Beginning of the Russo-Finnish War, November 30, 1939, unleashed by the Finnish military, instigated by the Western powers, was greeted by the reactionary forces of the world as a welcome occasion for the organization of a "crusade" against communism.
14 December 1939 the Council of the League of Nations declared the Soviet Union an "aggressor" and ruled him out of the League of Nations.
The decision to expel the Soviet Union was the political death of the League of Nations.
In Finland an influx of weapons and equipment, not only from the two hostile coalitions, but also from neutral countries such as the USA, Sweden, Italy. Sweden and Norway are allowed to transport these materials in Finland through its territory. Nine thousand Swedish "volunteers" have gone to war with the Finnish forces against the Soviet Union, and the total cost of war materials and weapons supplied by Sweden Finland, has reached 400 million kroons.
In Finland began to arrive "volunteers" from other countries in the capitalist world. Anglo-French arms deliveries have reached an impressive size: England gave Finland 101 aircraft and more than 200 guns, hundreds of thousands of shells, bombs and anti-tank mines. From France received 175 aircraft, about 500 guns, machine guns, 5.5 thousand, a million shells and hand grenades. The United States has provided a loan of Finland, sent 250 guns and promised to send planes. Supplied weapons and Italy.
Preparations for the attack England and France on the Soviet Union was a feverish pace. It was decided to use the forces of British Expeditionary Force, who was in France, and the best mix of French army, including the alpine part. This action undermined the combat effectiveness of the allied armies: instead of preparing for war with Germany began selecting pieces to send to Finland.
English Vice-Marshal E. Kingston McClory said: "We were not prepared to take any action against Germany … In one respect, however, we have opened the way for action: here we are talking about helping Finland in the war against Russia … necessary equipment and the weapons are not enough, and we had to mobilize all available resources to create this expeditionary force. " Professional Anglo-French military, who have been entrusted troops saw that the political intentions of their governments are fraught with serious consequences. One of the commanders of the British Expeditionary Corps Alan Brooke wrote at the time that the preparation of the "wild chimeras in Finland … leads me to despair." General de Gaulle, who saw the weakness of the French army and had no illusions about Hitler's determination to attack, bitterly recalls: "Some groups saw as an enemy rather to Stalin than Hitler. They were more concerned about how to attack Russia — the provision of aid to Finland, or landing in Istanbul than the question of how to deal with Germany. "
February 5, 1940 the Allied Supreme War Council adopted a decision to send an expeditionary force to help Finland. The head of the Finnish militarists Mannerheim asked 30 thousand people, the Anglo-French forces to determine the number of 150 thousand people! They had to be sent under the guise of "volunteers", ie, act as both sides agreed, acted as Italy during the intervention in Spain in 1936 1939gg. Landings were to land at Narvik and Pet-self at the same time planned attack on the Soviet Union from the south, which is being prepared in Syria by the French troops commander, General Weygand. The first planned to bomb from the air Baku and other oil-producing areas in the Caucasus, as well as introduce submarines in the Black Sea for action on Soviet maritime communications. 100 bombers was considered sufficient to six days to bring down the Soviet oil fields. The French ambassador in Ankara, Turkey received the consent of the Allied planes flying over the territory. In the Balkans while the Anglo-French diplomacy has developed active, trying to recruit allies for action against the USSR among small states.
In the U.S., workers discovered a rabid reactionary anti-Soviet campaign. Was imposed a "moral embargo" on exports to the USSR, even the voices of the severance of relations with our country. Highly influential in the years Senator Pitman suggested Britain, France and Germany to conclude a truce for 70 days in order to "calmly discuss the situation" created by the Russo-Finnish War. In early 1940, on behalf of the U.S. government's President's personal representative to the Vatican was named Taylor, who was instructed to help "efforts for peace." On 9 February, a trip to the capitals of Western Europe went to another of the president — Welles, who was in Rome, Berlin, Paris and London. He met with the heads of the four governments. Mussolini Welles an invitation Roosevelt meet in the Azores. The American ambassador has found that London and Paris are still willing to collude with Germany and fascist Italy is pleased to revive the idea of a "pact of four." Welles then appealed to the President, asking formally authorize him to show "common initiative to the manifestation of the world." But Washington was followed by a sudden ban, to stop further activities of the American mediator. What happened?
In the harsh conditions of winter 1939/40 years. The Soviet Army broke through built with the latest military technology "Mannerheim Line" on the Karelian Isthmus and inflicted a decisive defeat of the Finnish military. As noted later, the Finnish President Paasikivi, the Soviet Union, "the winter of 1940 would continue the fight, dealing Finland, all new heavy defeat, could, if he wanted to, completely crush Finland and destroy its independence." However, the Soviet government, the answer is a blow to the provocations of the Finnish military, sought only to ensure the security of the borders of the Soviet Union and the first of Leningrad, for the then-Finnish border is just 32 km away from the great city. Although the defeat of Finland was obvious, the Soviet proposals for the world to stand. The Finnish government decided to adopt them. When March 9, 1940 it was announced that the Finnish delegation in Moscow and talks about the world, the British government tried to rip them stirred up the Finns to continue their fight. March 11, Chamberlain spoke in the House of Commons with the statement that if Finland will appeal to Britain and France, they immediately come to her rescue all they can. These were not empty words. March 12 in London, it was decided to land at Narvik and then in Trondheim. In the evening the same day, at a joint meeting of the Cabinet and the Chiefs of the invasion force commanders received all instructions. Troops headed for loading. But did not have time to sail: on the night of 12 to 13 March in London learned to make peace between the Soviet Union and Finland.
Under this treaty, the Soviet border on the Karelian Isthmus was pushed to 150 km have been produced with some other territorial changes that ensured the safety of the Soviet Union. The parties mutually pledged to refrain from attacking each other, not to enter into alliances and participate in coalitions that are hostile to each other. The signing of the peace treaty between Finland and the USSR dealt a heavy blow to the anti-Soviet plans of the Anglo-French and American politicians. In France, the government crisis broke out, the government of Daladier March 21 resigned and a government was formed Reynaud. U.S. mediator Welles was recalled to the United States. However, the failure of adventure in Finland has not suspended the preparation of attack on the Soviet Union from the south. Political blind at a meeting of the Supreme Military Council of the Allies on March 28 confirmed the decision to bomb the Caucasian oil fields and entering the British and French submarines in the Black Sea for operations against Soviet shipping. "In Syria — says M. Thorez — General Weygand led 150000th army was preparing for an attack on the Caucasus. In a letter dated April 17, 1940 he wrote that he plans to begin the bombing of Baku and the Soviet oil fields in June … French reactionaries wanted to set fire to the oil fields of Baku, but have not released any projectile by rail Basel — Karlsruhe, walking along the opposite bank of the Rhine! "
From the book Yakovlea NN United States and Britain in World War II, 1961
Read also say a few words about the premises of the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940