. This caused a flurry of complaints, and at some point the presumptuous fellow, what is called a "corrected" from above. Interestingly, among the leaders and ideologists of the "presumptuous" He was a man whose son after 30 years to write brilliant, "Oh, my Arbat" — Shalva S. Okudzhava — Predsovnarkoma the then Georgia.
It was only later, in the framework of the "Georgianization", the authorities of the republic began to encourage the migration of peasants to Abkhazia. Created by the resettlement program, worked an entire state organization "Spetspereselenstroy" en masse being transferred to the collective farmers of Samegrelo in Abkhazia. He was in charge of this line of Beria, which later gave birth to a lot of the Abkhazian saying that begins like this: "Beria brought Georgians in Abkhazia …"
It is impossible to say that while there is full respect traditional patterns of behavior, including those established in the period of imperial Russia. This time, it was too — particularly preferences, no one would, no exception is made, the requirements were the same, and was loved by all then only one person, by the way, a Georgian by nationality. Georgia fully drank and joy, and sorrow of that period — about 30,000 people were persecuted, went to the front of 700 000 people, about 250,000 were killed. The bright memory of them and prostration!
After the Second World War, the situation is changing and is beyond the scope of traditional Georgian model. As in the Russian Empire, Georgia takes on a special, inaccessible to other republics of the place — it is a popular favorite. The first among equals.
At the time of submission of the Soviet people of Georgia were reduced to reduced to some kind of dreamland is always warm where there is sea, palm trees, tangerines and persimmons, where they live good and wise Georgians, who only think as a guest drink wine and sing it interesting Georgian songs. The whole country was listening Nani Bregvadze, "Oreiro" and "Mziuri", sang Suliko, admired the paintings Pirosmany, worried about the fate of a kind, proud and in his own accident pilot Mimino — roller Mizandari on cookbooks for holiday chakhokhbili cook and serve it on the table along with a bottle or Kindzmarauli Ojaleshi.
Ordinary Soviet people, getting to Georgia, the standard of living of Georgians were surprised — there were more than all cars in per capita terms, sturdy stone Georgian houses were nothing like the wooden huts of advanced collective farmers of Tambov and Ryazan regions, and the Georgians, according to a simple Soviet man, lived in a big way. "There must be something why they are so good live!" — People thought. And they were not wrong. Was.
There were several reasons. First, it was very very favorable position Georgia as a sub-tropical, resort areas in the northern part of the country with a harsh climate. This paper has brought geography Georgia lot of real, full-length Soviet rubles. That’s exactly it has provided Georgia limitless Soviet market for sale at very high prices of their tangerine, persimmon and myrtle, while the rest of the world in competition for markets and sub-tropical fruit was huge and they cost a penny. It is precisely because it resorts in Georgia, along with the Crimean, were considered the best and stays in them was not an ordinary sovgrazhdanam get.
Second, there was another reason, which does not like to talk about modern Georgian historians. In the Soviet Union, allowed all the same, but the Georgians were allowed a little more. More specifically it relates to thrive in this Caucasian republic of the shadow economy — to tsehoviki and thieves-in-law. During the communist guise of public ownership of the means of production in the Georgian SSR actually legalized private business. Thousands of small and medium-sized plants operated in private homes and in public enterprises and the enterprises themselves are turned into semi-officially working for the benefit of their guidance private shops where the most "bread" posts successors sold at market rates. Yes, shop there and in other places of the Soviet Union — and a lot of them were in Central Asia, and in Odessa. But the number of Georgian shops was incomparably greater than in the rest of the sixth of the land, exceeding other regions in the tens, if not hundreds of times.
Approximately the same situation with the thieves-in-law. After the war, and now this area of the criminal world for the most part was the preserve of Georgia, a kind of view of the national business. Ask about the ethnic composition of the Soviet, and modern thieves — the names of these 80 per cent, and even more surprisingly shvili end in-and-jo.
What explains such an amazing favor of the Soviet authorities in relation to Georgia? At this point there are different opinions. Some experts believe that because it would make little paradise resort destination, where the Soviet citizen from Tambov or Nerungri could heartily rejoice and relax particle of a happy life. Others say that this is a considerable merit of the Georgian leaders of the time — the same Mzhavanadze or Shevardnadze, who strongly defended the interests of the front of the center of the republic and made an incredible, almost unimaginable privilege, skillfully alternating demands, threats of national discontent and powerful streams of eastern praise, such as Shevardnadze’s famous phrase that "The sun rises for Georgia from the North."
One way or another, but the fact is that it is not producing practically nothing, Georgian SSR, Soviet Union has become the richest and most successful republic, and the standard of living of its population was higher not only than the national average, and even higher than in many , is not the most recent world. This, incidentally, found living reflection in the jokes of the day. Remember — "How in Georgia is called a bill of $ 100? — Georgian ruble? " Or here it is — "Vano, why do you let yourself go by Zaporozhets? Do not you realize you’re a disgrace to Georgia? — Why are you bothering me — I am a beggar! "?
This continues until the mid-1980s, when the … When … The owner is weakening. After the Persians and the Russian Empire windy Madam history once again commits to Georgia turn. A friend and patron, from whom the land for 70 years kartvelov sun was rising — the Soviet Union — is weakening. The reduced oil prices, high military spending, inefficient, politicized and bureaucratized state economy to bring the country to ruin. In Soviet republics intensified the centrifugal forces and the country begins to crack like a patchwork quilt.
In the summer of 1991 from the Soviet Union, one after another come Baltic republics — in July — Lithuania, in August — Latvia and Estonia. It is fair to say that they never felt themselves nor part of Russia, and even less, part of the Soviet Union, has always made it clear that, and sovgrazhdane perceive them as something not entirely his own, prim, european, but by the will of fate which turned them into one state. 4 months after the release of the Baltic states — December 8, 1991 — Heads of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed an agreement Bialowieza, put an end to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics … But …. But the much-loved and loving all, caressed by the Soviets and the Soviet people, everywhere exceptional and unprecedented Georgia does not wait for the Belovezhskaya agreements and exit the Baltic states of the Soviet Union — it is the first, the first among the republics, even for 5 months before the release of the Balts and 8 months prior to the meeting in Bialowieza Forest holds a referendum and April 9, 1991 declares independence! Everything. The Soviet era ends for Georgia. Starting time of Georgian independence.
eorgia after the Soviet era
At this point, the fate throws on the political horizon of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia. It is widely known as a dissident, an opposition activist and a leading figure in the son of Georgian literature — Konstantine Gamsakhurdia.
In general, it must be said that the father and son Gamsakhurdia — the classic version of the traditional Georgian elite, will not change its type, at least from the sixteenth century. — The elite smart, talented, and treacherous to the bone prudent. Both of them are so similar to Irakli II, Imereti Solomon and Noah Jordania, do not be surprised if this similarity would be even a portrait! Their political somersaults of the imagination, too!
If a classic of modern Georgian literature Konstantin Gamsakhurdia — father of the future president of Georgia — Zviad — someone in my life was, so he was not ordinary and simple man. Twists of fate it deserves a separate book. A young man, even before World War 1, he went to Germany, he graduated from the University of Berlin, 10 years has lived in the West, and in 1921 he returned to Georgia, following a very strong left-wing, anti-Russian and anti-Soviet views. In 1920 he joined the Committee for the Liberation of Georgia, created in Europe and upon his return to his homeland, is in Tbilisi founded a literary circle of anti-Soviet, pro-German orientation and Menshevik. What then could happen to such a man? That’s right: the label "spy" — and in the camp! And so it happened. In 1926, he was arrested, pop for the "art" top ten and sent to Solovki in the infamous elephant camp. It would seem so interesting? All the while as they lived. But here’s the amazing metamorphosis begins, recalling the words of the cleverest Lev Davidovich — "zigzags, contradictions, treason!"
A year after the judgment of Constantine Gamasahurdiya released. And, without rehabilitation — by order of the Presidium of the USSR Central Executive Committee. Reforged comrade! Gamsakhurdia had years to feel that the host is strong, and thus reoriented to throw their "rotten" European manners and "get back on the path to reform." I’m not being ironic. After returning from the camp, he becomes a different person: writing about people’s happiness, about collectivization, about a clash of the old and the new world, about the flourishing future. Well, by the way, says! But the crown of creation Gamsakhurdia, of course, was the book "Chief" about his great countryman and friend of all children — ing. Stalin. Konstantine Gamsakhurdia expect to get for it the Stalin Prize. But the authority has offended a talented singer and gave him only the Order of Lenin. As early as the thirties, a former prisoner, "spy" and the anti-Soviet Georgian prose becomes luminary, it is officially called "the Georgian Gorky", he enters the Presidium of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, is friends with Malenkov and Beria, who travels to Tbilisi on personal cars and lives in a huge house in Tbilisi called "Colchian Tower" and built on his own project.
These are meamorfozy! Give me one other non-Georgian example of such remarkable historical somersaults! There are no such examples. But that’s not all. Continued somersaults! By the end of his life, caressed by the power of the proletarian singer Georgia returns to the anti-Russian positions that he held a stormy European youth, when in 1914 in Berlin tried to volunteer to join the German army — "the mighty old" anti-Russian views of different amazing power, even with the delegations of Moscow, he essentially refuses to speak in Russian and calls his Backhouse Shawky — Ivan.
By the way, few people know, but in the summer of 1942 when the Germans occupied Mozdok rushed through passes in Abkhazia, and their submarine surfaced fired trains Sochi-Adler, Soviet troops considered the possibility of putting Tbilisi and prepared for the occasion clandestine agents. So the head of an agency that was supposed to be Konstantine Gamsakhurdia. However, fortunately, intervened legendary scout Paul Sudoplatov fine judge of people, it was he who took the nomination because of the weak credibility of the Chevalier of the Order of Lenin. The role of the resident playwright then passed Matchavariani.
The son of the "Georgian Gorky" — Zviad Gamsakhurdia — largely repeated somersaults father. Adjusted for one time, of course. Ever since his youth, he characterized the anti-Soviet and anti-Russian views, founded the underground organizations, writes and distributes a nationalist literature, is involved in the anti-Soviet demonstrations. The shadow of the Pope-luminary keeps it and displays of the most difficult situations. This continues until 1975, when the pope died, and there was nobody to keep Zviad. In 1977, he was arrested, convicted, but to sit him as pope, has only a year — in 1978, half a century after the "reforging" the pope, a miracle happens — "reforge" and his son! An ardent anti-Soviet and future Georgian president to make public repentance that republican television broadcasts to the whole of Georgia, and instead of harsh Siberian zone is Myagenko a reference to neighboring Dagestan, and a year later — in 1979 — Gamsakhurdia assign a Ph.D., and he became a senior research fellow Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR. Well then do not believe in the common destiny, fathers and children!
It Zviad Gamsakhurdia, who as a dissident and human rights activist, in his understanding, fought for the rights of oppressed nations to become president of an independent Georgia made another turn — the slogan on which all the forces now trying to distance itself enlightened Georgian historians — "Georgia — for the Georgians" and that Zviad acted as a successor of the Georgian unwavering political formula. Territorial gains — that’s what he begins to engage in the first case. His sense of conquering the territory meant retention of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which are all things Soviet, and not only in the Soviet era did not consider themselves part of Georgia, hereby it never came and wanted to stay in the Soviet Union after its collapse.
Let us again turn our attention to the historical priorities. Let us remember that, historically, changing patron, Georgia immediately, just immediately set about expanding territory, wars, conquests, etc. So it was at the end of the XVIII century, and in 1918, and in the early 20-ies of the last century. What happens to Zviad Gamsakhurdia? Maybe there’s something changed?
Gamsakhurdia became Chairman of the Supreme Council of Georgia in November 1990. And in December, he abolishes the autonomy of South Ossetia and another month there enters a police force. It starts with the Ossetian-Georgian war, which, in one form or another, going 18 months and ends in July 1992, already under Shevardnadze. In Abkhazia, a series of laws that infringe the rights of Abkhazians limiting the circulation of the Abkhaz language, and then, with the adoption of the Georgian constitution of the sample in 1921, virtually abolished the Abkhazian autonomy and introduced troops under the command of then-Captain Gia Karkarashvili. Together, this has led to an even more ambitious and disastrous for Tbilisi Abkhaz war. Georgia loses its deafening war in both breakaway provinces, Zviad overthrown, he fled to Chechnya, where he was either killed, or he dies himself. The Georgian population of Abkhazia, to a large extent involved in the war, leaving her. Saying "Beria brought Georgians in Abkhazia" in 60 years gets its completion — "a Shevardnadze took them."
Here we must digress. In a sense, the actions of Georgia in 1990-1993 were the first and the only exception to the traditional centuries-old Georgian behavior. The system failed. What happened? In the first and only time in many years, Georgia has begun
expansion of the territory and an attack on the interests of the old patron, finding a new one! From Russia, Georgia had already officially turned away, and a new patron has not called. Huge mistake! It is urgently correct — at the helm is White Fox — old and experienced master of international battles Eduard Shevardnadze and, as for centuries before that … Georgia starts to call the owner.
For many reasons, the owners could then become just the U.S. or the EU, and even more for them as the League of Nations in 1920, loomed NATO as the League of Nations, there was a need to engage, but it can be had only with the approval of the first two. For a while, the old Georgian custom, Tbilisi is trying to get a protectorate of both at once, but he realized that, because of the conflict of interest that is not possible, stops on a bunch of U.S. — NATO. And here all at once falls into place and begins to completely fit into the historic Georgian paradigm, avoiding even the slightest change.
Georgian elite, rather, Soviet society — a very well-known, respected and loved by the people in the Soviet Union — are beginning to re-orientation of the Georgian people with the general Soviet legacy on US-West. By analogy with the "ispivshimi water Terek" "tergdaleuli" — Ilia Chavchavadze and others, supporters of the new political geography of Georgia in jest come to be called "potomakdaleuli" — "ispivshie water Potomac." In a society implanted vzlyad about the perfidy of Russia, a Russian-Soviet occupation of Russian heavy yoke. As before, almost completely rewritten history — black out of her many years of historical events, to radically change the fate of Georgia, as already described above, the conclusion of Irakli II peace treaty with Turkey, which have crossed George’s treatise — this is practically nothing written in masse Georgians do not know it. But the finest historical facts somehow related to Europe, such as letters of Constantine II Spanish King Ferdinand in the XV century, submitted to the fore. Comes at the point of absurdity, so that in the history books for the local Russian-language schools all the history of relations between Russian and Georgian represented by two periods — ‘Russian tsarist yoke "and" yoke of Soviet Russia. "
Envoys of Georgia over the world talk about how hard life was Georgia "on Russia," and how she wants to be with America and the West. Starts political mimicry. Georgia fully adopts the western rhetoric and political language. If at the beginning of the twentieth century, the right and the winning phrase was "fighting against the Bolsheviks," now takes its place the word "democracy" and "European values." To be like their patrons, the Georgian leaders use them in the case and doing nothing, comes to the fact that Georgian leaders have announced their desire to teach other peoples democracy.
In general, the similarity of the current Georgian Menshevik and amazingly, even rhetoric. Here are two phrases, one of which was delivered in 1919, the other — in our time. Guess — which is which? "Eastern barbarism, we prefer Western imperialism." — "The Spirit of Russian life — despotism … Russian culture has spawned an infected Great Russian chauvinism slave. "Guessed? I personally could not. Reveal the secret — the first proposal — known phrase Noah Jordania, and the second — a quotation from a modern "Literary Georgia".
It is said that such a policy is bearing fruit. At least, pushed the U.S. administration really Tbilisi considered as one of its key foreign policy projects — and within the political support in terms of financial aid. Americans are looking at Georgia as in his time watching Russian — they see it as a lovely little child, who, though with his eccentricities, even hysterically and inconsistent, but is on them — the U.S. — the way, loves America, wants to be like it, and so for that she can forgive a lot and help to many. And help: financially Georgia nowadays depends on the United States almost more than George XII dependent on Russia and Georgia of Noah Jordania — from Germany. Now Georgia has become second only to Israel’s recipient of the American financial aid and the only state whose leaders salaries, at least until recent years, has officially paid foreign financial institutions that gave rise to the playful name of Mikhail Saakashvili and his government as the "children of Soros."
Nothing changes. Along with the love of a new cartridge, Georgia has historically come to the old hatred. This applies to relations with Russia as a personal level, and on the state. On a personal, everyday level russophobia in Georgia to the rank of official policy. Russian was referred to as occupiers in theaters stopped showing films in Russian, pharmacies stop selling drugs in Russia. Georgian elite is naturally and historically invariably evolved from a favorite all they that hate in Russia, and insulting her at every opportunity. In our time, a man adored by millions of Russians — Buba Kikabidze — says Russia does not "want to Larissa," and "We must do away with the country!" Brilliant director Otar Iosseliani, the world says, "we have with the World Russia will never be! .. Previously we had for her contempt, now there was hate. " Very accurately described the situation of former Georgian ambassador in Moscow Zurab Abashidze: "We turned the confrontation with Russia in a deadly duel with the elements of theatrical shows. We compete who would vote against Russia more ironic, more dismissive, more acute. "
At the state level throughout Georgia comes to the interests of Russia, tries to oppose it vigorously and bang their heads Russia and the United States. Any opposition to it myself, the old Georgian tradition, exposes as a confrontation not with her own which is not its leaders, and not a little, not a lot — with the Western way of life and the interests of democracy around the world. Georgia initiated the creation of an alternative center of Russian integration of GUAM, announced tough course to join NATO, actively involved in the construction of transport corridors, oil and gas pipelines bypassing Russia, prevents the entry of Russia into the WTO. Finally, it is striking … how did repeated policy of Georgia … If in 1918-1921 Menshevik Georgia supported the red-green and North Caucasian separatists and provided them shelter in Gagra, in our time, now "democratic" Georgia for several years supported the Chechen rebels and gave them "a table, a house" in the Pankisi .
That’s right, genatsvale. As they say, nothing lasts forever. Especially if the moon — Georgian. But life goes on and we must understand that we do now and what we all this previous story says.
First, we must clearly understand that Georgia has never been an ally of Russia in the Caucasus. That’s it — "how ranshe" — was not. It is an axiom. Georgia has always been the strongest ally, no matter who it was strong. As soon as the patron of Georgia ceased to show strength — she immediately turned away from him, starts looking for a new strong, and finding, turn 180 degrees and began to attack the interests of the old master, in the course of his outrageously insulting and gnawing chunks of its territory. Exceptions to this pattern of behavior exists.
A key element of this model — the fact that most fundamentally distinguishes it from other states relations with their "patrons" and patrons is that Georgia is positioning itself to the host not just as an ally, fulfilling certain obligations in exchange for some action stronger partner and establishing Illusions friendship, loyalty and sincere attachment to the
patron in order to master, obeying a false sense of unity, he solved the problem of Georgia, Georgia or provide protection if they will solve the
This is a very important point and not understand it — then equate all your favorite pilot Valiko Mizandari and wildly hate Russian actor Vakhtang Kikabidze.
There are various ways to treat such a model — to take it, not take, take it — betrayal and prostitution, or, on the contrary, the protection of national interests. I personally am not inclined to emotions and think she is a model of behavior — svoebraznym and specific model, which, however, has proved its effectiveness and efficiency. However, the limitations of the effectiveness and validity of the restriction. On the one hand, she did not let Georgia earlier and now can not implement all of its geopolitical dreams, but on the other — the Georgians guarantee their survival as a nation, which, given the rapid and dangerous historical past of the Caucasus, is already a huge victory.
Yes, probably, from a moral point of view, this is not the strongest model and a mile away from it reeks of betrayal. But in general there is betrayal in politics? Just one of the methods to achieve their goal. Old and wise Winston Churchill called betrayal special political gift. Can you blame Georgia for the possession of such a gift? Can you blame the fish-hangers? Hardly. However, if I were a potential owner of Georgia, I would prefer clear from the outset to realize that I am not a "genius of pure beauty", not a role model and not the sun rising for Georgia from the North, but only part of it tradtsionnoy political model, and, that part of the due and which will eventually be implemented Georgian national interests.
What conclusions should we draw from all this?
1. Over the past 500 years in Georgia there was a very clear, repeatedly, and repeated cyclic model of political behavior. This model is used by the Georgian government and society with a very high degree of continuity and constancy.
2. There is no reason to believe that this model is changing now or in the foreseeable future.
3. Currently, Georgia is located in the middle of the main loop model. This situation is characterized by stable and strong relations with the patron, a high degree of mimicry, a high level of dependence on him and received a significant amount of his preferences and privileges.
4. Patron of Georgia — United States — have already passed the peak of its political power, if such is considered a unipolar world, the lack of geo-political challenges from the nearest competitors — Europe, China and Russia, as well as an unambiguous economic leadership, and slowly but steadily surrender their position.
5. In the course of history speed completion of a full cycle of political models of Georgia has been steadily increasing. In the past, these cycles are completed in 238 — 135 — 69 years, respectively, except for the 3-year cycle in the period 1918 — 1921, which was artificially interrupted largely beyond the control of the Georgian reasons.
6. A simple mathematical extrapolation shows that the length of the current Georgian cycle will be about 25 — 30 years. Only 10 years have passed. So, in the natural course of events in 15 years — 20 Georgia will inevitably turn against the United States and … will call the new patron.
Probability is not measured in percentage. It — is absolute. There is no other choice history of Georgia over the past 500 years, we can provide. And it is very possible that after some 20 years, we are going to see in the center of Tbilisi with the pump will open a museum of American occupation and see how badly aged Mikhail Saakashvili will come to the podium and with pain in his voice begins to talk about the difficult legacy of NATO and the sincere desire of Georgia to Russia.
I hope he did not believe it.