The man who opened the era of new imperialism

From the book Eugene Belogorskogo Other portraits of American Eagle

Theodore Roosevelt

When President McKinley scored his second victory in the presidential election in 1900, he laughed heartily over newspaper stories newspaper hacks, make fun of a respectable audience legends of Indian shaman whose curse condemned to death for each of the U.S. presidents are selected in even-numbered years with zero . For a man recently won a brilliant victory over Spain, and threw open the door with a weapon in the American capital the immense Chinese market, such idle speculation was ridiculous. Ahead of him was a lot of interesting things, and pay attention to the empty newspaper speculation on his part was just stupid.

All the plans of the newly elected president were to say a word to him on the second inauguration of March 4, 1901: "Our establishment does not get worse, if we extend them under the tropical sun in the distant seas. As in the past, and in the future, our country will be ready to take under his control any new ownership, which turned in the same position by circumstances, and by God's will need to use in order to further expand the boundaries of freedom. "

However, those plans went awry. Six months after taking office, the President visited the Pan American Exhibition in Buffalo. This visit was to symbolize the attention of the White House to the development of international trade and economic ties. On the second day, September 6, at the President McKinley was assassinated. Shot Italian anarchist Leon Cholgosh, standing among a crowd of people who wanted to shake hands with the president. Badly wounded two revolver bullets, McKinley lived for eight days and died on September 14, 1901, adding to the list of victims of mourning Indian curse.

People in the know however, said that the president has died from violating basic aseptic technique during the primary surgical treatment of his injuries. During this procedure, the wound was not timely removed fragments shirt and vest the president got there with a bullet, which became the main cause of sepsis, which killed McKinley.

Fasting and dealing deceased president, succeeded by 43-year-old vice-president Theodore Roosevelt, before the former governor of New York. Taking possession of the Oval Office, he stated that he fully continue the course of his predecessor, highlighting the failure of McKinley adhere to the foreign policy course of isolationism.

In victory over Spain and a total control over the Caribbean Sea, Roosevelt saw his main task in the spread of American influence in Latin American countries, adjacent to the Pacific. This, according to the president, was to promote the idea of an inter-oceanic canal in Central America.

"We can not stay within our borders, and openly acknowledge himself a prosperous merchants who are not interested in what is happening in the world of events. In the struggle for naval and commercial supremacy, we must strengthen our power outside of our borders. We need to build inter-oceanic canal, and to secure the benefits that will give us the opportunity to have their say in determining the fate of the oceans of the East and the West. "

So said the American president, determining in what place, it should pave the inter-oceanic canal through the countries of Nicaragua and Colombia. The choice was made in favor of the latter, which was recorded intergovernmental treaty, concluded in 1903. According to him, America was granted a perpetual lease 6-mile strip the Isthmus of Panama.

Roosevelt loudly celebrating his success, but after six months, the Senate refused to ratify the Colombia bonded agreement for the country, citing the fact that the French company that is interested in the construction of the sea channel, offered more favorable terms.

The decision of the Colombian Senate has caused great anger of the American president, who said he would not allow a gang of bandits rob his country. Reciprocate Washington was quick and unceremonious. Throwing away with white gloves, in order to achieve its goal, Roosevelt showed the strongest who's boss.

Less than a week later, on the Isthmus of Panama was raised a revolt of local growers who have declared their secession from Colombia. Wanting to restore the integrity of the state, Colombian President sent troops to crush the uprising that has met strong opposition on the part of Roosevelt. In his personal instructions to the banks of the Panama Isthmus was sent cruiser "Neshvin" that the power of their guns prevented the promotion of the Colombian army to rebel territory.

The new state called Panama has been recognized by Washington in an hour after President Roosevelt learned of the completion of its formation. Following this, the Americans gave Panamanians large quantity of weapons, including machine guns, as well as financial assistance in the form of various loans. In return for their help in protecting against Colombia, the United States acquired the right to lease the eternal 16-kilometer isthmus between the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean for the construction of the canal, with a one-time payment of $ 10 million and the annual rent in the amount of 250,000 dollars. Construction of the canal was begun in 1906 and completed eight years later, turning the U.S. into force, the dominant firm in the Western Hemisphere.

As soon as the Isthmus of Panama was placed under the control of Washington, Roosevelt immediately declared that any American intervention in the internal affairs of Latin American countries will be considered justified and legitimate, if these states will be unable to cope with its internal problems that can cause the intervention of the European states in the internal affairs of the Americas.

Summing up the Panamanian epic Roosevelt in his message to Congress, said: — Any country whose people behave well, can count on our wholehearted friendship. If a nation shows that it knows how to act with reasonable skill in social and political matters, if it complies with the order and comply with its obligations, it need not fear intervention by the United States.

European diplomats immediately responded tartly to America's actions, saying that the "Monroe Doctrine" enriched "Roosevelt's amendment," but the bigger, the old Europe to counter the pressure of the U.S. president could not.

No less than the state of affairs in his back yard, so Americans called Latin America, President Roosevelt's troubled situation in China — the main goal of U.S. imperialism in Asia. Arriving late to the initial section of this huge pie Asian major European powers, Britain and France, a young and aggressive American capital got into a fight, like an inveterate boxer giving insidious hooks, right and left.

The first two victims of the U.S. attacks, was the Russian Empire, led by this time was a young king, whose foreign policy is not determined by the country's national interests and the interests of his inner circle.

Getting involved after the great powers to divide China, and taking the most effective part in the suppression of the rebellion, "boxer", Russian ruler naively believed that Britain and France will appreciate his hard work, but miscalculated. Start laying the CER, was seen by Europeans as a hidden attempt at annexation of Manchuria, which is very worried European powers, and they are themselves already spread its influence in Tibet and southern China, adjacent to Vietnam.

To loosen Russia needed a vigorous opponent of the army which was to make the Europeans for this dirty job. For this role ideally suited Japan, possessing well-armed army and navy, as well as the vital interests which had its on the Asian continent. Armed and equipped with the European model, the Japanese army in 1897, routed the army of the Chinese empress Cixi, Korea announced its zone of influence and received from Beijing possession of the island of Taiwan. As an added bonus the military, the Japanese Kwantung Peninsula itself demanded a naval base at Port Arthur, but under strong pressure from the Europeans, the Mikado was forced to cut his appetite had grown.

Soon Port Arthur was transferred to Russia in a long-term lease with an option to extend it and allowed the construction of the southern branch of CEL, sparking smoldering discontent Japanese, but no more. According to the secret agreements between Japan and Russia concluded the Emperor Alexander III and the Mikado, Manchuria, Japan recognized the zone of influence of Russia in exchange for recognition of the rights to the Japanese Korea.

Since the end of the Spanish-American War, China has become a be a lot of interest for the U.S. capital as a potential market for American goods. So President Roosevelt has always stood for the unity of this country, because the separation of the Chinese part of its territory is automatically reduced the U.S. market.

In its desire to increase its influence in Manchuria and the Yellow Sea, Russia is very well suited for the role of whipping boy. Its Far Eastern territories were extremely underdeveloped in economic terms and in cases of armed conflict, transfer large numbers of troops and ships from Europe to Asia, would be for the Russian side is very difficult.

After weighing the pros and cons, Roosevelt decided to follow England to bet on Japan, the land of the rising sun giving large cash loans, which were immediately made a complete re-Japanese Army.

On the main shipyards in Britain and America began a massive construction of battleships and armored cruisers, which were the main power of the Mikado's fleet. Wanting to weaken Russia new bloodletting, England even entered into a secret alliance with Japan against Russia, and, in the event of an unfavorable outcome of the war, has committed itself to support its Asian ally.

The joint efforts of the two countries, at the beginning of 1904, Japan was ready for a war against Russia, creating a powerful armored fleet that are smaller than the inferior fleets of the European powers. It remained only to find a reason for the conflict, and he has kindly provided the Japanese Nicholas II, by permitting Bezobrazova a forest concession on Korean territory at the Yalu River. The emergence of Russian loggers on Korean soil was regarded by the Japanese as a denunciation of the earlier reached agreements with Russia and now their hands are tied nothing.

Instigated by London and Washington, in January 1904, the Japanese attacked without a declaration of war on the Russian ship anchored at Port Arthur, and thus starting a war against Russia. Constantly ahead of his opponents in one step, the first Japanese have achieved superiority at sea, and then started landing on land.

The war has fully confirmed the initial forecasts of Americans regarding unavailability of Russia for a major war in the Far East. But as events unfold it became clear that the burden of military spending is too heavy for Japan and with each month of military operations it is more and more weighed on the economy of the country, threatening to bring down her completely. Alone raids Vladivostok squadron of cruisers on maritime trade routes Japanese inflicted upon them an economic loss which exceeded the damage of any lost battle in Manchuria.

Because of the betrayal of General Stoessel fall of Port Arthur, and incompetently led Kuropatkin Russian army was forced to retreat to the Mukden. At the Battle of Tsushima, died or surrendered almost all ships of the squadron Rozhdestvensky.

Due to the complete lack of regular troops on Sakhalin, the Japanese captured the island completely, and even landed troops in Kamchatka. But it was the recent successes of the army of the divine Mikado. The country's economy has been so severely damaged by the war that Japan urgently needed peace with Russia. The position of the Russian, was completely opposite to the position of Tokyo. "We have just begun to fight," — commented Witte situation, in response to the invitation of Western diplomats to engage in peace talks.

This position does not suit Russia Roosevelt, America needed as quickly as possible to kick Russian Chinese market and at the same time keep Japan as a battle-ready state, as a good fist against the Russian in the future. Using all kinds of leverage, as well as the extreme unpopularity of the war in Russia, Roosevelt literally imposed Nicholas II, his service in the peace talks, bringing the two warring sides in the U.S. territory in Portsmouth.

In the EU negotiations Roosevelt played only a shadow role, constantly putting pressure on the then Japanese, then Witte, trying to bring both sides to the correct denominator for the Americans.

On the one hand, the president strongly curtailed the appetites of the rising sun, which requires Russia as a defeated party, payment of indemnities, rightly pointing to the Japanese ambassador to the disastrous state of the economy. On the other hand, he constantly reminded the Russian that a bad peace, better than a good quarrel.

The head of Russian delegation Witte was firmly refusal indemnity payments and demanded the full return of Sakhalin, Russia. Under the threat of the resumption of hostilities, the Japanese delegation agreed with the requirements of Witte. The assignment of the southern part of the island has been carried out on the personal order of the king, who said, — "Let taken, the country is not poorer." As a result, in September 1905, the southern part of the island of Japan moved, together with the right to lease from China Kwantung Peninsula, including Port Arthur and Far. All Japanese troops stationed in Manchuria, were subject to immediate withdrawal, just as the troops stationed in Korea.

When the conditions have been declared a peace treaty in Tokyo Riots started because the world without indemnities and ban Russian navy to keep in its Far Eastern coast, was perceived by the Japanese as a clear defeat.

Wanting to appease its Asian ally, Roosevelt in a secret agreement with Japan, Tokyo recognized the right to include Korea in its sphere of vital interests, as well as recognized the annexation of Taiwan to Japan. In exchange, the United States received a similar assurance from Tokyo on the Rights of Washington in the Philippines and Hawaii, while maintaining the integrity of China, who continued a policy of "open doors".

Unfortunately, Washington failed to completely displace Russian from China. Harbin, northern Manchuria, was still an outpost of their presence in this vital region for America.

Wishing to strengthen the position of his country in the Pacific, the president announced the construction of a powerful navy, which the press dubbed the "Great White Fleet". Its construction was successfully completed in 1907 and immediately upon its completion, the naval squadron was sent to travel around the world to demonstrate the world's leading powers on the fact that the U.S. withdrawal equal to them, and perhaps even a dominant position in the military-strategic terms .

So the president of the strongest sidelined isolationists and America began to approval in the geopolitical space. A direct consequence of this course was convergence between America and England and France on many areas of international politics, which later on led Washington to take part in European affairs.

Completing his second term in office, President Roosevelt was full of energy and was not averse to run for a third term, but the implementation of these plans let this promise in 1904 is no longer running for president. Most of the Republican party members, also did not support Roosevelt's intention to run for a third term and, gritting his heart, Teddy was forced to give way to the party leader of the Minister of War William Taft, who was elected the next president of the country.

Offended by his fellow party members, Roosevelt waited patiently for the pass four years of Taft to June 1912, again a candidate for the presidency. Roosevelt explained his decision by the fact that Taft failed to comply with the data in his time commitments and allowed the Democrats to establish complete political control in Congress.

Roosevelt's decision to completely split the Republican Party, whose leadership has announced his intention to nominate Taft in the presidential election of 1912. Not having received understanding and support, Roosevelt decides to create his own party, the Progressive Party, whose candidate he was registered, and a half months. Between the two political leaders of fierce struggle, which ended in victory for Roosevelt voted for 4 million people, while Taft received 3.4 million votes. However, all of them beat Democrat Woodrow Wilson, who voted for the more than 6 million people, which became the new master of the White House.

Defeated, Roosevelt did not leave the political scene and continued to participate actively in the life of the country, in preparation for the next elections in 1916. All the while he was negotiating with Republicans on their return to their ranks, but the party leadership could not forgive him for "betrayal of 1912." Not wanting to exacerbate the split, Roosevelt did not stand for re-nomination from the Progressives, and announced that the elections would support the Republican candidate Hughes as he considered his main task, defeating Democrat Wilson. This, however, did not prevent the Woodrow to be elected to a second term with a certain margin in the popular vote.

Roosevelt's conciliatory attitude was appreciated by the rank and file Republicans, and the election in 1920, he would be a prime candidate of that party. However, the sudden death in 1919 cut short his desire to be elected to a third term.

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