For the first time in the domestic car building on the initiative of JSC "Russian Railways" manufactured prototypes of gondolas envelope TPA for the transport of coal and ore, increased lift capacity with 27 ton axle load.
Their expert opinions about the design features of the car, the tests carried out, its indisputable advantages compared with serial counterparts expressed the experts who took part in its development and staging to production. Gondola was developed by JSC "VNIKTI."
The prototypes are made by Roslavl Car Repair Plant. However, it is fair to call about a dozen more suppliers. For example, casting for trucks delivered "Promtractor Promlit" brake transmission — of "TRANSMASH" and JSC "Transpnevmatika" springs — JSC "Beloretskij factory springs and spring," wheels — of "Vyksa Steel Works", and were going to wheel sets in JSC "Lublin Foundry and Mechanical Plant".
Oosnovnaya feature of the new gondola dimensions TPA is that it is shorter than the usual length on axes of only 12.1 m, and the base is not more than 7.83 m at the same time the volume of the body is more due to the fact that he is taller and wider, than a conventional gondola.
As you know, the train station is limited to a length of two-departure tracks — 1050 m turns out that the more cars there fit, the more weight you can drive the train. Compared with a conventional, consisting of carriages 23 ton load, "heavier" nearly 40%.
Another feature is to use a car interbogie space. Ordinary cars floor flat, and here the body is made without center sill in the middle of its parts with the maximum use of the space in the form of interbogie commercial niche. It is also used for the cargo. In this case, its volume and hence the weight increase.
Of course, such a construction is necessary to use reinforced gondola trolley. Deputy General Director of JSC "VNIKTI" Victor Charkin noted that, for these purposes has been developed bogie model 18-9829, with an estimated 27 ton axle load and a design speed of 100 km / h Analysis showed that the truck bearing elements, that is, the side frame and bolster, provided the necessary margin of safety. In wheelsets used truck rolled reinforced wheels S-shaped profile. In buksovyh nodes wheelset — adapters with elastic dampers V-shape, which provide a flexible connection of pairs in a cart in the longitudinal and transverse directions.
New technical solutions have also been taken in the lateral side bearings and wedges spring suspension truck. So, on a slope wedges used anti-friction pads, and the wedges themselves are made of ductile iron body tempered.
This car potelezhechnogo braking. Dmitry Shpade explained that if the traditional rolling stock has one brake cylinder that controls the brakes on both trucks, there is a brake cylinder has each truck.
In this case, adjust the output rod cylinder is automated, allowing you to get away from the cars of osmotrschikami consuming and unsafe operations by manually adjusting the linkage.
Also for the convenience of maintenance of the car to use the basic units of the car brake equipment are not located under the car, and the side — closer to the side trim of the car body. This arrangement has proved more effective braking. Yes differently and you can not do it because interbogie space was occupied by the additional volume of the body and, in fact, had no place to put all these levers, rods, and more. By the way, this scheme has been applied for the first time in car.
In the gondola also applied reinforced wheel sets with wheels having a curved disc. As Victor Charkin, their benefits should include improved strength and hardness of the rim, which in combination with the design of the trucks, providing a radial set of wheel sets in the curves improves the mileage between the turning of the wheels and reduce operating costs.
Chief Engineer of the Central Rolling Stock Infrastructure Directorate Alexander Komissarov said of tests carried out and the results obtained. In particular, probegovye tests showed that the wear of the wheelsets ridges wagon three times lower compared with serial.
Experienced rail cars were driving, dynamic, strength, brake and certification tests at the site of "VNIKTI" and probegovye — at the Experimental ring of "VNIIZhT" Scherbinka. In the loaded condition under test conditions on the ring Scherbinka cars ran 170 kilometers. The data obtained, according to Alexander Komissarov, show that the wear components will require replacement truck for scheduled maintenance only after a run of at least 500 kilometers.
However, some problems still arose during probegovyh Experimental tests on the ring, but they were eliminated at the same time. In general, the results are evaluated positively break. There was found no defect in the body and the bogie, as well as the lateral openings for the axle-bearing frame and the axle-bearing sites wheelsets. There were no injuries and no failures and brake equipment.
But then there is the infrastructure on which the car will be transported. There is a question about the possible risks of negative impacts on the way. Victor Charkin confirmed, such tests were also carried out. The results showed a slight increase in load as compared with the serial wagons — around 10%. And this is due to the fact that in this case applied to the cart structure in which the wheel sets can be installed in the radial position. In this case, the effect is less. At the time tested 25-ton truck with such a cart, and there car has less impact on the way, than the 23-ton trucks under normal.
"Now we are waiting for the Central Directorate of infrastructure proposals for the experimental plot the path where you can send a car for a test operation. And then there will be monitoring in order to assess the impact of these cars on the infrastructure, "- said Viktor Charkin.
The main advantages created gondola include increased productivity (mass carried) by about 19%. To increase the turnaround to half a million kilometers stated above.
Feasibility study of the efficiency of freight gondola was carried out at the stage of its development. The effectiveness of the new gondola was evaluated in relation to the conditions of a closed route Kadan — Krasnoznamensk — Kadan in the Trans-Baikal Road 539 km in one direction when servicing the electrical traction. If we talk about the route, the annual savings in operating costs are estimated at 101.4 thousand rubles. Reduced life cycle costs — 3.1 million rubles., Or 10.3%, and a useful life in 32 years.
The use of new gondola will reduce the amount of uncoupling during the journey due to the increased reliability of parts and components to accelerate the delivery of goods to the consumer. As Alexander Komissarov, generally indicative economic effect from the introduction of open-top cars in the network with an axle load of 27 ton is 160 thousand rubles. per wagon. Performance is increased by the carriage 14%. The payback period will be 4.6 years gondola to 7 years for serial car. Reducing operating costs — from 8 to 10%.
New gondola designed primarily for the transportation of coal. They should be used on closed routes Kuzbass — the North West, Kuzbass — Center, Kuzbass — South and Kuzbass — Far East, as well as access to the ports.