diesel engine manufacturing plant of South American "New London" (established in 1917 first engines were taken to an underwater mine layer "Crab"), which affected the speed Underwater boats.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Interestingly, one of these engines could find on the floating base "Martin" Volga Flotilla, the other — in the laboratory of the Petrograd Institute of Technology. Build submarines operated mechanical engineer Fighters YS, past during the Russian-Japanese war bilge mechanic "Varyag", later — Major-General of the Department of diving Hooke. The works also participated military experts at Boryachinsy AI Ignatov NA, Dale E., Vladimirov, Smirnov, AY, Serduk PI, then became the main designer of submarines of the "M" Series XII .

When you place your submarine "K-23" braked, getting off the underwater foundation to 1/3 of the length, and the water had to put her through a floating crane. This first submarine was commissioned (22/09/1920) until the end of the war managed to make several military campaigns. Due to the lack of depth of the Bug River, the lack of experienced production personnel and fuel economy tests on submerged speed and working depth of immersion decided not to hold, and transfer them to the parish in Sevastopol. Diesel engine was tested at 350 revolutions per minute on a measured mile near the lighthouse "Didova hut."
Separate division of submarines of the Black Sea Naval forces remained the most combat-ready before the emergence of the USSR Navy submarines "Decembrist".

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines During the service more than once renamed — for example, 01/05/1920 appeared "AG-24 named after Comrade Lunacharsky" and "K-23, named after Comrade Trotsky, 10.21.1920 -" AH-26 named after Comrade Kamenev. "01/10/1921 submarine with the "K-23" to "K-26", respectively, have been renamed to "PL-16" — "PL-19". "AG-23" 31/11/1922 renamed "Nezamozhny" 06/25/1923 — "Shakhtar" (№ 12), and "K-24" at the same time — a "Communist" (№ 13). AH-25 "and" K-26 "25.03 and 05.15.1923 were called" Marxist "and" political workers. "

These submarines 30/12/1930 joined submarine "K-21" (from 03.02.1931 "Metalist"), raised EPRON June 19, 1928. It turned out a curious detail: the body of the boat after 9 years of being under water was in the best condition than the same type of body Submarine, remaining in service because their teams are often stored in the open air, exposed to weathering.

Underwater boat "K-21" on the tests 19/12/1930 developed speed of 12.8 knots at 375 revolutions per minute, but the June 8, 1931 next year because it is the wrong action was commander Bebeshina protaranennoy Destroyer "Frunze" during training torpedo firing and sank. Killed more than 20 people were saved only 9. Raised a day or two submarine was commissioned 01/01/1932.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

In a submarine "K-25" September 28, 1932 was tested 76.2-millimeter cannon katernogo Kurchevsky in the place of recoilless guns caliber 47 mm. Visual observation showed that at an elevation angle of 30 degrees and range was about 30 cables. Submarines "AG-23" — "K-26" and "K-21" September 15, 1934 was the last time renamed to "A-1" — "A-4" and "A-5". Underwater boat "A-2" in the period from December 17 to December 31, 1935 was held on the surface and 1,498.7 miles underwater 100.2 miles, exceeding the norms autonomously twice. On submarines during regular repairs have been installed in more robust mechanisms guns caliber 47 mm changed the 45-millimeter, fencing cuttings were also somewhat changed.

All submarines "AG" participated in the battles of the Russian war, majestically, with the "A-3" and "A-5" have gained great success, having made 19 and 12 military campaigns, sinking of 3 and 4 of enemy warships and transport .

In Karkinitsky Bay from impacts of enemy ships October 28, 1943 the submarine was lost "A-3". Submarine "A-5" 6 March 1945 was the Red Banner. Divers took part in supplying the besieged Sevastopol, where due to the impossibility of withdrawal submarine "A-1" had to undermine 06/26/1942. In April 1945, she was raised and then handed over to the scrap heap.

Submarine type "AG" during the First World War and in the next decade belonged to the most advanced submarines in the class. Their merit of construction and successful design tongued says the fact that they are heavily involved in the second world war, where some of them not only have gained success, and showed good durability and reliability.

Submarines "AG" ("Holland America")

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