I want to demonstrate to the public uvazhemaemoy little stuff about perspective KAMAZ machines at my humble authorship. Has already been written about them a lot, but here you will find and something new.
A significant part of the fleet of the Armed Forces of Russia are machinery KAMAZ. In the army, there are over 50,000 units. On the chassis of the domestic auto giant is mounted more than 350 models of weapons and military equipment. Today JSC "KAMAZ" offers a number of brand new troops machines are distinguished by higher performance characteristics.
KAMAZ military career began in Afghanistan, where the share of these machines has dropped most of the freight. Available at the time trucks "Ural-375," ZIL-131 and GAZ-66 were equipped with gasoline engines, which were distinguished not only by the high fuel consumption, but also the unstable operation of the highlands. In 1976 in Naberezhnye Chelny began to come off the assembly line trucks KAMAZ-5320 (6×4), and almost immediately decided to send them to the conflict zone.
One of the drawbacks of this car, like all the others, standing in service, has to overcome a small mountain and other areas of complex power. The developers have solved this problem by creating in 1981 the all-wheel drive model KAMAZ-4310 (6×6) carrying capacity of six tons.
But remained unsolved main task — to protect the driver and passengers. During the years of the Afghan campaign, our forces lost 11,369 vehicles of all types. How many have died at the same personnel, is not known. During this period, armored first started watching the domestic industry. Developed special screens were installed outside the vehicle mass. These measures, though allowed to increase security, but the experience of the first and second Chechen campaigns were insufficient.
Armor for personnel
Kama first machine on the outside of the experimental armored became KAMAZ-5350. (Later created a hidden armor, that cabin looked like quite a vulgaris)
The project began after the Government Decree № 721-161 of June 24, 1987. The family received the designation of "Mustang". This KAMAZ-4350, KAMAZ-5350 and KAMAZ-6350 4×4, 6×6 and 8×8 respectively.
Prototypes created in the early 90’s, and a pilot batch released in 1995. Cars have 10-speed gearbox, upgraded clutch, reinforced transfer case, drive shafts and more. Modified the chassis for installation of the mounting fitting for use of replaceable body of container. Patency has significantly increased through the use of cross-axle locking differential and new wide-tires.
The family of "Mustang" was the first in which the on-demand cab installed with hidden booking with the level of armor protection class of 3 or 5a. In addition, in 2005, began production of armored KAMAZ-5350 with an additional protection and secure multi-purpose module MM-501. The vehicle is intended to transport personnel with protection from weapons of the 5th class. It is also equipped with an additional protection (CDHS), which passed sea trials in the 21st Research Institute and passed the test for bulletproof durability of high-explosive impact in the 38th NIII Defense Ministry. CDHS — a reliable shield against bullets FSC and the PC with the NCP of 7.62 millimeters. Besides features protection batteries, fuel tanks, components and assemblies of the engine from the impact of high explosive and shrapnel grenades F-1 type, including the undermining of ground underneath the machine.In January 1999, these KAMAZ, GABTU received the approval of the Defense Ministry, were declared priority type vehicles for the departments of Defense and the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations and recommended by the interdepartmental commission for mass production. Order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation № 340 of August 28, 2002, the models took to the supply of the Armed Forces. In 2003, the car received a new engine, "Euro-2" and in the same year, the army received the first batch of seven sets of machines.
Also on an aggregate basis of KAMAZ-4350, a special armor for the 6th class of KAMAZ-43269 "The Shot"
designed to carry ten soldiers. This is a secure vehicle mass in the Russian army was not supplied, but enjoys consistently high demand among the FSIN as a replacement for the BTR-80.
The next step in the development of military KAMAZ has been the emergence of increased weight of the family car. These versatile chassis designed for mounting weapons, military and special equipment (AMSE) weighing 15 to 24 tons, as well as trailer towing artillery systems, special and transport trailers and semi-trailers weighing up to 85 tons on the roads paved and unpaved, individual terrain . These machines, developers have assigned an informal designation of "Tornado".
- Member of the family "Tornado"
Conducted OCD show the possibility of using "Tornado" to replace outdated vehicles bases for mounting a newly developed and modernized AMSE.
The armed conflict in August 2008 became the starting point for covert operations to find the technical aspect and the development of a fundamentally different approach to the creation of military vehicles (BAT) of the new generation.
The concept of BAT in 2020, provides for reduction of the range of army vehicles, improving the security and the creation of special equipment on the basis of commercial vehicles rear.
Also identifies the main areas of creating a promising military equipment. The new models should dramatically improve mobility, thus providing a higher maximum and average speed when driving on all types of roads and terrain. Should be one and a half to two times increase reliability through the introduction of embedded diagnostics and prevention of the limiting condition. Other rules are set for survivability — it must grow twice. Plan to achieve this by increasing the secrecy and security. Apart from the technical and operational requirements are increasing: the future technology will reduce the time to prepare for the application, and reduce maintenance costs.
If you go to the specific numbers, the requirements for a new generation of machines are as follows: mobility should be provided a maximum speed of 100-105 kilometers per hour, the average speed on dirt roads — 40-45 miles per hour range — 1000-1200 kilometers. High throughput realized by an adjustable ride height 400-550 mm, overhang angles of 40-45 degrees, the tire with a pattern of high permeability and pressure control system.
Securing the future of military vehicle armor combination is achieved with a level of protection against small arms fire on the fourth — sixth grade, mine-resistant second — fourth grade, and boestoykimi wheels.
For more safety requires an availability of anti-lock braking (ABS) and traction control (BSS) systems.
Description BAT new generation of machines to be submitted to support military operations (protected), cars and chassis solutions to logistical problems, as well as special chassis for installation and maintenance of combat use of weapons.
March 15, 2013 at the plant site in Naberezhnye Chelny was presented to the entire range of KAMAZ vehicles entering the armed forces. The greatest attention is attracted first-born of a new generation of Russian special car — "Typhoon-K", which is about the features of the deputy chief designer Yuri Kuharenko enterprise.
Tactical vehicles protected the new generation series "Typhoon" can have both a modular design and one-volume enclosure. They are designed to perform combat missions, including packaged with AMSE, as well as logistics and other types of support: transportation of personnel and cargo. The family includes machines with 4×4, 6×6 and 8×8.
Currently, to assess the appropriateness of the design solution prototypes of "Typhoon-K" 6×6. Many features of this development are secret, but some details have been able to learn.
It is known that the aggregate base new items has nothing to do with current production cars. The fully independent suspension all six wheels allowed us to realize the requirements for increased speeds on unpaved roads and increasing customer traffic through the use of a variable ride height. However, this solution in addition to improving performance entails the growth of investment in the project, because the organization of mass production will require the establishment of new production facilities. This lack of designers take into account, but asked the military to answer the question: how much the army leadership assesses the life of a soldier?
We also know that in the development of body armor promising models took part Sarov nuclear center. First time in the Russian car used ceramic armor, the production of which the amount and quality of successfully organized in Novosibirsk. This decision, according to Director General of JSC "KAMAZ" Sergey Kogonina it possible to achieve this level of protection machine, which exceeds the requirements laid down in the TTZ.
Another prerequisite is the use of an automatic transmission. This is the conclusion reached our specialists analyzed the level of training of soldiers and sergeants. The use of automatic transmission will reduce the possibility of driver error and the risk of damage to expensive equipment. It is not known who will be the provider of the transmission, but in all likelihood, the choice will be made for products of "ZF KAMA" — a joint venture of German concern Zahnrad Fabrik and OJSC "KAMAZ".
It remains an open question of the power unit. The prototypes are equipped with turbo-diesel with 550 horsepower, but no details about it are not reported.
The development engine for the cars of the future is a key point, which depends, will be able to realize all the high performance inherent in the project. Power units manufactured today do not meet the requirements for maximum speed and mobility.
Well aware of the problem of designers. Therefore, they are actively working on a promising family of diesel engines with a power range 750-1500 horsepower. The aim of this project is to establish the line of powertrains R6, V8 and V12, including the development of documentation, production of prototypes, the comprehensive test, as well as the management and selection of suppliers, preparation and organization of production engines. This family is intended for use in automotive engineering special purpose wheeled transporters, heavy-duty solutions for the problems on the transport of the most cumbersome process units weighing 20 tons or more, as well as highly accelerated version for multi-purpose vehicles.
It is unlikely that the company will be able to implement this ambitious project alone. To meet this ambitious and far-reaching task, you must give the program status of the state, which will concentrate the necessary financial and intellectual resources.
In addition to the power plant, and repair need for an army vehicle production organization of many other units and units, which are currently the domestic industry is not commercially produced. This independent hydropneumatic suspension, drive axles and a central hub reduction, with hydraulic winch and more.
Another problem — the production of armor protection tires. Until now, the Russian industry did not even launch their development. Businesses are reluctant to invest their own funds, which is easily explained by the low demand, and conduct research and development and organization of serial production of these tires will make "gold".
The Russian army is in need of advanced and high-security vehicles. In the summer of 2013 is scheduled to begin production at OJSC "KAMAZ" experimental batch of these machines to order the Defense Ministry. It is hoped that the Armed Forces in the nearest time extended with new models, which are used in the creation of not only the world of experience, but also the latest achievements of the domestic automakers.
As a PS picture of how the work KAMAZ trucks in the Army