Submarines OB Gurney

In June 1854 27-year-old military engineer fortifier captain Ottomar (Constantine) B. Gern arrived in Revel. Then he had to make efforts to strengthen the defenses of the town, since the Crimean War began and were expected to attack the Anglo-French squadron. According to the views of Gern, coastal defenses port you need to be supplemented by active elements, and he drafted a submarine fire-ship having a bow explosive charge. This vessel is expected to be used during sheltered attack enemy ships.

Military engineering department, was in charge at the time of the coastal defense of coastal forts, Port Revel ordered a masterful little wood sub. Built in a short time the ship cost the treasury a thousand rubles. In the bow of the submarine was located cone-shaped battery compartment. It is the plan design was separated from the hull after the enemy is attached to the bottom of the ship, "submarine fire-ship" waste and the charge was powered by an electronic fuse.

Submarines OB  Gurney
Drawing submarine invented by the Head teacher engineering school captain of the Life-Guards Sapper Battalion O.B.Gernom in 1854.
Exhibition "of 1853 — 1856. Actions and images of the Crimean War."

When immersed into the hold of a boat outboard kingston accepted ballast water. Ballast accepted until such time as the surface of the viewing hood did not stay, as ventilation pipes, which were fixed on special floats. In addition, the submarine floats kept at a given depth, which does not exceed 2 meters. When you ascend the water was pumped out a hand pump. Was the driver of a double-turn Archimedean screw having a manual transmission. The drive consisted of a propeller shaft and flywheel, which contacted him through the gear train. Handwheel to move the submarine was carried out. Was used to control located on the rear propeller feint vertical rudder and tiller with shturtrosami. The ship's crew — 4 people.

Commission of Military Engineering Office September 5, 1854 in one of the harbors of Port Revel tests were carried boats OB Gern. In the end it turned out that the ship is badly managed, and the body in a submerged position is tight enough. The Commission proposed the creation of a new project of the submarine, which would have a metal body.

As the British ships in May 1854, attacked the port of Revel project work had to be postponed. Gern engineer at that time took an active part in the defense of the port. He managed the installation of the peninsula Nargen artillery batteries. Only 2 June 1855 he was able to complete the design of the new ship. Marine Department on behalf of the Military Engineering department ordered the ready Submarine Mechanical and foundries brothers and A.Frikke K., who was on Vasilevsky Island. Navy sent Lieutenant-PP Kruzenshterna — the grandson of the famous admiral IF Kruzenshterna — watch its construction. This educated and familiar with the technique of the person he brought a few suggestions that have improved the design of the submarine.

Submarines OB  Gurney

The projections of the first embodiment Underwater OB boats Gern.
Reconstruction and drawings Sokornov AB

Underwater boat Number 2, which is built in just 3 months, 5 September 1855 has been prepared to conduct sea trials. Riveted hull completed without dialing. For the hull, used 3-mm steel plates connected to the slots and connections SIL riveted seam. Housing vessel consisted of an upper and lower parts, which are shaped like two boats, wherein the top (facing the bottom of the top) was a flat bottom and the bottom was sharp contours in the extremities. In the upper part of the crew were not counting different mechanisms and devices at the bottom — gateway diving camera and ballast water. Both parts of the feed and nose had wood platform on which the crew (any of the submarines Gern accommodates 4 people). At the extremities of the body had sharp edges with eyelets, which were intended to be hung submarine during transportation surface vessels in the area of combat deployment. Battery compartment was the same as that of the first submarine Gern.

As a two-bladed propeller used screw driven by a flywheel muscle strength. For the motion of the boat were necessary effort 2-sailors. Gern on a submarine for the first time in the practice of Russian submarine was used by the propeller.

Just after 9 years (1863) IF Alexander's second in the history of the Russian submarine on the apparatus he used a submarine propeller. Gern value in the use of helical propeller confirm and drawings of his number two submarines, which were discovered in TSGAVMF. The piston pump connected to a flywheel with gear, producing blow in through the ventilation front pipe and a rubber hose. The upper end of the tube was mounted on the float. In addition, it was fastened the upper end of the pipe gravity ventilation.

Submarines OB  Gurney

Drawing of a second embodiment of the submarine (1855):
and — a longitudinal section, b — plan
1 — wood platform 2 — floats ventilation pipes, 3 — ventilation pipe with fittings;
4 — binnacle, 5 — Pump blow in ventilation, 6 — lookout cap;
7 — flywheel with geared transmissions, 8 — handle flywheel, 9 — propeller shaft with a screw.

At the bottom of the submarine between with 2 transverse bulkheads located airlock. At its bottom flap had to diver viewing portholes, and niche underwater anchor. In the middle of the upper part of the body of the submarine was made cutout closes sight glass dome, which was protected steel grating (it was used as an input flap). Ballast water immersion accepted through outboard kingston specifically in the hold. Immersion depth regulated by water ingestion or its pumping with the hand pump. As at the first submarine Gern, there is also provided for a vertical wheel with shturtrosami to the helm of the tiller. Steering wheel was placed in the middle of the submarine.

Running tests of the submarine were number 2 in the Little Neva for 2-weeks. Ship commanded by Lieutenant-Commander PP Krusenstern. At a depth of two meters (Gern all the submarines sank so deep) the density of the body is broken and a riveted seams inside the vessel penetrate seawater. After the tests, the submarine was raised to the embankment Galernogo island. There it was before January 5, 1857. Then the submarine was delivered to the plant Izhorskij luge method. Trehmillimetrovaya paneling has been replaced by thicker plates, which connected two-row riveted seam. Price of the submarine, including a change of skin, was 4380 rubles.

Submarine number 2 October 19, 1857 was brought to St. Petersburg in tow padd
le steamer "Neva". Repeated tests are held in the fall of 1861, were successful: when submerged hull of the vessel did not miss the water, perfectly controlled submarine surfaced and submerged, but the attachment of the charge to the enemy ship was virtually impossible. The Commission decided that the boat should provide the means for determining its speed, and the speed of flow in the area, as the speed of the vessel was small.

Gurney later proposed a project boat has twice the displacement. A new project has been developed by the spring of 1863. The main innovation of the project was the introduction of the mechanical gas engine. On the instructions of his Gern designed and built Colonel NA Petrashevsky. In addition, he designed a fundamentally latest ventilation system. First time for pumping ballast water was used piston pump driven by a propeller shaft through Disconnecting clutch. The submarine was number 3, a displacement of 16 tons, ordered Izhora plant, which in the autumn of 1864 he graduated from the formation of the body (the price was 7,000 rubles). By the time the project was made Petrashevsky gas (ammonia) engine, but during the trial it became clear that the technique of using hydrous ammonia to be developed. In this regard, designers have to abandon the engine and apply this to resort to the use of muscular force. Submarine number 3 has successfully passed the tests in Kolpinsky pond. Ship well managed and kept firmly on the compass direction. Housing newest submarine has sufficient density. But as in previous court under the water, it had a low speed. In addition, it was found that provided by Underwater boat mine is very fragile instrument.

Submarines OB  Gurney

The projections of the fourth version of the submarine OB Gern to torpedo his own design.
Reconstruction and drawings Sokornov AB

Gern engineer realized that underwater boat bring practical benefits solely in the event that will be equipped with an efficient mechanical engine, which will allow significantly increase speed of movement underwater. He drew attention to the electric machines, but the lack of small-sized batteries made them impractical for the practical implementation of underwater vessels. When it became clear that the French captain feels Bourgois-designed submarine of a pneumatic engine, Gern went to France and took a particular role in the testing of the ship.

Painstakingly researched air engine, it has ordered in several Parisian companies a certain amount of experimental engines, which have been in the set and the engines run on compressed air. Gern enriched thoughts French are on their own initiative to begin drafting a submarine number 4. In a brand new project, he took into account his experience and the experience of foreign designers.

Ministry of the Navy became interested in a new project. The construction of a submarine that in their tactical and technical characteristics superior to all previous projects was ordered Alexander's factory in St. Petersburg (later Proletarian factory). Construction of the vessel was completed in 1867. In the structurally new project was a significant step in the development of the Russian submarine. Housing submarine (buoyancy in store 64%), which was made of metal was a fusiform body. Structurally, it consisted of plating, 16 internal frames (quad 60 cm), flat and 2-spherical transverse bulkheads, which were turned inside roughness of the vessel. When this was first cast and second forged. Flat and second spherical bulkhead divided the internal volume of the submarine at the 3 compartment with sealed doors. The cone-shaped metal fairing was attached to the forward bulkhead. He was filled with wood and in the case of an underwater collision with any object made as a shock absorber.

Submarines OB  Gurney

Drawing submarine number 4 (reconstruction Sokornov AB)
1 — permeable bow part — shock absorber 2 — underwater anchor, 3 — ballast tank, 4 — kingston ballast tank, 5 — drawer with life belts, 6 — kingston bow compartment — airlock, 7 — exit hatch for divers, 8 — Winch Underwater Anchor 9 — Kingston winch ballast tank (left side), 10 — Kingston winch bow compartment (starboard) 11 — Air Pump (on the left side), 12 — bilge pump (to starboard) 13 — Tank with soda lime, 14 — oxygen cylinders, 15 — balancing tank, 16 — retractable tower — a float with a gasket, 17 — bunker, 18 — steam boiler, 19 — watery tank of fuel (to starboard) 20 — engine, 21 — vozduhohranitel (left side), 22 — propeller shaft line, 23 — vertical steering rudder stock; 24 — horizontal rudder stock vehicles; 25 — vertical steering wheel, 26 — hydroplanes 27 — propeller, 28 — stern eye, 29 — bow eye, 30 — kingston surge tank, 31 — torpedo OB Gern

Bow section, which limited both spherical bulkhead, was the lock chamber volume of 3 cubic meters. At the bottom of the ballast tank was located (1.6 tons), which was located inside the hawse underwater anchor, rope and winch drive it. Average compartment volume of 11 cubic meters, in which housed the central control was limited to the second spherical and plane transverse bulkhead. Then placed two hand pumps, winches and anchor underwater Kingston, noktouz magnetic compass, steering wheel and vertical balancing tank. The Tower — a float with fixed flap began moving either put forward by the helical gear. The tower can be placed at 0.5 m above the top edge of the casing. This made it possible to increase or decrease the volume of the submarine and change the depth of her dive. It was used as an input hatch to observe the horizon and ventilation. In the hold of the middle compartment was tank with lime, three oxygen tanks and a fan, which were part of the regeneration air.

In the rear compartment capacity of 11 cubic meters a steam boiler with sealed combustion chamber (power 6 hp, 120 rev / min.), Buller's horizontal and vertical rudders, propeller shaft, compressor and blow in the fan-driven propeller shaft. Immediately placed a box for firewood, charcoal or briquettes specials. fuel and compressed air tank and the tank for turpentine. One of the options of the project foresaw the installation of controllable pitch propeller instead of the ordinary two-blade.

In the base of the power plant, which was constructed on the basis of use of pneumatic motor or steam engine was a two-cylinder combination machine. In surfaced unit worked like a steam engine, burning charcoal or wood in the boiler furnace was maintained with oxygen from the ambient air and exhaust gases and steam into the atmosphere. When immersed in a sealed furnace burning oxygen-enriched pellets or turpentine, which was fed through a nozzle directly with oxygen (perhaps in this case was carried out by the furnace blower fan). The steam and exhaust gases are discharged overboard. In addition, submerged provide for a specific supply of compressed air to the control spool machine. In this case it became pneumatic engine. According to the calculations of supplies of fuel Gern enough to 5:00 travel underwater, and compressed air — by a mile. Ship systems include bilge and vent piping, air pipe and tubing for oxygen supply.

Th
e construction of the submarine was completed in 1867. Tests last 9 years in the Italian port of Kronstadt pond. During this time, Gern has brought a huge amount of improvements.

For example, the nozzle Shpakovsky been replaced by more efficient, changed the controller. Gern himself designed, and built by the Saint Petersburg plant Byrd huge (length of 7 meters, diameter of one meter, weight of 5 tons) and very slow-speed torpedo. Apart from this, the designer gave the idea of mounting a torpedo from the outside, under the hull of the submarine.

As a result of improvements to the mid-70 submarine number 4 perfectly run on tests, but in a submerged position could only be used pneumatic engine — unable to firmly seal the combustion chamber. In this regard, during a dive, wherein the ends of the ventilation pipes hide underwater gases enter the compartments. Meanwhile, at the Military Engineering department, without getting practical results from research work and experiments Gern, began to lose interest in submarines. In 1876, the agency issued an instruction to finish the work on the basis that "… the results of the experiments, which were carried out in many years, scuba diving is very problematic, and even in the case of solving the question relative to the device swimming complex devices is always associated with a high risk people's lives and is dependent on many chances. "

At the termination of the test and also contributed to destruction of PP Krusenstern, who was an enthusiastic scuba diving in the past 20 years in command of the boats Gern. Deprived of such an assistant and having lost the support of Lt. Gen. EI Totleben, who ruled the Military Engineering Office, Ottomar B. Gern, he became by then a general, did not engage in submarines. The first — wood — the submarine was dismantled in Revel, of the second unsuccessful try to make a diving bell, and the last two boats were on the wall of the port of Kronstadt, but they were eventually dismantled.

Summing up the work of OB Gern in submarine, you must select the subsequent: Gern first in the world designed and built underwater ship spindle-shaped, used spherical transverse bulkheads, which divided the hull into watertight compartments, the first in the history of the Russian submarine found at the submarine propeller for propulsion, which has designed a screw rotary blades, for the first time applied to the movement of the submarine pneumatic power plant running on combined cycle, for the first time in the Russian submarine shipbuilding tried to introduce an overarching regeneration air. In addition, Gern has designed and built a torpedo. On his submarine number 2 for the first time has been set with the magnetic compass special deflector.

All of the above gives rise to rank Ottomar Borisovich Gern to the galaxy of outstanding figures of Russian submarine XIX century as SK Drzewiecki, OS Kostovich, IF Alexander and K.A.Shilder.

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