The first Soviet atomic bomb

August 29, 1949 near the city of Semipalatinsk conducted its first test of Soviet nuclear weapons, which put an end to the U.S. nuclear monopoly. The nuclear shield provided the peaceful development of our country for many years.

After receiving intelligence about the intensive deployment of Americans work on the Manhattan Project, September 28, 1942 there was an order of T-bills number 2352 "On the organization of the uranium."
February 11, 1943 T-Bills decided to organize a number 2 Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the study of atomic energy. Head of Nuclear Research Center in March appointed Igor Kurchatov.
April 9, 1946 the USSR Council of Ministers issued a decree № 806-327 establishing Laboratory at number 2 spetsKB to develop nuclear weapons — KB-11. His head was appointed Zernov, chief designer — Yu.B.Khariton.
In December 1945, began operating VNIINM "named AA Bochvar. Working in extremely tense, and the Laboratory of the Institute were hard to solve the greatest challenge — the creation of materials and technologies for the first Soviet atomic bomb.
Finally, August 29, 1949 was made a successful nuclear test. We can say that this was the first phase of the institute.

 
It became clear that for a short time was set bodied, cohesive, with a huge potential team ready to solve the most difficult tasks at a high scientific level. In this period, produced a particular style of work of the staff of researchers, designers, engineers, production and administration in which there has been a constant and clear communication of all units with a full understanding of the importance and necessity of responding to each task.
Also, do not forget that working in extremely difficult post-war conditions, when a large piece of equipment, instruments, devices, tools, etc. had to invent, create, produce their own hands.
However, it was in 1949.
And before that it was necessary to solve the following problems:
— exploration, production and processing of uranium ores;
— receipt of domestic uranium-238 fuel elements for nuclear reactors;
— reasoning, calculation, construction of the first reactor in the USSR physical;
— creation and operation of the first commercial nuclear reactor — narabotchika plutonium;
— plutonium in an amount sufficient to make yadetnogo charge;
— plutonium, its conversion into a metal mold and manufacture of the actual plutonium charge;
— operating time of polonium-210 for neutron fuses;
— and much, much more …
The outcome of the Soviet atomic project was the creation in August 1949 of a prototype of the first atomic bomb RDS-1 and its successful test. "Homeland making myself!" — is the code name received the first atomic bomb.
***
October 29, 1949, IV Stalin approved the decree USSR number 5070-1944ss/op "On awarding and bonuses for outstanding scientific discoveries and technological advances on the use of nuclear energy." The resolution provided the most outstanding representation of participants in the establishment and creation of the first Soviet atomic bomb for the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, and those who already had the title — to be awarded a second gold medal "Hammer and Sickle", to be awarded the distinguished participants in the work orders of the USSR , awarded the title of the winner of the Stalin Prize, granting them cash bonuses and providing a number of benefits.
Decision began:
"The Council of Ministers of the USSR said that as a result of the joint efforts of a large team of scientists, designers, engineers, executives, builders and workers of Soviet industry successfully completed the task of the Government on the practical solution of problems in the Soviet Union nuclear energy.
Given the exceptional service to the Soviet Motherland in addressing the problem of nuclear energy, and in accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers on March 21, 1946 № 627-258, USSR Council of Ministers decrees:

     
    It became clear that for a short time was set bodied, cohesive, with a huge potential team ready to solve the most difficult tasks at a high scientific level. In this period, produced a particular style of work of the staff of researchers, designers, engineers, production and administration in which there has been a constant and clear communication of all units with a full understanding of the importance and necessity of responding to each task.
    Also, do not forget that working in extremely difficult post-war conditions, when a large piece of equipment, instruments, devices, tools, etc. had to invent, create, produce their own hands.
    However, it was in 1949.
    And before that it was necessary to solve the following problems:
    — exploration, production and processing of uranium ores;
    — receipt of domestic uranium-238 fuel elements for nuclear reactors;
    — reasoning, calculation, construction of the first reactor in the USSR physical;
    — creation and operation of the first commercial nuclear reactor — narabotchika plutonium;
    — plutonium in an amount sufficient to make yadetnogo charge;
    — plutonium, its conversion into a metal mold and manufacture of the actual plutonium charge;
    — operating time of polonium-210 for neutron fuses;
    — and much, much more …
    The outcome of the Soviet atomic project was the creation in August 1949 of a prototype of the first atomic bomb RDS-1 and its successful test. "Homeland making myself!" — is the code name received the first atomic bomb.
    ***
    October 29, 1949, IV Stalin approved the decree USSR number 5070-1944ss/op "On awarding and bonuses for outstanding scientific discoveries and technological advances on the use of nuclear energy." The resolution provided the most outstanding representation of participants in the establishment and creation of the first Soviet atomic bomb for the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, and those who already had the title — to be awarded a second gold medal "Hammer and Sickle", to be awarded the distinguished participants in the work orders of the USSR , awarded the title of the winner of the Stalin Prize, granting them cash bonuses and providing a number of benefits.
    Decision began:
    "The Council of Ministers of the USSR said that as a result of the joint efforts of a large team of scientists, designers, engineers, executives, builders and workers of Soviet industry successfully completed the task of the Government on the practical solution of problems in the Soviet Union nuclear energy.
    Given the exceptional service to the Soviet Motherland in addressing the problem of nuclear energy, and in accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers on March 21, 1946 № 627-258, USSR Council of Ministers decrees:

    Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov, academic, scientific supervisor of the establishment of nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs:
    — Present to the award of the title of Hero of Socialist Labor,
    — Award the sum of 500,000 rubles (in addition to the previously issued by the part (50%) premium in the amount of 500,000 rubles and ZIS-110).
    Assign Acad. IV Kurchatov title Stalin Prize of the first degree.

    To build due to the state and to transfer the ownership of Acad. IV Kurchatov mansion-house and cottage, with the setting.
    Set Acad. IV Kurchatov double pay salaries for the duration of his work in the field of nuclear energy.
    Provide Acad. IV Kurchatov
    — The right (for life for himself and his wife) to free travel by rail, sea and air transport in the USSR. "

    Chariton Yuli Borisovich, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the chief designer of the atomic bomb:
    — Provide for the title of Hero of Socialist Labor,
    — To award a sum of 1,000,000 rubles (first prize, established by the Council of Ministers on March 21, 1946 № 627-258) and ZIS-110.
    Assign a corresponding member. USSR Khariton laureate of the Stalin Prize, first degree.
    Construct the expense of the state and transfer to a corresponding member. USSR Chariton YU.B. mansion-house and cottage, with the setting.
    Set the corresponding member. USSR Khariton YU.B. double pay salaries for the duration of his work in this area.
    Provide a corresponding member. USSR Khariton YU.B.:
    — The right to educate their children in all educational institutions of the USSR by the state,
    — The right (for life for himself, his wife and children to adulthood) to free travel by rail, sea and air transport in the USSR. "
    ***
    Talking about the events of 1949, it should be noted the complexity of the political situation in which during this period was the Soviet Union. After the test, 29 August 1949 from the Soviet Union in a few months there was not a single instance of the atomic bomb, as yet not been achieved for at least the required minimum amount of plutonium ammunition. Production of a set of parts of plutonium for the first atomic bomb ammunition planned for November 1, 1949, for the second bomb — to 28 December 1949 Other parts and assemblies of the atomic bombs were to be made by December 1, 1949 in the United States in 1949 . according to some estimates there are about 200 nuclear bombs. Since this is probably related to the content of messages and TASS September 25, 1949, which was done in conjunction with a statement September 23, 1949 U.S. President H. Truman that, according to the U.S. government in one of the last weeks in the USSR there was a nuclear explosion. In the TASS report was not confirmed by the fact of the USSR atomic bomb test. However, it stated that "the Soviet Union possessed a secret atomic weapons in 1947" and "is in possession of a weapon." "As for the anxiety, distributed about some foreign circles, then there is no reason to alarm. It should be said that The Soviet government, despite having had nuclear weapons, and is going to stand in the future on its old position of unconditional prohibition of the use of atomic weapons. "
    Creating and successful testing of the first Soviet atomic bomb in the difficult conditions of the postwar period in a very short historical period was a triumph of national science, technology and industry, the result of an unprecedented concentration of the state of intellectual effort, material and spiritual resources for the solution of vital importance for the country’s problems. This event was a turning point in world history: monopoly of one country in possession of nuclear weapons has been eliminated, and since that time has begun the process of achieving a strategic balance between the USSR and the U.S., albeit a complicated creation in both countries thermonuclear weapons and accompanied by the nuclear arms race (restrained only in recent years), but contribute to global stability in the world and prevent another world war.
    YB Chariton has put his signature under the following heartfelt words: "I am amazed and admire what has been done by our people in the years 1946-1949. It was not easy or later. But this period of the voltage, the heroism, dedication and creative flight is indescribable … Four years after a deadly battle against fascism, my country has eliminated the U.S. monopoly on the possession of the atomic bomb. 8 years after the war — the first in the world has created and tested a hydrogen bomb, 12 — launched the first satellite of the Earth, and another four years for the first time opened the way to a man into space … You can see that this is the abiding importance of milestones in the history of civilization …
    Creation of nuclear-missile weapons required voltage limit of the human intellect and strength. Perhaps the justification here is that almost fifty years nuclear weapons of its unprecedented, destructive force, the use of which threatens life on Earth, deter world powers from the war, from the irreversible step leading to universal catastrophe.
    Probably the main the paradox of our time lies in the fact that the most sophisticated weapons of mass destruction still contributes to world peace, as a powerful deterrent.
    In August 1999, Russia was celebrated the 50th anniversary of the testing of the RDS-1. It has passed under the banner of 50 years from the date of testing of the first Soviet atomic bomb — 50 years of peace.
    In today’s still quite complicated international situation nuclear weapons continue to fulfill its deterrent role by providing the strategic balance of world powers.
    Achieving the strategic balance of forces would have been impossible without the phenomenal breakthrough, which was carried out by the Soviet Union, when in the difficult post-war period in the present seem incredibly short time, was established domestic nuclear industry and the first atomic bomb, and later of highly nuclear and thermonuclear weapons.
    Use of the information in this work from abroad did not detract from the creative content held in the USSR on new technologies, new laboratory and industrial applications, and design of new physical inventions, new theoretical and computational and experimental methods, the organization of effective functioning of complex scientific and production of nuclear complex.
    Of particular importance in this work was the creation of the first Soviet atomic bomb.
    Known and recently completely unknown pages of history of its creation and the subject of this article by Goncharov and LD Ryabeva "On creation of the first Soviet atomic bomb."
     http://wsyachina.narod.ru/history/rds_1.html # gl16 

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