The history of the prospective tank. Russian Tiger T-95

I have to say — a controversial article in many ways. Not with all of its conclusions, I agree, but … publish because the actual weight of the material here. And the material is completely unknown before. Because — stand up for your court, dear readers SUN. I think many, it will be very interesting.

  • The history of the prospective tank.  "Russian" Tiger "T-95
  • The history of the prospective tank. "Russian" Tiger "T-95

 

The third part of the study of an independent military expert Alexei Hlopotova dedicated to the "Russian" Tiger ", the T-95. Everything connected with this machine is still a big mystery. "Rosinformbyuro" publishes the unknown facts about this secret sample of armored vehicles.

 

"Rosinformbyuro" continuing series of articles in which an independent military expertAlexei Khlopotov, answering the questions of the editor "Rosinformbyuro"Vyacheslav Prunova,
tells the story of the creation of the tank of the future in Russia. The third part is devoted to the "Object-195". Constructors jokingly called it«Abrams-kaput».

All illustrations and captions are provided A. Hlopotovym.

— Alex! In the last conversation we talked about the development work 90s, on the basis of which was created by the "tank limiting parameters" T-95. Then work on the theme "Improving the 88" were, in fact, been completed. UKBTM came to build the first prototype of the "Object 195". What happened next?

— The same, in 2000, there was one, I would say a significant event — the election for the post of President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin. Who would like to it is not treated, but he managed to change the attitude of society to the Army and the military industrial complex. "Defense industry" felt that she needed new homeland. In November 2000, a meeting of the Government, which was finally agreed in principle on the need to create a long-term Russian tank. As part of the same OCD "Improving -88" spent one more correction TTZ. Indeed, since its previous edition’s been 7 years — not quite a small period in which under normal circumstances, it is possible to create a modern tank from scratch. A new stage in the creation of the tank, which in the terminology of St. Petersburg designers-tank builders, can be classified as a "tank limiting parameters." Again, figuratively, in my "195th" — T-95 — it was the embodiment of the concept of a German heavy tank "Tiger" on the technological level of the end of the 20th century. Mighty tank!

 

Tank "to 195" in Kubinka

It looks like the T-95 was created under strict secrecy. There are a couple of bad images, and there is no accurate data.

— Everything related to "Object 195" and the theme "Improving-88" — a great mystery! We have an amateur photos. Something leaked to the media, something we guess. Information, such as mosaic, had to put the pieces. It is now, did not have time to set OCD, and already know all the press. 10-15 years ago it was different. For example, walking is a bike that Defense Minister Marshal I.D.Sergeeva removed from office just for the fact that he "passed" in 2000 during a visit to "Uralvagonzavod" T-95th press. It may be that, and not without reason. After the visit to Sergeyev, this super-tank, no one knew anything at all in the open literature, he never mentioned.

 

Just what is this secret piece of armored vehicles?

The first and most important thing.On the "ninety-five" set a very powerful new 152 mm gun 2A83. The entire crew, as I said, put in bronekapsuly. This is not to say that it is purely Tagilskaya idea. In St Petersburg "299-m site," was the same capsule. And, in my opinion, the accommodation of the crew there was more rational to two crew members — side by side, and one between the two, a little behind. As the helicopter Mi-8. Tagilskaya designers tried to make the size of the minimum and put three people side by side in a row. The car has turned highly protected, but the heavy, weighing about 55 tons. Of course, when compared with Western tanks, of course, is not that so much. But then again, it does not have a habitable tower to be just as well protected. If she had such a tower in the same case, she would have pulled 60 tons. However, that would balance the center of mass and ensure the smooth progress, had to lengthen the body and the chassis, respectively, to 7 rinks.

But these 55 tons played a cruel joke. According to the ideas of our military, the tank must be aviatransportabelnym. And for most of our aircraft military transport aircraft of 55 tons is the limit. Later, it backfired and became another tick against "heavy" machine.

The second.T-95 was supposed to see the target at maximum range when the opponent can not get hold of you and is guaranteed to kill with the first shot. To detect and target used a range of different funds. This is different optics, television, radiolakatsionnaya, thermal imaging devices. It was envisaged external target designation from drones, reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, from the headquarters of various levels. Full situational awareness of the crew.

The experimental setup 152-mm gun 2A83 on a gun carriage howitzer B-4. Polygon NTIMT

— Yes, and a new 152 mm gun gave a huge advantage. This is the ship’s caliber! And it needed more shots. It turns out that the shells were larger, and ammunition — less?

— Well, depending on which ship … there, too, is a 120-130mm and 100mm guns and less, but that’s six inches — 152mm, this is quite a cruising caliber! Speaking of ammunition, creating the T-95, and in consequence, the modernization of the T-90 C, our designers were guided by a simple logic. The decrease is compensated ammunition new features MSA. A new set of weapons can hit a target less shells. If earlier, at the guaranteed destruction of a single target, took three shots, there was only one.

 

— 152-mm gun, which one shot the enemy tank turns into a pile of metal, often redundant weapons on the battlefield. Was it to "ninety-five" additional weapons?

— Yes. This is a 30-millimeter cannon 2A42, both BMP-2 or BMPT. It was mounted in a combat unit with the main gun. This automatic gun had its drive and vertically and partially horizontally. She could not turn 180 degrees, but in a particular sector can work independently. 30 mm rapid-firing gun — an alternative to the excessive expense of basic ammunition. The purposes for which it is not necessary to spend an expensive heavy shot, you can hit with that gun.

 

The experimental setup 152-mm gun 2A83 on a gun carriage howitzer B-4. Polygon NTIMT

— The photos of T-95 is indeed reminiscent of the German "Tiger". Angular, square tower. And the tank, do not squat, and some unusually high.

— Yes, high. But this has its plyus.Ugol pumping gun — main weapon in the vertical plane at such a height was more than the T-72, T-90. And this is very important because in some fighting, especially in rough terrain, the mountains, or as an extreme case — in the cities, require large angles of elevation and decline. The more, the better. In addition, the "195th" was to shoot over the horizon at invisible targets on a "fire and forget". In particular, manageable and correctable shells with external target designation. At the T-95 was supposed to be a wide range of ammunition. Not only armor-piercing "crowbar", but also, say, cluster bombs. Blank range he had something in the region of 5 km. On the "Abrams" is no more than 3 km.

— Well, the T-95 and was called "Abrams kaput." With firepower — it is clear, but as things were protected? He really was invulnerable?

— The defense was very strong, but at the same time differintsirovannoy. Provided several of its levels. First — these are different types of camouflage coating, anti-radiation capes, deforming different coloring — all the things that gives the enemy you ahead of time to find or identify. Next, the level where the active protection acts. For the "195 th" developed CAP "Standart". It is a hybrid of the "Arena" and "Blackbird." At the same time running a complex of active opto-electronic warfare "Blind-2." The next level — a set of dynamic protection. Who became known complex modularity DZ "Relic" with elements of 4C23 in Tumen. This element has been kept secret for a long time. Why? Because it was designed specifically for the complex RS "195 th." And now the "Relic" in the export version, comes with old elements 4C22. Well, then, actually armor: special alloys, ceramics and composites. But that’s not all … Then we, or rather the crew of "195 th" is protected in the form of capsules mentioned more than once, which is kind of like the armor is made of titanium. Titanium is used in many elements of the design. It also facilitates machine. And then another set of protective clothing such as well-known now "Cowboy." In this tank, it worked out that would be possible to save, save the crew.

 

The experimental setup 152-mm gun 2A83 on the T-72 chassis. Polygon Doguzov.

— How are protected side and top view?

— Then I just can not say anything. It’s not a monolithic armor, as in armadillo shell. There interrelated complex of booking. Assemblies, mechanisms, engine, fuel also provide protection. Constructive, where one, more important, to protect others — equally important and critical. One defends the other. On top of the "krysheboev" was to protect the KAZ. The sides were covered with screens and grilles DZ, as it shows us BMPT and T-90ms, on board the hull and structural protection. I think that the grenade RPG-29, T-95 in the board would not take it. And then there are fast-PPO and PAZ. Again, in the "195th" in the foreground was the protection of the crew. The crew is completely isolated, that is, from any of the modern anti-tank weapons to "get" the crew is almost impossible.

— The crew capsule, to "get" it can not be. What was protected Marked artillery mount? After enough damage to the gun and the tank turns into a big tractor unarmed.

— Well, here we need to determine what should be given priority. Maximizing survival machine as a whole or its crew. In the first case, the layout should be different from all the … I will not lie, do not know exactly, but, in my opinion, there is no dynamic protection to combat module no. According to TTP, if I’m not mistaken, it was supposed to protect imposed arms only 25-30 mm shells. There’s still another problem — the gun damage — you need to try another. Much easier to damage the fragile sighting optics. A hefty sights there — the external glass about 30 by 40 centimeters. Mortar attack or large-caliber sniper rifle and all — no sights. There is only a reservation channels and duplication. And of course to fend for himself an enemy to the distance of the shot.

— T-95 was noticeably heavier than its predecessors. So he needed a new engine. What is known about its propulsion system?

— In the beginning of the conversation I knowingly paid much attention to the engine. On the T-95 was the Chelyabinsk X-engine 2V12-3 (A-85-3) with a capacity of fifteen thousand horsepower. Fifteen hundred "horses" were spelled out in the TTZ, and gazoturbinschiki, with its GTE 1500 close on the heels. But, as I have said more than once, the turbine is good for the distant future, when the weight of the tank reaches 100 tons or more. In this case, can not do without the hybrid power plant and electric transmission and energy needed to produce a powerful turbine 2500 — 3000 hp — And maybe more. And with such power, it is in all respects surpass diesel. And in the dimensions will win. GTD is very promising direction, it should not be cast, to conduct research in this area, creating backlogs, but now use CCD for tanks — are not appropriate.

— How many were made copies of the T-95?

— There have been three instances: first — an experienced factory copy and two copies, they are called number 1, № 2 for the state tests. State test passed.

 

— And what was the conclusion of the State Commission? What did the military?

— The conclusion was positive, however, with a long list of comments that needed to be addressed. Tank builders have done all that depended on them: body, chassis, MTO, the engine management system, IMS. In general, "wagon" was ready. There were questions on the automatic loader, but most importantly — on the sighting system. In the 1990s, with the domestic electronics it was very bad. Krasnogorsk plant "Zenith" was not able to bring the sights to the desired level. In addition, the car had to closely interact with the environment, with the satellites, with drones. But these systems have now truly not!

— Lagging electronics pulled back far ahead taking a fast tank builders?

— That’s right. But the "Object 195" could run with these flaws, and then upgrade. Put other sights, the other systems. What is now doing with the T-90. Only at "195 th" platform was promising. The new "cart" gave the gap between opponents and competitors. In general, the life cycle of the tank now greatly lengthened. In the 1930s, he was a couple of years. During the war, he was reduced to a series of attacks, and now the tanks are long-lived. And according to the requirements of a promising car, it will have to serve at least 30 years of age. Therefore, the new car should be fed a lot of potential for future upgrades.

Diesel engines manufactured by CTZ military and civilian leadership in the show Russia 08.12.2009 g / GDVTS NTIMT

— And then, like a bolt from the blue, a message stating that the finished T-95 will not be accepted for service. What is it — someone’s malice or a tragic mistake?

— And the intent and error. After state tests in the higher echelons of the government, the Ministry of Defense, and KB, began "rat race". Because we now live in a capitalist society, the state’s interests on the backburner. Moved forward personal interests and the interests of corporations. KB creates a new tank, as an intellectual product. Yes, they get some deductions on the amount of the released products, but this is not important, mainly CB lives through the development, design, experimental works. And why there was such a dilemma or "we" finalizing "195th", adapt it to the new element base, put the other electronics, optics, thermal …

— Or? ..

— Or "we" on this machine put a cross, and insist that it is necessary to open the developmental work on the creation of a new machine. This option was adopted. April 7, 2010 — that "black" date. On this day, Mr. Popovkin, being then deputy defense minister and chief of armaments announced the termination of funding for the development of the T-95 and close the
project. According to him, the project car "obsolete." Thus, we are back on the path that was laid friend Morozov — KMDB chief designer, the way in which he followed all his life, and that set off the Soviet tank in a dead end. Without bringing one car, we want a "new". Not bringing this "new", we still want to "supernova" do. For this option KB maximum benefit. If the state certainly has the money and is willing to pay for these eternal development work.

 

The experimental setup 152-mm gun 2A83 on a gun carriage howitzer B-4. Polygon NTIMT

— Yes, and a new 152 mm gun gave a huge advantage. This is the ship’s caliber! And it needed more shots. It turns out that the shells were larger, and ammunition — less?

— Well, depending on which ship … there, too, is a 120-130mm and 100mm guns and less, but that’s six inches — 152mm, this is quite a cruising caliber! Speaking of ammunition, creating the T-95, and in consequence, the modernization of the T-90 C, our designers were guided by a simple logic. The decrease is compensated ammunition new features MSA. A new set of weapons can hit a target less shells. If earlier, at the guaranteed destruction of a single target, took three shots, there was only one.

 

— 152-mm gun, which one shot the enemy tank turns into a pile of metal, often redundant weapons on the battlefield. Was it to "ninety-five" additional weapons?

— Yes. This is a 30-millimeter cannon 2A42, both BMP-2 or BMPT. It was mounted in a combat unit with the main gun. This automatic gun had its drive and vertically and partially horizontally. She could not turn 180 degrees, but in a particular sector can work independently. 30 mm rapid-firing gun — an alternative to the excessive expense of basic ammunition. The purposes for which it is not necessary to spend an expensive heavy shot, you can hit with that gun.

 

The experimental setup 152-mm gun 2A83 on a gun carriage howitzer B-4. Polygon NTIMT

— The photos of T-95 is indeed reminiscent of the German "Tiger". Angular, square tower. And the tank, do not squat, and some unusually high.

— Yes, high. But this has its plyus.Ugol pumping gun — main weapon in the vertical plane at such a height was more than the T-72, T-90. And this is very important because in some fighting, especially in rough terrain, the mountains, or as an extreme case — in the cities, require large angles of elevation and decline. The more, the better. In addition, the "195th" was to shoot over the horizon at invisible targets on a "fire and forget". In particular, manageable and correctable shells with external target designation. At the T-95 was supposed to be a wide range of ammunition. Not only armor-piercing "crowbar", but also, say, cluster bombs. Blank range he had something in the region of 5 km. On the "Abrams" is no more than 3 km.

— Well, the T-95 and was called "Abrams kaput." With firepower — it is clear, but as things were protected? He really was invulnerable?

— The defense was very strong, but at the same time differintsirovannoy. Provided several of its levels. First — these are different types of camouflage coating, anti-radiation capes, deforming different coloring — all the things that gives the enemy you ahead of time to find or identify. Next, the level where the active protection acts. For the "195 th" developed CAP "Standart". It is a hybrid of the "Arena" and "Blackbird." At the same time running a complex of active opto-electronic warfare "Blind-2." The next level — a set of dynamic protection. Who became known complex modularity DZ "Relic" with elements of 4C23 in Tumen. This element has been kept secret for a long time. Why? Because it was designed specifically for the complex RS "195 th." And now the "Relic" in the export version, comes with old elements 4C22. Well, then, actually armor: special alloys, ceramics and composites. But that’s not all … Then we, or rather the crew of "195 th" is protected in the form of capsules mentioned more than once, which is kind of like the armor is made of titanium. Titanium is used in many elements of the design. It also facilitates machine. And then another set of protective clothing such as well-known now "Cowboy." In this tank, it worked out that would be possible to save, save the crew.

 

The experimental setup 152-mm gun 2A83 on the T-72 chassis. Polygon Doguzov.

— How are protected side and top view?

— Then I just can not say anything. It’s not a monolithic armor, as in armadillo shell. There interrelated complex of booking. Assemblies, mechanisms, engine, fuel also provide protection. Constructive, where one, more important, to protect others — equally important and critical. One defends the other. On top of the "krysheboev" was to protect the KAZ. The sides were covered with screens and grilles DZ, as it shows us BMPT and T-90ms, on board the hull and structural protection. I think that the grenade RPG-29, T-95 in the board would not take it. And then there are fast-PPO and PAZ. Again, in the "195th" in the foreground was the protection of the crew. The crew is completely isolated, that is, from any of the modern anti-tank weapons to "get" the crew is almost impossible.

— The crew capsule, to "get" it can not be. What was protected Marked artillery mount? After enough damage to the gun and the tank turns into a big tractor unarmed.

— Well, here we need to determine what should be given priority. Maximizing survival machine as a whole or its crew. In the first case, the layout should be different from all the … I will not lie, do not know exactly, but, in my opinion, there is no dynamic protection to combat module no. According to TTP, if I’m not mistaken, it was supposed to protect imposed arms only 25-30 mm shells. There’s still another problem — the gun damage — you need to try another. Much easier to damage the fragile sighting optics. A hefty sights there — the external glass about 30 by 40 centimeters. Mortar attack or large-caliber sniper rifle and all — no sights. There is only a reservation channels and duplication. And of course to fend for himself an enemy to the distance of the shot.

— T-95 was noticeably heavier than its predecessors. So he needed a new engine. What is known about its propulsion system?

— In the beginning of the conversation I knowingly paid much attention to the engine. On the T-95 was the Chelyabinsk X-engine 2V12-3 (A-85-3) with a capacity of fifteen thousand horsepower. Fifteen hundred "horses" were spelled out in the TTZ, and gazoturbinschiki, with its GTE 1500 close on the heels. But, as I have said more than once, the turbine is good for the distant future, when the weight of the tank reaches 100 tons or more. In this case, can not do without the hybrid power plant and electric transmission and energy needed to produce a powerful turbine 2500 — 3000 hp — And maybe more. And with such power, it is in all respects surpass diesel. And in the dimensions will win. GTD is very promising direction, it should not be cast, to conduct research in this area, creating backlogs, but now use CCD for tanks — are not appropriate.

— How many were made copies of the T-95?

— There have been three instances: first — an experienced factory copy and two copies, they are called number 1, № 2 for the state tests. State test passed.

 

— And what was the conclusion of the State Commission? What did the military?

— The conclusion was positive, however, with a long list of comments that needed to be addressed. Tank builders have done all that depended on them: body, chassis, MTO, the engine management system, IMS. In general, "wagon" was ready. There were questions on the automatic loader, but most importantly — on the sighting system. In the 1990s, with the domestic electronics it was very bad. Krasnogorsk plant "Zenith" was not able to bring the sights to the desired level. In addition, the car had to closely interact with the environment, with the satellites, with drones. But these systems have now truly not!

— Lagging electronics pulled back far ahead taking a fast tank builders?

— That’s right. But the "Object 195" could run with these flaws, and then upgrade. Put other sights, the other systems. What is now doing with the T-90. Only at "195 th" platform was promising. The new "cart" gave the gap between opponents and competitors. In general, the life cycle of the tank now greatly lengthened. In the 1930s, he was a couple of years. During the war, he was reduced to a series of attacks, and now the tanks are long-lived. And according to the requirements of a promising car, it will have to serve at least 30 years of age. Therefore, the new car should be fed a lot of potential for future upgrades.

Diesel engines manufactured by CTZ military and civilian leadership in the show Russia 08.12.2009 g / GDVTS NTIMT

— And then, like a bolt from the blue, a message stating that the finished T-95 will not be accepted for service. What is it — someone’s malice or a tragic mistake?

— And the intent and error. After state tests in the higher echelons of the government, the Ministry of Defense, and KB, began "rat race". Because we now live in a capitalist society, the state’s interests on the backburner. Moved forward personal interests and the interests of corporations. KB creates a new tank, as an intellectual product. Yes, they get some deductions on the amount of the released products, but this is not important, mainly CB lives through the development, design, experimental works. And why there was such a dilemma or "we" finalizing "195th", adapt it to the new element base, put the other electronics, optics, thermal …

— Or? ..

— Or "we" on this machine put a cross, and insist that it is necessary to open the developmental work on the creation of a new machine. This option was adopted. April 7, 2010 — that "black" date. On this day, Mr. Popovkin, being then deputy defense minister and chief of armaments announced the termination of funding for the development of the T-95 and close the
project. According to him, the project car "obsolete." Thus, we are back on the path that was laid friend Morozov — KMDB chief designer, the way in which he followed all his life, and that set off the Soviet tank in a dead end. Without bringing one car, we want a "new". Not bringing this "new", we still want to "supernova" do. For this option KB maximum benefit. If the state certainly has the money and is willing to pay for these eternal development work.

 

 Tank "to 195" in Kubinka

— And on this path of evolution, which has been strong "Uralvagonzavod" interrupted?

— As a matter of fact, yes. We are now seeing solid mercantilism: the modernization of awards and prizes do not give (and therefore "195th" is out of date …). It is necessary, accordingly, something new, very new (because UKBTM almost never responded and did not respond to the criticism Popovkina — money is still willing, why bite "giving a hand"? …). And inside the CB situation is that the chief designer, was going to retire. "A holy place is never empty" and, accordingly, there were zealous contenders. Who really want to get "their" "own" the car. Chief arrives at Kubinka — called for the continuation of the "195 th", bring it to the series. Trail rides his deputy — and says the exact opposite. In Kubinka no one can understand anything … And then there was a change in the Corporation’s management team — as long as the new General did not understand what was happening, until it came into the swing of things — people had obstryapat their "affairs". Finally got OCD cipher "Armata". Which naturally relies on the developments on the "195th", but is presented as something revolutionary and "truly a breakthrough", but de facto, in essence, is deevolyutsiey or even degradation.

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